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Cutting Speed:

The cutting speed of a milling cutter is the distance travelled per minute by the

cutting edge of the cutter

It is measured in at the circumference of the cutter and expressed in m/min, feet/min

, depending upon the units that adapted

Considered

D: the diameter of the cutter

N: revolution per minutes

The distance travelled by its cutting edge in each revolution is equal to the

circumference of cutter = D

= DN

DN

1000

mt

min

12

min

Example 1

A milling cutter, 100mm dia, runs at 210 rpm. Calculate the

cutting speed

Ans:

Cuuting speed

DN

1000

22 100 210

66 m / min

7 1000

cutting speed

Cuuting speed

DN

12

22 4 70

73.33 ft / min

7 12

Feed: The feed in milling machine is defined as the rate at which the

workpiece advances under the cutter.

The feed is expressed in milling machine by the following three

methods.

1. Feed per minute(Sm) :is defined by the distance the work advances in

one minute.

mm/min

2.Feed per cutter revolution(Srev): the feed per revolution is the distance

of the work advances in the time when the cutter turns through one

complete revolution

mm/revolution of the cutter

3. Feed per tooth(Sz):is defined as the distance the work advances in the time between

engagement by the two successive teeth.

mm/teeth of cutter.

Sm=N*Srev=Sz*Z*N

Where

Z- Number of teeth in cutter

N-Cutter speed in rpm

removed in one pass of the work under the cutter.

It is the perpendicular distance measured between the original and final

surface of the workpiece.

Expressed in mm.

Machining time

Time required to mill a surface by any operation can be calculated by the formula

T=L/Sz*Z*N

Where

T- Time required to complete the cut in minutes

L-The length of the total travel to complete the cut in mm.

Sz=- is the feed per tooth.

Z-Number of teeth on the cutter.

N rpm of the cutter.

Approach length for plain milling cutter A=Square root of (B(D-B))

Approach length for face milling cutter A=1/2(Dsquare root of(D2-B2))

Where

A is approach length in mm

B depth of cut in mm

D Dia of the cutter.

The dividing or indexing head is one of the most important of the

milling machine accessories. Without it, the utility of the milling

machine is very restricted.

The dividing head rotates the work piece through a certain number of

degrees or a certain fraction part of a complete circle for the purpose

of graduating the part. This operation is called indexing.

Dividing heads are generally of the following 3 types

Plain dividing head

Universal dividing head

Optical dividing head

It comprises a spindle which carries job holding devices such as

jaw chuck, face plate with center and dog carrier

A worm wheel is rigidly fixed on spindle while an index crank

is rigidly mounted on the worm shaft such that the rotation of

index crank finally results in the rotation of spindle.

In plain diving head, the spindle heads rotates only around

a horizontal axis.

(a) A device to rotate the job (here an index crank)

(b) A source which can ensure that the job has been rotated

through the desire angle(Index plate)

The index plate remains fixed and rotate while performing simple

indexing operation

The amount of rotation of the spindle relative to the worm

depends on the ratio between the revolutions of worm and the

worm wheel

The most common ratio is 40:1 which means that 40

revolutions of index crank or worm will move the worm

wheel or spindle through one complete revolution

The index plate has several circles with different number of holes in each circle.

Detail of a typical index plate are given below:

Index plate No 1:

On one side,

49, 39, 29, 19 and 16 hole circle

On the other side, 47, 37, 27, 17 and 15 hole circle

Index pin is spring loaded and after every indexing it is set in the every required hole of the

appropriate circle

The index pin may move in the slot of index crank to fit over a required hole circle

Two arm of the adjustable sector may be opened and locked to accommodate a required number

of holes between them

Worm and worm wheel assembly are properly accommodated inside the housing

The dividing head is mounted on milling machine table such that the job to be indexed comes

directly under the cutter

It is very useful device for purpose of indexing work

It consists of a fairly robust body

Enclosed in the worm drive, which consists of a worm and worm wheel

The dividing head spindle carries a worm wheel

The spindle carrying the worm, which meshes with the worm wheel carries a

crank at its outer end

The index pin work inside the spring loaded plunger

This plunger can slide radially along a slot provided in the crank in order to adjust

the pin position along a desired hole circle on the index plate

The index plate is also mounted on the same spindle as the crank, but on a sleeve

such that the worm spindle and the crank move independent on index plate

The sector arms provided on the index plate are usually of detachable type and

can be set at a desired angle with one another in order to set a definite distance

along the desired hole circle

The index plates are available in a set of two or three with a number of hole

circle usually on both sides on them

The spindle carrying the worm wheel is provided with a job carrier and a center

at its front end

On the back side of dividing head is provided a bracket which carries a slot along

its length

One or two studs, according to the requirement, can be fitted in this slot and

predetermined set of change gear can be mounted on them

1. It sets the work piece in a desired position in relation to the machine table

2. After each cut, it rotates the job through a desired angle and thus indexes the

periphery of the work

3. It provides a continuous rotary motion to the job during milling of helical

groves

4. It , in conjunction with a tailstock, act both as a holding device for the work

during the operation

It is used for high precision angular indexing of job with respect to the cutter

For reading the angle, an optical system is built into the dividing head

Methods of Indexing

desired number of equal divisions

Rapid or direct indexing

Simple or plain indexing

Compound indexing

Differential indexing

Angular indexing

It is the simplest method of indexing and is used only on work that

requires a smaller number of divisions.

In direct indexing, the spindle is turned through a given angle.

The dividing head has an index plate directly fitted on the spindle.

The index plate has 24 holes.

Crank may be rotated to divide the periphery of the work piece into

divisions 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 directly.

24/N.

Where N is number sides to be produced.

For a hexagon: 24/6 = 4 holes.

Plain indexing is used when it is required to divide a circle into more

number of parts than is possible by rapid indexing.

In this case, a worm and worm wheel is interposed between the index

plate and the spindle.

40 turns of the index crank will revolve the spindle

and job one complete revolution.

Number of turns of index crank: (T) = 40/N.

(or)

In the first case, rotate indexing crank by one complete turn and 5 holes in 15 holes

circle. In the second case, one turn and 7 holes in 21 hole circle.

Ans:

Required movement = 40/35 = 8/7 = 1(1/7)

1/7 = 1/7 * 3/3 = 3/21

1 full turn and 3 holes on 21 holes circle

Compound indexing

Compound indexing is employed to obtain such

number of divisions that are beyond the range of

plain indexing system.

The desired spindle movement is obtained by:

First turn the index crank through a required number

of spaces in one of the hole circle of the index plate

(held stationary) in one direction as the plain

indexing, and

Then turn index plate together with the index crank in

the same direction or in the opposite direction

through the calculated number of spaces of another

hole circle.

Differential indexing

Differential indexing is introduced by Brown and Sharpe.

Differential indexing greatly resembles compound indexing. This

process is also carried out in two stages.

In the first operation, a crank is moved in a certain direction.

In the second phase, movement is added or subtracted by moving the

spindle by means of a gear train.

dividing heads are supplied

with standard sets of change

gears with 24, 28, 32, 40, 44,

48, 56, 64, 72, 86 and 100

teeth.

Depending

upon

the

number of teeth to be cut,

both simple and compound

gear trains are used for

differential indexing.

relation is used: (A-N)*40/A.

Where A-> Approximate number of teeth

N -> actual number of teeth to be cut.

If A is greater than N, resulting fraction is positive and

the index plate must move in same direction as crank

(clockwise).

If N is greater than A, resulting fraction is negative

and the index plate must move counter clockwise.

In simple gear train, one idler is used for positive

motion and two idlers for negative motion of the

index plate.

In compound gearing, one idler is used for negative

motion and no idler for the positive motion of the

index plate.

Example

Find the gear combination and indexing movement necessary

for 139 divisions

Sol:

Let us select a number slightly greater or smaller than the given

number such that the selected number can be easily indexed

through simple indexing

Simple indexing for 140 divisions = 40/140 = 2/7 = 6/21

6 holes on 21 circle plate

Now, if the index crank is turned 6/21 of a revolution of 139

times, it will make = 6/21 * 139 = 39(15/21)

For one complete turn of the job, it should make 40 complete

revolutions

Obviously, the job would not be, thus the indexed through exactly

139 divisions

The total movement done by crank is short of required 40 turns

by

40 39(15/21) = 6/21 of a revolution

This fraction is gained by the movement of the plate

In order to gain the movement, the plate will have to be turned

in the same direction as the crank

Also in order than the divisions are equal, this movement is to be

gained gradually such that a certain amount of it is added

equally to the crank movement in all 139 movements of the

latter so that it complete 40 turns at the end of these movement

This will be done employing a suitable gear train:

6 2 3 32 24 drivers

21 3 7 48 56 drivens

First driver 32 teeth, 1st followers 48 teeth

2nd driver 24 teeth, 2nd follower 56 teeth

Since it is a compound train and the motion is to be gained, no

idler is used.

Example 2

Differential indexing for 241 divisions

Sol:

We select 240 divisions

Simple indexing = 40/240 = 1/6 = 3/18

3 holes on 18 hole circle

Movement of the crank for 241 divisions = 241*3/18 = 40(1/6)

1/6 turns more than the required 40 turns

There is to be lost through plate movement

Gear ratio = 1/6 = (1*1)/(2*3) = (32*24)/(64*72)

Results:

First driver 32 teeth; first follower 64 teeth

2nd driver 24 teeth, 2nd follower 72 teeth

Compound train with one idler

Crank movement: 3 holes on 18 holes circle

Example 3

Differential Indexing for 73 divisions

Sol:

We select 70 divisions

Simple indexing = 40/70 = 4/7 = 12/21

12 holes on 21 holes circle

Movement of crank for 73 divisions

73*(4/7) = 41(5/7)

1(5/7) turns of crank are to be lost through the plate movement

driver/driven

Results:

1. Driver 48, Driven 28

2. Simple train with 2 idlers

3. Motion of crank: 12 holes on 21 circle

Angular indexing

The indexing methods that

are discussed so far are used

for machining operations

that require certain number

of divisions of a circle.

Angular indexing is used for

angular

machining

operations.

Holes drilled at 75

degrees to each other

plates it is possible to machine

angular surfaces. There are 360

degrees in a complete circle,

one complete revolution of the

indexing head spindle is 360

degrees.

If the direct indexing plate has

24 holes, the angular spacing

between each hole is 360/24 =

15 degrees

hole indexing plate is 15

degrees.

15 degree intervals or multiples of 15 degrees.

When a plain or simple indexing head is used, it

employs a 40:1 ratio. When you turn the indexing

crank 40 times, the spindle makes one complete turn

or a 360 degree revolution.

Therefore one turn of the index crank is equal to:

Indexing for 19 degrees: 19/9 = 2 1/9

or 2 full turns plus 1/9 additional turn. The 1/9 turn is

calculated using the simple indexing method. 1/9

could be indexed using 6 holes in a 54 hole plate.

If one full turn of the index crank is equal to 9 degrees

and each degree is equal to 60 minutes, 9 degrees can

be written as 9 x 60 or 540 minutes. To index by

minutes apply the formula:

the angle to minutes by multiplying the degrees times

60 and adding that to the 50 minutes. 80 X 60 = 480

+ 50 = 530

Take the converted 530 minutes and divide that by

540 minutes (9 degree converted to minutes).

Apply the formula:

=

determine which available hole circle that it will

divide into evenly. Since the 54 hole plate is

available, we dont need to go any farther.

Therefore to index 8 degrees 50 minutes you will

use 53 holes in a 54 hole circle.

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