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Jigs and Fixture

Jigs:
A jig may be defined as a device which holds and locates a work
piece and guides and controls one or more cutting tools. The
term jig is confined to such devices that are employed for
holding the work-pieces and guiding the tool in conducting
the operation of drilling, reaming and tapping.
Fixture:
A fixture may be defined as a device which holds and locates a
work-piece during an inspection or for a manufacturing
operation. The fixture does not guide the tool.

Advantages:
1. They enable easy means for manufacturing of interchangeable
parts and thus facilitated easy and quick assembly
2. Pre-machining operations like marking, measuring, laying out
etc required in case of individual parts are totally eliminated
with the use of jigs and fixtures
3. Once properly designed jigs or fixture is setup in position,
any number of identical parts can be produced without any
additional setup
4. Production capacity is increased with their use because any
number parts can be used in a single setup

5. They enable quick setting and proper location of work, hence


the work handling time is considerably reduced
6. They offer a high clamping rigidity, therefore higher speeds,
feeds and depth of cut can be used for machining
7. Because of the automatic location of the work and guidance of
tool, the machining accuracy is increased
8. The parts produced with their use are very accurate as such the
expenditure due to inspection and quality control of finished
component is considerably reduced
9. They are use enables easy machining of complex and heavy
components because such parts can be rigidly held in proper
location for machining in jigs and fixture

Difference between jigs and fixtures


Fixture

JIGS

Holds and position the work ,


but does not guides tool

Holds, locates as well as guides


the tool

Heavier construction

Lighter construction for quicker


handling and clamping

Used for milling, grinding,


Used for drilling, reaming or
planning and turning operations taping operations
Skilled labour

No need of skilled labour

Main Principle of design of Jigs and fixture:


The objectives:
1. Reduction of Idle time:
The process of loading and unloading the components takes a
minimum possible time and enables easy loading and
unloading
The method of location and champing should be such that the idle
time is reduced to a minimum
2. Cleanliness:
No appreciable amount of time is wasted in keeping it clear of the
swarf, burrs, chips etc

3. Replaceable parts:
The locating and supporting surface, as far as possible, should be
replaceable i.e not permanently fastened so that if worn out,
they may be replaced by new ones.
4. Provision of coolant:
Jigs or fixture must have adequate arrangement for supply of
coolant to the cutting edge of the tool so that the tool is cooled
and the same time , the swarf of chips produced are washed
away
The operator has not to waste his time adjusting the coolant flow
and cleaning the swarf or chips

5.Hardened surface:
All locating surface and supporting surfaces such as faces of
locating pins should be hardened material so that they are not
quickly worn out and their accuracy is retained for a longer
time
6. Fool-proofing:
Since the use of jigs and fixture allows for the employment of
unskilled workman, the design of such equipment should be
such that it would not permit the work-piece or the tool to be
inserted in any position other than the correct one

7. Initial location:
The initial location of the work-piece in a jig or fixture with
respect to the operation, to be performed plays an important
role
It should therefore be insured that w/p is not located on more than
3 points in any one plane so as to avoid rocking
8. Position of clamps:
The clamp should be so positioned that clamping occurs directly
above the points supporting the w/p so as to avoid desertion
and springing of the work which other wise resulting in
accurate work

9. Inserts or pads:
It is very necessary provision in all jigs and fixtures inserts or
pads of soft material like brass, leather, or fiber should always
be reverted to those faces of the clamps which will come in
contact with the finished surfaces of the work piece so that the
surfaces are not spoiled as result of the metallic contact
10. Safety:
The design of jigs and fixture should be such that it should not
constitute any danger to the operator

11. Economic soundness:


The equipment to be used should be economically sound i.e the
cost of its designing and manufacturing should be in
proportion to the quantity and price of the product
12. Easy manipulation:
The jigs or fixture should be as light in weight as possible and
should be easy to handle and manipulate so that the workman
is not subjected undue-fatigue
13. Clearance:
Sufficient amount of clearance should be provided around the
work in order that the operator hands can easily enter the body
for placing the work-piece

14. Ejecting device:


Proper ejecting devices should be incorporated in the body to
push the work-piece out of it after the operation
It is more important in case of heavy work-pieces and when the
direction of cutting forces push the work-piece towards the
sides and base and there is a possibility of its sticking there
due to heavy pressure being exerted on the coolant film
15: Rigidity and stability:
It remains perfectly rigid and stable during the operation
If needed, provision should be made for proper positioning and
rigidly holding the jigs and fixture on the machine table or
spindle by means of bolts and nuts and similar other means

Main elements of jigs and fixture


1. Body: it is a plate, box or frame type structure in which the
components to be machined are loaded
It is quite sturdy and rigid
2. Locating element:
These elements locate the work-piece in proper position in
relation to cutting tool
3. Clamping element:
These elements firmly secure the work-piece in the located
position

4. Guiding and setting elements:


These elements guide the cutting tool in case of jigs and help in
proper tool setting in case of fixture
5. Positioning element:
These elements include different type of fastening devices which
are used in securing the jigs and fixture to the machine at
proper position

6. Indexing elements:
They are not provided always but in many work pieces may have
to be indexed to different position in order to performed
machining operation on different surfaces or different
locations.
In such cases, these elements are will have incorporated with jigs
and fixture

The Principle of six-point location


The work-piece can be completely restrained by providing three
locations point in one plane, two location points in second
plane and one location point in the third plane
Fig is a cube being supported at three round faces at the bottom
by two round faces on one side face and by one round face on
the other side face
The same situation is shown by means of three orthographic
views in fig

X-X forward movement


Z-Z---right ward movement
Y-Y upward movement

Its effect is made to provide pins in front, top, and right side to
arrest these remaining directions of free movement, the jigs or
fixture body will take the shape of a closed box and it will not
possible to load or unload the work-piece

3-2-1 principle
Motion is restricted using clamps and
locators.
A three pin base can restrict five motions.
>Rotation about X,Y axes.(4 motions)
>Translation along -ve z-axis (1 motion)
Directions nine, ten and eleven are restricted
by a clamping device.(3 motions)

To restrict the movement of the part


around the ZZ axis and in direction eight,
two more pin type
locators are positioned in a vertical
plane.(3 motions)
A single pin locator in vertical plane
restricts motion along direction 7.( 1
motion)
So motion in all 12 directions are
restricted

This is the most common locating method employed for


square or rectangular parts.
Flat bases may also be used, but these should be installed
rather than machining into the base.
But pin/button type locators offers more accuracy as the area
of contact is less. Moreover, they raise the work above the
base so that chips wont interrupt the operation.

Type of Jigs
1. Template jig
2. Plate jig
3. Channel Jig
4. Diameter Jig
5. Leaf jig
6. Ring Jig
7. Box jig