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Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of cut

Cutting Speed:
The cutting speed of a milling cutter is the distance travelled per minute by the
cutting edge of the cutter
It is measured in at the circumference of the cutter and expressed in m/min, feet/min
, depending upon the units that adapted
Considered
D: the diameter of the cutter
N: revolution per minutes
The distance travelled by its cutting edge in each revolution is equal to the
circumference of cutter = D

Since it makes N rpm, the total distance travelled per minute


= DN

The cutting speed =

DN
1000

mt

min

Or the cutting speed = DN ft


12

min

Example 1
A milling cutter, 100mm dia, runs at 210 rpm. Calculate the
cutting speed
Ans:

Cuuting speed

DN
1000

22 100 210
66 m / min
7 1000

A milling cutter 4 in diameter revolves at 70rpm. Find the


cutting speed

Cuuting speed

DN
12

22 4 70
73.33 ft / min
7 12

Feed: The feed in milling machine is defined as the rate at which the
workpiece advances under the cutter.
The feed is expressed in milling machine by the following three
methods.
1. Feed per minute(Sm) :is defined by the distance the work advances in
one minute.
mm/min
2.Feed per cutter revolution(Srev): the feed per revolution is the distance
of the work advances in the time when the cutter turns through one
complete revolution
mm/revolution of the cutter

3. Feed per tooth(Sz):is defined as the distance the work advances in the time between
engagement by the two successive teeth.

mm/teeth of cutter.
Sm=N*Srev=Sz*Z*N
Where
Z- Number of teeth in cutter
N-Cutter speed in rpm

The number of cutter teeth Z= Sm/(Sz*N)

Depth of cut: The depth of cut in milling is the thickness of material


removed in one pass of the work under the cutter.
It is the perpendicular distance measured between the original and final
surface of the workpiece.
Expressed in mm.

Machining time
Time required to mill a surface by any operation can be calculated by the formula

T=L/Sz*Z*N
Where
T- Time required to complete the cut in minutes
L-The length of the total travel to complete the cut in mm.
Sz=- is the feed per tooth.
Z-Number of teeth on the cutter.
N rpm of the cutter.
Approach length for plain milling cutter A=Square root of (B(D-B))
Approach length for face milling cutter A=1/2(Dsquare root of(D2-B2))

Where
A is approach length in mm
B depth of cut in mm
D Dia of the cutter.

The dividing or indexing head


The dividing or indexing head is one of the most important of the
milling machine accessories. Without it, the utility of the milling
machine is very restricted.
The dividing head rotates the work piece through a certain number of
degrees or a certain fraction part of a complete circle for the purpose
of graduating the part. This operation is called indexing.
Dividing heads are generally of the following 3 types
Plain dividing head
Universal dividing head
Optical dividing head

Plain Dividing Head


It comprises a spindle which carries job holding devices such as
jaw chuck, face plate with center and dog carrier
A worm wheel is rigidly fixed on spindle while an index crank
is rigidly mounted on the worm shaft such that the rotation of
index crank finally results in the rotation of spindle.
In plain diving head, the spindle heads rotates only around
a horizontal axis.

To rotate a job through a required angle, one needs


(a) A device to rotate the job (here an index crank)
(b) A source which can ensure that the job has been rotated
through the desire angle(Index plate)
The index plate remains fixed and rotate while performing simple
indexing operation
The amount of rotation of the spindle relative to the worm
depends on the ratio between the revolutions of worm and the
worm wheel
The most common ratio is 40:1 which means that 40
revolutions of index crank or worm will move the worm
wheel or spindle through one complete revolution

The index plate has several circles with different number of holes in each circle.
Detail of a typical index plate are given below:
Index plate No 1:
On one side,
49, 39, 29, 19 and 16 hole circle
On the other side, 47, 37, 27, 17 and 15 hole circle
Index pin is spring loaded and after every indexing it is set in the every required hole of the
appropriate circle
The index pin may move in the slot of index crank to fit over a required hole circle
Two arm of the adjustable sector may be opened and locked to accommodate a required number
of holes between them
Worm and worm wheel assembly are properly accommodated inside the housing
The dividing head is mounted on milling machine table such that the job to be indexed comes
directly under the cutter

Universal dividing head


It is very useful device for purpose of indexing work
It consists of a fairly robust body
Enclosed in the worm drive, which consists of a worm and worm wheel
The dividing head spindle carries a worm wheel
The spindle carrying the worm, which meshes with the worm wheel carries a
crank at its outer end
The index pin work inside the spring loaded plunger
This plunger can slide radially along a slot provided in the crank in order to adjust
the pin position along a desired hole circle on the index plate

The index plate is also mounted on the same spindle as the crank, but on a sleeve
such that the worm spindle and the crank move independent on index plate
The sector arms provided on the index plate are usually of detachable type and
can be set at a desired angle with one another in order to set a definite distance
along the desired hole circle
The index plates are available in a set of two or three with a number of hole
circle usually on both sides on them
The spindle carrying the worm wheel is provided with a job carrier and a center
at its front end
On the back side of dividing head is provided a bracket which carries a slot along
its length
One or two studs, according to the requirement, can be fitted in this slot and
predetermined set of change gear can be mounted on them

The operation performed:


1. It sets the work piece in a desired position in relation to the machine table
2. After each cut, it rotates the job through a desired angle and thus indexes the
periphery of the work
3. It provides a continuous rotary motion to the job during milling of helical
groves
4. It , in conjunction with a tailstock, act both as a holding device for the work
during the operation

Optical dividing head


It is used for high precision angular indexing of job with respect to the cutter
For reading the angle, an optical system is built into the dividing head

Methods of Indexing

Indexing is defined as the division of the job periphery into a


desired number of equal divisions
Rapid or direct indexing
Simple or plain indexing
Compound indexing
Differential indexing
Angular indexing

Rapid or direct indexing


It is the simplest method of indexing and is used only on work that
requires a smaller number of divisions.
In direct indexing, the spindle is turned through a given angle.
The dividing head has an index plate directly fitted on the spindle.
The index plate has 24 holes.
Crank may be rotated to divide the periphery of the work piece into
divisions 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 directly.

The number of holes to move in the index plate =


24/N.
Where N is number sides to be produced.
For a hexagon: 24/6 = 4 holes.

Simple or plain indexing


Plain indexing is used when it is required to divide a circle into more
number of parts than is possible by rapid indexing.
In this case, a worm and worm wheel is interposed between the index
plate and the spindle.

The ratio between worm and worm wheel is: 1:40.


40 turns of the index crank will revolve the spindle
and job one complete revolution.
Number of turns of index crank: (T) = 40/N.

Example: Let us index to cut 30 teeth on a spur gear blank.


(or)

In the first case, rotate indexing crank by one complete turn and 5 holes in 15 holes
circle. In the second case, one turn and 7 holes in 21 hole circle.

Required 35 divisions on a plate. Find the indexing movement.

Ans:
Required movement = 40/35 = 8/7 = 1(1/7)
1/7 = 1/7 * 3/3 = 3/21
1 full turn and 3 holes on 21 holes circle

Compound indexing
Compound indexing is employed to obtain such
number of divisions that are beyond the range of
plain indexing system.
The desired spindle movement is obtained by:
First turn the index crank through a required number
of spaces in one of the hole circle of the index plate
(held stationary) in one direction as the plain
indexing, and
Then turn index plate together with the index crank in
the same direction or in the opposite direction
through the calculated number of spaces of another
hole circle.

Differential indexing
Differential indexing is introduced by Brown and Sharpe.
Differential indexing greatly resembles compound indexing. This
process is also carried out in two stages.
In the first operation, a crank is moved in a certain direction.
In the second phase, movement is added or subtracted by moving the
spindle by means of a gear train.

For differential indexing,


dividing heads are supplied
with standard sets of change
gears with 24, 28, 32, 40, 44,
48, 56, 64, 72, 86 and 100
teeth.
Depending
upon
the
number of teeth to be cut,
both simple and compound
gear trains are used for
differential indexing.

For determining the change of gears, the following


relation is used: (A-N)*40/A.
Where A-> Approximate number of teeth
N -> actual number of teeth to be cut.
If A is greater than N, resulting fraction is positive and
the index plate must move in same direction as crank
(clockwise).
If N is greater than A, resulting fraction is negative
and the index plate must move counter clockwise.
In simple gear train, one idler is used for positive
motion and two idlers for negative motion of the
index plate.
In compound gearing, one idler is used for negative
motion and no idler for the positive motion of the
index plate.

Example
Find the gear combination and indexing movement necessary
for 139 divisions
Sol:
Let us select a number slightly greater or smaller than the given
number such that the selected number can be easily indexed
through simple indexing
Simple indexing for 140 divisions = 40/140 = 2/7 = 6/21
6 holes on 21 circle plate
Now, if the index crank is turned 6/21 of a revolution of 139
times, it will make = 6/21 * 139 = 39(15/21)
For one complete turn of the job, it should make 40 complete
revolutions

Obviously, the job would not be, thus the indexed through exactly
139 divisions
The total movement done by crank is short of required 40 turns
by
40 39(15/21) = 6/21 of a revolution
This fraction is gained by the movement of the plate
In order to gain the movement, the plate will have to be turned
in the same direction as the crank
Also in order than the divisions are equal, this movement is to be
gained gradually such that a certain amount of it is added
equally to the crank movement in all 139 movements of the
latter so that it complete 40 turns at the end of these movement
This will be done employing a suitable gear train:

The gear ratio :

6 2 3 32 24 drivers

21 3 7 48 56 drivens
First driver 32 teeth, 1st followers 48 teeth
2nd driver 24 teeth, 2nd follower 56 teeth
Since it is a compound train and the motion is to be gained, no
idler is used.

Example 2
Differential indexing for 241 divisions
Sol:
We select 240 divisions
Simple indexing = 40/240 = 1/6 = 3/18
3 holes on 18 hole circle
Movement of the crank for 241 divisions = 241*3/18 = 40(1/6)
1/6 turns more than the required 40 turns
There is to be lost through plate movement
Gear ratio = 1/6 = (1*1)/(2*3) = (32*24)/(64*72)
Results:
First driver 32 teeth; first follower 64 teeth
2nd driver 24 teeth, 2nd follower 72 teeth
Compound train with one idler
Crank movement: 3 holes on 18 holes circle

Example 3
Differential Indexing for 73 divisions

Sol:
We select 70 divisions
Simple indexing = 40/70 = 4/7 = 12/21
12 holes on 21 holes circle
Movement of crank for 73 divisions
73*(4/7) = 41(5/7)
1(5/7) turns of crank are to be lost through the plate movement

Now the gear ratio =1(5/7) = 12/7 = (12*4)/(7*4) = 48/28 =


driver/driven
Results:
1. Driver 48, Driven 28
2. Simple train with 2 idlers
3. Motion of crank: 12 holes on 21 circle

Angular indexing
The indexing methods that
are discussed so far are used
for machining operations
that require certain number
of divisions of a circle.
Angular indexing is used for
angular
machining
operations.

Holes drilled at 75
degrees to each other

By using the holes in the index


plates it is possible to machine
angular surfaces. There are 360
degrees in a complete circle,
one complete revolution of the
indexing head spindle is 360
degrees.
If the direct indexing plate has
24 holes, the angular spacing
between each hole is 360/24 =
15 degrees

The angular spacing of a 24


hole indexing plate is 15
degrees.

This will allow us to make any division that requires


15 degree intervals or multiples of 15 degrees.
When a plain or simple indexing head is used, it
employs a 40:1 ratio. When you turn the indexing
crank 40 times, the spindle makes one complete turn
or a 360 degree revolution.
Therefore one turn of the index crank is equal to:

Indexing for 45 degrees: 45/9 = 5 full turns


Indexing for 19 degrees: 19/9 = 2 1/9
or 2 full turns plus 1/9 additional turn. The 1/9 turn is
calculated using the simple indexing method. 1/9
could be indexed using 6 holes in a 54 hole plate.

Angular indexing in minutes


If one full turn of the index crank is equal to 9 degrees
and each degree is equal to 60 minutes, 9 degrees can
be written as 9 x 60 or 540 minutes. To index by
minutes apply the formula:

Calculate indexing for 8 degrees 50 minutes. Convert


the angle to minutes by multiplying the degrees times
60 and adding that to the 50 minutes. 80 X 60 = 480
+ 50 = 530
Take the converted 530 minutes and divide that by
540 minutes (9 degree converted to minutes).
Apply the formula:
=

Take the lowest term denominator 54, and


determine which available hole circle that it will
divide into evenly. Since the 54 hole plate is
available, we dont need to go any farther.
Therefore to index 8 degrees 50 minutes you will
use 53 holes in a 54 hole circle.