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Stitch and classification

By Sunil Talekar, Student handoutSOFT -Pune

Stitch and classification


STITCH

Industrial sewing machines are classified according to their


intended use and the means of forming stitches.

A stitch can be defined as, one unit of conformation resulting from


one or more strands or loops of thread intralooping, interlooping,
or passing through material also categorized as per stitch quality.

Stitch and classification


STITCH quality
Stitch quality is measured with;
STITCH SIZE
STITCH LENGTH
WIDTH
DEPTH
TENSION
SEQUENCE
ELONGATION
ELASTICITY
RESILIENCE
FABRIC DISTORTION
YARN
SEVERANCE
ABRASIVE STRENGTH.

Stitch and classification


STITCH forming types

INTRA-LOOPING is passing of a loop of


thread through another loop formed by the
same thread.

INTERLOOPING is passing of a loop of


thread through another loop formed by a
different thread.

INTERLACING is passing of a thread over


or around another thread or loop of another
thread,.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPES

The six classes of stitches as given are


Class 100 chain stitches
Class 200 stitches originating as hand
Stitches Class 300 lock stitches
Class 400 multi thread chain
Stitches Class 500 over edge
Stitches Class 600 covering chain stitches

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 100
FUTURES
The chain stitch class 100 is formed with one or more needle threads
that form a loop on the underside of the fabric.
There is no lower thread.
It can be easily removed and it is used for basting operations in
tailored men swear and women's wear.
It can only be used where the marks of needle penetration close up
afterwards in pressing.
A basting operation, in positions such as edges, flaps, collars, and so
on, is a temporary stitch, allowing accurate placement of permanent
stitches.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 100-properties

Followings are the properties of chain stitch.


In chain stitching; same thread is used to interconnect each
loop.
Stitch can be easily unpicked from the last to the first.
Chain stitching is generally used for temporary stitching.
The appearance of face and back are different in apparel.
Chain stitching is done for pocket opening.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 100
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

101 CLASS

103 CLASS

104 CLASS

THREAD
COUNT

TYPICAL USES

ONE
THREAD

BASTING,
OR LIGHT
CONSTRUC
TION

ONE
THREAD

BLINDSTITC
H FOR
HEMMING

ONE
THREAD

BLINDSTITC
H FOR
HEMMING

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 200
FUTURES
Stitch class 200 consists of hand formation of stitches done by hand
with the exception of 205,which simulates a hand running stitch but
is formed by a special machine.
Typical types are basting stitches and back stitches.
Same stitch as that of hand stitch is formed by a piece of thread.
Thread is drawn in every stitch or every other stitch and the length
of stitching is limited.
Since friction is given at the same position of the sewing thread
many times, the thread is untwined during sewing resulting in
thread breakage unless the thread is a high-durable one.
Even when the sewing is made, the stitch looks broken. Therefore,
the thread that can be used is limited

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 200-properties

Followings are the properties of hand stitch.


A slow process and need huge manpower to finish bulk
order. Used for handwork.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 200
STITCH DIAGRAM

THREAD
COUNT

TYPICAL USES

202 Class

One Thread

Basting,
Tacking or
Repairs

205 Class

ONE
THREAD

Pick Stitch Topstitching

STITCH CLASS

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 300
FUTURES
The lock stitch class 300 is the most commonly used and is easiest to
understand.
Lock stitch machine requires 2 threads to form a stitch, a needle
thread that feeds from the top and a lower thread that feeds from a
bobbin.
A rotary hook or shuttle catches the needle thread loop as it passes
around the bobbin and interlocks the two threads.
If a lock stitch thread breaks, the two threads used to form the stitch
lock and the whole line of stitches won't unravel.
Lock stitch machines are versatile and can be used for a variety of
operations.
It is also the only stitch formation that can be back stitched.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 300-properties
Followings are the properties of hand stitch.

supplied from a bobbin on the other side.


low bulk and thin, good strength and abrasion resistance
Poor elasticity, non ravel
limited sewing length, need to replace bobbin thread.
Cant use for seams requiring stretch.
Equal amount of needle and bobbin threads are used and upper and
lower threads interlocks in the center of the fabric.
The 301 uses the least amount of thread and produces the flattest
stitch.
It is the tightest and most secured stitch among all stitch types.
Because this stitch formation is the same on both sides of the
seams, it is reversible and used extensively for top stitching,
especially along collar and cuff edges, and fronts of jackets.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 300
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

THREAD
COUNT

TYPICAL USES

301 Class

Two Thread

Seaming
Multiple Plies

304 Class

Two Thread

Zig-Zag
Stitch; a
stretch
lockstitch

306 Class

Two Thread

Blind Stitch

315 Class

Two Thread

Three Step
Zig-Zag; a
stretch
lockstitch with

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 400
FUTURES
The 400 class is the second most frequently used stitch type.
This multi thread chain stitch requires one or more needle threads
that form loops as they pass through the fabric and interloop with
the looper thread on the underside, all of which feed continuously
from the cones.
The 400 class requires an upper and a lower thread and use a looper
to carry the lower thread and form a thread loop on the underside of
the fabric.
Machines producing 400 Class do not back tack although stitches can
be condensed to secure the ends of the threads.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 400-properties

Followings are the properties of class 400.


non ravel, strong, good elasticity, less likely to cause seam
pucker due to structural jamming.
good seam stretch
does not need to wind bobbin
lower resistance to runback and have increased bulk under
the seam

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 400
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

401 Class

404 Class

406 Class

THREAD
COUNT

TYPICAL USES

Two Thread

Seaming
Multiple Plies
with
moderate
stretch

Two Thread

Topstitching
or Seaming
with stretch

Two Thread

Bottom Cover
Stitch; a
(greater)
stretch

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 500
FUTURES

The stitch types in this class are formed with one or more
groups of threads, and have as a general characteristic that
loops from at least one group of threads pass around the edge
of the material.
The loops form a narrow band of stitching along the edge of the
fabric with threads intersecting at the edge and preventing the
fabric from fraying.
All have high elasticity, they do not unravel easily, and a
trimming knife on the machine ensures a neat edge prior to
sewing.
These stitches are often called overedge, overcast, over lock,
serge, or merrow.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 500
FUTURES

Overedge machines must have three stitch forming devices,


a needle to carry the thread through the fabric, a looper or
spreader to carry the thread from the needle to the edge of
material on the bottom, and a looper or spreader to carry
thread up and over the edge of the material on the top.
The various stitch types uses various combinations of these
three devices

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 500-properties

Followings are the properties of class 400.

Excellent stretchable good recovery


Seam or edge neatening
suitable for many types of fabric
subject to fraying or slippage.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 500
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

THREAD
COUNT

501 Class

One Thread

502 Class

Two Thread

503 Class

Two Thread

TYPICAL USES

One Needle
Overedge
stitch for
Serging /
"Blanket
Stitch"
One Needle
Overedge
stitch for
Serging

Overedge
stitch for
Serging with
Crossover on

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 500
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

504 Class

522 Class

514 Class

THREAD
COUNT

TYPICAL USES

Three Thread

One Needle
Overedge stitch
for Serging and
Light Seaming
Stitch"

Four Thread

Mock Safety
Stitch for
Seaming with
wide bite and
Greater Stretch
for Knits

Four Thread

Overedge Stitch
for Seaming with
wide bite and
Greater Stretch
for Knits

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 500
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

THREAD
COUNT

515 Class

Four Thread

516 Class

Five Thread

TYPICAL USES

True Safety
Stitch for
Seaming with
Good Stretch for
Wovens and
Knits
True Safety
Stitch for
Seaming with
Good Stretch for
Wovens and
Knits

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 600
FUTURES
The cover stitch or 600 class, often called a flat lock or a flat seam stitch, is an
advanced version of the 400 class and is used primarily on knits and lingerie.
Machines producing the 600 class are extremely fast and efficient, operating at
9000 rpms.
The stitch is formed by two or more needle loops passing through the material,
Interlooping on the underside and interlocking on the upper side.
A spreader or cover thread finger carries the cover thread across the surface of
the fabric between the needles.
These stitches, referred to as top and bottom cover stitches, are commonly
used to cover both sides of the seam with thread.
Threads must be chained off and be crossed by another seam.
This stitch class uses a lot of thread but provides excellent top and bottom
cover and flat seams.
Stitches in this class are most complex of all and may have up to nine threads in
total including four needle threads

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 600-properties

Followings are the properties of class 600.


High elasticity, seam neatening and Flat seam stitch, Bulk, Fast
machine speed
No need of Bobbin
Greater thread consumption
Covering stitches for decorative purpose, Can be used to join
two raw edges, suitable for knitted garments.

Stitch and classification


STITCH CLASS TYPE 600
STITCH DIAGRAM

STITCH CLASS

401 Class

404 Class

406 Class

THREAD
COUNT

TYPICAL USES

Four Thread

CoverStitch
or Seaming
Knits

Five Thread

CoverStitch
or ButtSeams

Six Thread

Wide
CoverStitch
or ButtSeams

Thanks!!!