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Scheduling & Sequencing Njobs 2 Machines 2012

Scheduling & Sequencing Njobs 2 Machines 2012

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arrangement consist of only two

machines on work centers, each job

must be processed successively on these

two machines: the first machine and

the second operation on the second

machine.

Input

Machine 1

Machine 2

Output

Job Flow

procedure that gives a minimum make

span for the jobs on which the

procedure is applied.

Let define Ai = Pi1 and Bi = Pi2

where:

Ai

Bi

Pi

= Machine 1

= Machine 2

= Processing Time

4

1. For the job yet to be sequenced,

determine the minimum times of all Ai

and Bi.

2. Find the minimum processing time. If

the minimum processing time is found

in Ai, place the corresponding job in

the latest possible position in the

sequence.

5

3. Mark the job as being sequenced and

scratch the associated Ai and Bi values

4. If all jobs are placed in the sequenced,

go to Step 5; otherwise go to Step 1.

5. We now have the optimum sequence.

Example 1:

Consider a machine shop operation

in which each piece is first roughcut and shaped on the milling

machine and their ground to the

required tolerance and polished on

to the grinder. We have six jobs

that need processing, and we wish

to determined the optimum

sequence

to

minimize

the

makespan.

8

JOBS

Processing Time on

Milling Machine,

Pi1=Ai

Processing Time on

NC Grinder,

Pi2=Bi

15

20

18

25

17

20

22

30

9

Iteration 1:

_ _ _ _ _ 1

The minimum processing time is 3 on the second machine for job 1.

Hence, job 1 is placed in the last position, and job 1 and its processing

time are scratched.

Iteration 2:

_ _ _ _ 3 1

Processing time 5 for machine 2 associated with job 3 is next

smallest processing value. Job 3 is thus placed in the fifth position, the

latest possible position in the partial sequence developed so far.

Iteration 3:

2 _ _ 4 3 1

Minimum now is 8, associated with job 2 (machine 1) and job 4

(machine 2). Job 2 is placed in the first position and job 4 in the fourth

position.

Iteration 4:

2 5 6 4 3 1

Job 5, with 17 units on machine 1, has the lowest value. Place job 5

on position 2 and, the remaining job 6 is placed in position 3.

The final sequence is 2-5-6-4-3-1.

10

JOBS

Processing Time on

Milling Machine,

Pi1=Ai

Processing Time on

NC Grinder,

Pi2=Bi

15

20

18

25

17

20

22

30

SEQUENCE : 2-5-6-4-3-1

Machine 1

0

(2/8)

(5/17)

25

(6/22)

47

(4/25) 72

(3/18) 90

(1/15) 105

Machine 2

0/8 (2/20) 28/25 (5/20) 48/47 (6/30) 78/72 (4/8) 86/90 (3/5) 95/105 (1/3)

108

11

SUMMARY

On machine 1, start and completion times are determined by adding

processing times in job sequence.

Loading on machine 2 requires special attention. A job, when

completed in machine 1, goes to machine 2.

It is processed immediately if machine 2 is available.

However, it may have to wait in the buffer space if machine 2 is

still processing the previous job.

Thus, the starting time for a job in position j in the sequence on

the second machine is known by writing the completion time of the

previous machine.

This is easily visualized in the second machine by writing the

completion time on job (Cj-1, 2), first followed by the released time of job

j from machine 1 (Cj, 1).

For example, job 2 can start at time 8 (greater of values:

completion time on job j from machine 1).

Job 5 can start on machine 2 on the greater of times: when the

previous job completes its requirements on machine 2.

The start of job 1, for example, is delayed (and machine 2 is idle)

because job 1 is released from machine 1 at time 105 even though

machine 2 is available at time 95.

The makespan is 108 units.

12

Example 2:

The drilling and riveting times for 6 jobs are

given below. For every job, a hole is drilled first,

followed by riveting. Find the optimum sequence

that minimizes the makespan for all jobs.

JOB

Drilling

12

11

Riveting

11

10

10

13

13

Solution

We refer to the drilling and riveting machines as M1 and M2,

respectively. We also construct the following job sequence table. It

has six elements (number of jobs).

Sequence Table

3 _ _ _ _ _

Looking at the listed processing times for all jobs on M1 and M2,

notice that the smallest processing time is 3 for job 3. Since job 3 is

found in M1, it will be sequenced as early as possible. It will be

removed from the list of jobs to be scheduled.

JOB

Drilling

12

11

Riveting

11

10

13

14

processing time is 4 J1. We sequence J1 as early as possible;

that is, it follows J3 in the sequence table.

Sequence Table

3 1 _ _ _ _

J1 is deleted from the job listing table.

JOB

Drilling

12

11

Riveting

10

13

15

schedule J2 as late as possible (position 6) or as early as possible

(position 3) in the sequence table depend on priority (if there is any) of

the job. If there is no priority, J2 can be positioned in the third or the

sixth position without affecting the makespan for all jobs. There will be

two possible sequences.

Sequence Table 1

3 1 _ _ _ 2

Sequence Table 2

3 1 2 _ _ _

JOB

Drilling

12

11

Riveting

10

13

16

sequence J4 as late as possible.

Sequence Table 1

3 1 _ _ 4 2

Sequence Table 2

3 1 2 _ _ 4

JOB

Drilling

11

Riveting

10

13

17

9, which corresponds to J6 on M1. therefore, we

sequenced J6 as early as possible, and J5 is

placed in the open position to complete the

sequence. Either of the two sequences given next

will minimize the makespan for all jobs.

Sequence Table 1

3 1 6 5 4 2

Sequence Table 2

3 1 2 6 5 4

18

makespan of the two sequences.

Sequence 1 : 3-1-6-5-4-2

JOB

MACHINE 1

MACHINE 2

(3)

(4)

(10)

13

(11)

6

7

(9)

16

(11)

27

(12)

39

(7)

46

24 (13)

37

(10)

47

(8)

55

(7)

62

Sequence 2 : 3-1-2-6-5-4

JOB

MACHINE 1

MACHINE 2

(3)

(4)

(7)

14

(9)

23

(11)

34 (12)

46

(10)

13

(11)

24 (7)

31

(13)

44

(10)

54

62

(8)

19

Plotting it, well know the amount of idle time for the

machines

Sequence: 3-1-6-5-4-2

M1

M2

idle

Sequence: 3-1-2-6-5-4

M1

M2

idle

2

3

6

1

5

2

4

6

Since both sequences have the same idle time (3) units, we

chose the sequence with the smaller processing time which

is 3-1-2-6-5-4.

20

Example 3:

Problem

Job

M1

M2

1

5

2

2

2

6

3

1

2

4

7

5

5

6

6

6

3

7

7

7

2

8

5

1

Machines Problem, we find the optimal sequence for the

given figures from the table.

21

Smallest Processing time is 1 for both J3 and J8. Position J3 in the earliest

sequence since it is in M1 and position J8 in the latest since it is in M2.

3 _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

The next smallest processing time is 2 for J1, J2, and J7. It is now possible to

have two sequence for this problem.

3 2 _ _ _ 7 1 8

3 2 _ _ _ 1 7 8

Position J6 as early as possible since it has the next minimum processing time.

3 2 6 _ _ 7 1 8

3 2 6 _ _ 1 7 8

The next job to be scheduled is J4 since it has 5 as the next lowest processing

time from M2. Position J4 as latest as possible then, the last slot will be

occupied by J5.

3 2 6 5 4 7 1 8

Sequence:

3 2 6 5 4 1 7 8

22

Using Johnsons Algorithm

Johnsons Rule cannot be extended to n machines or facilities.

However, it can be extended to a three-machine flowshop provided the

second machine is not a bottleneck machine. For a machine not to be

bottleneck it should not delay any job; in other words, as the job

released from the first machine, it should immediately be processed in

the second machine. In other words, it should satisfy at least one of

the following conditions:

If minj {tj1} maxj {tj2} or

If minj {tj3} maxj {tj2}

Before we can apply the Johnsons Rule by developing two factors

for each job i.

Ai = Pi1 + Pi2 and Bi = Pi2 + Pi3

Then apply the procedure the same as in two-machine problem,

23

but treat factor Ai as machine 1 time and factor Bi as machine 2 time.

24

EXAMPLE 1:

The data are the same as in the previous two-machine

problem but now suppose the grinding and polishing

operations are separated in machine 2, a grinder, and a

machine 3, a polisher. The processing times are given. The

associated Ai and Bi factors are calculated:

Job Milling Time

Grinding

Processing Time

Polishing

Processing Time

1

2

15

8

2

6

1

14

18

4

5

6

25

17

22

5

10

10

5

10

20

25

Ai and Bi factors

are found by

adding the

processing time

Milling and

Grinding and the

processing time

for Grinding and

Polishing

respectively.

Job

Ai = Pi1 + Pi2

Bi = Pi2 + Pi3

17

14

20

20

30

10

27

20

32

30

26

sequence results.

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

Iteration 6

27

SEQUENCE: 2-6-5-4-3-1

M1

0(2/8)

8(6/22)

30(5/17)

47(4/25)

72(3/18)

90(1/15)

105

M2

107

M3

108

machine 3 completed processing on job j-1 and the next

number is when job j is available for processing on machine

3. For example, 60/57 in front of job5 on machine 3

indicates that the previous job(6) is completed time 60 and

job5 is released by machine 2 at time 57. Thus job5 has to

wait for the machine for 3 time units. According to all

convention, if the first number is greater that the second

number, the job is waiting on the machine, and if the second

28 on

number is larger than the first, the machine is waiting

the job (machine is idle).

Machine k idle time= (Ci-1, k- Ci, k-1) for Ci-1, k-Ci, k-1 < 0

Total waiting time on m/c k= Ci-1, 1- Ci, k-1 for Ci-1,1- Ci,k-1 0

(30-14) + (47-40) + (72-57) + (90-77) + (105-92) = 64,

and the total waiting of jobs on machine 2 is zero.

Machine 2 is thus not a bottleneck machine, and the

sequence developed by applying the modified Johnsons

rule is optimum.

M2

0/8(2/6)

14/30(6/10)

40/47(5/10)

57/72(4/5)

77/90(3/2)

92/105(1/2)

107

29

completion times for each job on its machine are displayed

in table 1.3. The table is constructed by listing first the

sequence on each job processing time on its machine. For

machine 1, because the machine is never idle, the

completion time of any job is a just cumulative time up to

and including that job processing times. For example, job 6

is available for processing on machine 2 at time 30 and the

machine is available for the next job (after job 2) at time

14. The greater of these two numbers is when job6 can

start on machine 2. In short, compare the completion time

for the job in the previous machine (same row, previous

column) with availability time for the present machine

(next column, previous row) and choose the larger of two

number as the starting time for the job. It is left as an

exercise to compare the numbers in table 1.3 with the

numbers shown on each machine sequence display and to

develop a similar table for the two-machine example.

30

Table 1.3

Machine 1

Machine 2

Machine 3

Job

Sequence

Processing

Complete

Processing

Complete

Processing

Complete

14

14

28

22

30

10

40

20

60

17

47

10

57

10

70

25

72

77

82

18

90

92

95

15

105

107

108

31

Example 2:

Find the optimal sequence for the following six jobs on M1, M2, and M3.

Job Number

Processing Processing Processing

32

SOLUTION:

First, we must check if it satisfies at least one of the conditions:

minj {tj1} maxj {tj2} or minj {tj3} maxj {tj2}.

44

Since one of the two conditions is satisfied, we can apply Johnsons algorithm.

Job

Machine

12

Machine 23

5+3 = 8

3+9 = 12

7+2 = 9

2+5 = 7

4+3 = 7

3+7 = 10

8+4 = 12

4+3 = 7

6+2 = 8

2+2 = 4

7+0 = 7

0+8 = 8

33

found out that the optimal sequences are:

3-6-1-2-4-5

3-6-1-4-2-5

6-3-1-2-4-5

6-3-1-4-2-5

34

Sequence: 3-6-1-2-4-5

3

6

(5)16

(7)23

(8)31

M1 0(4)4

(7)11

M2 4(3)7/11

M3 7(7)14/16 (8)24

(9)33

(5)38

(3)41

(6)37

(2)43

Sequence: 3-6-1-4-2-5

3

M1 0(4)4

(7)11

(5)16

(8)24

(7)31

M2 4(3)7/11

M3 7(7)14/16 (8)24

(9)33

(3)36

(5)41

5

(6)37

(2)43

35

Sequence: 6-3-1-2-4-5

6

M1

0(7)7

(4)11

(5)16

(7)23

(8)31

M2

7(0)7/11

M3

7(8)15/16 (7)23

Sequence: 6-3-1-4-2-5

6

3

(9)32

(5)37

(3)40

(5)16

(8)24

(7)31

5

(6)37

(2)42

M1

0(7)7

(4)11

M2

7(0)7/11

M3

7(8)15/16 (7)23

(9)32

(3)35

(5)40

(6)37

(2)4236

We choose between

Sequence 6-3-1-2-4-5 and 6-3-1-4-2-5

m1

m2

m3

3

6

2

3

4

1

5

2

4 5

37

three-machine processing time

requirements of seven jobs, develop the

best sequence to minimize the makespan.

Job Number

Processing Processing Processing

12

15

18

10

23

12

26

14

11

19

10

22

38

Machine 2 for M12 and Machine 2 and Machine 3 for

M23

Job

M12

M23

12+6 = 18

6+9 = 15

15+7 = 22

7+18 = 25

7+4 = 11

4+10 = 14

23+12 = 35

12+26 = 38

14+7 = 21

7+11 = 18

19+10 = 29

10+22 = 32

6+3 = 9

3+3 = 6

39

JOB

M1

0(7)7

(15)22

(19)41

(23)64

(14)78

(12)90

(6)96

M2

7(4)11/22

(7) 29/41

(10)51/64

(12)76/78

(7)85/90

(6) 96

(3)99

M3

11(10)21/29 (18)47/51

(22)73/76

(26)102

(11)113

(9)122

(3)125

40

The branch and bound algorithm can be used when the

conditions in equations min ti1 max t12 (i=1,2,3.n) and min ti3

max ti2 (i=1,2,3.n) are not satisfied and an optimal sequence

must be determined. Ignall and Scharge developed a branch and

bound algorithm for the general three-machine flow shop problem.

In this algorithm, the problem is represented by a tree structure in

which each node is partial sequence. To determine which partial

sequence we would branch from, we compute the lower bound on

the makespan for all nodes, that is, the lower bounds on all partial

sequences. The process is continued until the sequences with the

least lower bound are found. The lower bound on the makespan for

all nodes is estimated as follows:

41

machines, M1, M2, M3, in their respective order. The lower bound on the

makespan for all jobs can be one of the following:

(1)

M2, and it cannot start until all jobs are completed on M1.

(2)

Equation (2) states that job n cannot start M3 until all jobs are completed

in M2. Also, note of the jobs that can starts on M2 until job 1 is completed on M1.

(3)

Which implies that none of the jobs can be processed on M3 until job 1 is

completed on M1 and M2.

42

and the unassigned jobs in the current solution. Ignall and Scharge developed a

lower bound for the makespan of all nodes emanating from the given node. The

lower bound is determined as follows:

Consider node P1 in a branching three corresponding to sequence Jr, where Jr

contains a particular subset (of size r) of n jobs. We define Time M1 (Jr) and Time

M3 (Jr) as the times at which machine M1, M2 and M3, respectively, complete

processing the last job in the sequence Jr. Then a lower bound on the makespan of

all schedules that begin with the sequence Jr is

time M1 (Jr) + ti1 + min (ti2 + ti3)

LB (Jr) = max time M2 (Jr) + ti2 + min (ti3)

time M3 (Jr) + ti3

where ti1=processing time of job I on machine j (I=1,2,3.n and j=1,2,3)

Jr = set of n-r jobs that have been assigned a position in sequence Jr

43

LB (P) = LB (Jr) = lower bound on the makespan for any nodes that emanates

from node P.

After finding the lower bond on the nodes, we branch from the nodes with the

smallest lower bound, create a new nodes for every job that has not yet been scheduled.

This is done by attaching an unscheduled job to the end of the sequence of the scheduled

jobs. The lower bounds are then computed for every new node by using the equation

above. The process s repeated until a complete schedule is found and has the smallest

lower bound.

44

Using Branch and Bound Algorithm

EXAMPLE 1.

Consider the four-job, three machine flowshop scheduling problem

given next. Use the branch and bound algorithm to find the sequence that

minimizes the makespan of all jobs.

JOB

M1

M2

M3

1

2

3

4

14

8

10

16

6

11

13

15

15

4

17

5

45

Solution:

We branch from node 0. the lower bound on node 1, 2, 3, and 4 are

computed by using equation on the previous page. To calculate these lower

bounds, we need

TIME M1 (1)=14

TIME M2 (1)=20

TIME M3 (1)=35

TIME M1 (2)=8

TIME M2 (2)=19

TIME M3(2)=23

TIME M1(3)=10

TIME M2(3)=23

TIME M3(3)=40

TIME M1 (4)=16

TIME M2(4)=31

TIME M3(4)=36

0

1

1.

2

1.

3

1.

4

3.

1

3.1.2

3.

2

3.1.4

3.

4

3.4.

1

3.4.

2

46

14 + 34 + 15 = 63

LB (1) = max 20 + 39 + 4 = 63

35 + 26

= 61

63

8 + 40 + 20 = 68

LB (2) = max 19 + 34 + 5 = 58

23 + 37

= 60

68

10 + 38 + 15 = 63

LB (3) = max 23 + 32 + 4 = 59

40 + 24

= 64

64

16 + 32 + 15 = 63

LB (4) = max 31 + 30 + 4 = 65

36 + 36

= 72

72

47

Since LB (1) is the smallest lower bound, we branch from node 1. we need to calculate

the times of sequences (i= 2,3,4) as follows:

Time M1 (12) = time M1 (1) + t21 = 14 + 8 = 22

Time M2 (12) = max {Time M1 (12) + t22, Time M2 (1) + t 22}

= max {22 + 11, 20 + 11} = 33

Time M3 (12) = max {Time M2 (12) + t23, Time M3 (1) + t23}

= max {33 + 4, 35 + 4}= 39

Time M1 (13) = time M1 (1) + t31 = 14 + 10 = 24

Time M2 (13) = max {Time M1 (13) + t32, Time M2 (1) + t32}

= max {24 + 13, 20 + 13}= 37

Time M3 (13) = max {Time M2 (13) + t33, Time M3 (1) + t33}

= max {37 + 17, 35 + 17}= 54

Time M2 (14) = max {Time M1 (14) + t42, Time M2 (1) + t42}

= max {30 + 15, 20 + 15}= 45

Time M3 (14) = max {Time M2 (14) + t43, Time M3 (1) + t43}

= max {45 + 15, 35 + 5}= 50

48

22 + 26 + 20 = 68

LB (12) = max 33 + 28 + 5 = 66

39 + 22

= 61

68

24+ 24 + 25 = 63

LB (13) = max 37+ 26 + 4 = 67

23 + 37

= 63

67

30 + 18 + 15 = 63

LB (14) = max 45 + 24 + 4 = 73

54 + 9

= 71

73

49

Upon comparing all nodes at this stage, we find that LB (3) = 64 is the smallest lower

bound; therefore we branch from node 3.

Time M1 (31) = time M1 (3) + t11 = 10 + 14 = 24

Time M2 (31) = max {Time M1 (31) + t12, Time M2 (3) + t 12}

= max {24 + 6, 23 + 6} = 30

Time M3 (31) = max {Time M2 (31) + t13, Time M3 (3) + t13}

= max {30 + 15, 40 + 15}= 55

Time M1 (32) = time M1 (3) + t21 = 10 + 8 = 18

Time M2 (32) = max {Time M1 (32) + t22, Time M2 (3) + t22}

= max {18 + 11, 23 + 11}= 34

Time M3 (32) = max {Time M2 (32) + t23, Time M3 (3) + t23}

= max {34 + 4, 40 + 4}= 44

Time M1 (34) = time M1 (3) + t41 = 10 + 16 = 26

Time M2 (34) = max {Time M1 (34) + t42, Time M2 (3) + t42}

= max {26 + 15, 23 + 15}= 41

Time M3 (34) = max {Time M2 (34) + t43, Time M3 (3) + t43}

= max {41 + 5, 40 + 5}= 46

50

We now compute for the lower bounds for the sequence 31, 32 and 34.

22 + 24 + 15 = 63

LB (31) = max 30 + 26 + 4 = 60

64

55 + 9

= 64

18+ 30 + 20 = 68

LB (32) = max 34+ 21 + 5 = 60

44 + 20

= 64

64

26 + 22 + 15 = 63

LB (14) = max 41 + 17 + 4 = 62

46 + 49

= 65

65

51

Time M1 (312) = time M1 (31) + t21 = 24 + 8 = 32

Time M2 (312) = max {Time M1 (312) + t22, Time M2 (31) + t 22}

= max {32 + 11, 30 + 11} = 43

Time M3 (312) = max {Time M2 (312) + t33, Time M3 (31) + t33}

= max {43 + 4, 55 + 4}= 59

Time M2 (314) = max {Time M1 (314) + t42, Time M2 (31) + t42}

= max {40 + 15, 30 + 15}= 55

Time M3 (314) = max {Time M2 (314) + t43, Time M3 (31) + t43}

= max {55 + 5, 55 + 5}= 60

52

32 + 16 + 20 = 68

LB (312) = max 43 + 15 + 5 = 63

59 + 5

= 64

68

40+ 8 + 15 = 63

LB (314) = max 55+ 11 + 4 = 70

60 + 4

= 64

70

Time M1 (341) = time M1 (34) + t11 = 26 + 14 = 40

Time M2 (341) = max {Time M1 (341) + t12, Time M2 (34) + t 12}

= max {40 + 6, 41 + 6} = 47

Time M3 (341) = max {Time M2 (341) + t13, Time M3 (34) + t13}

= max {47 + 15, 46 + 15}= 62

Time M1 (342) = time M1 (34) + t21 = 26 +18 = 34

Time M2 (342) = max {Time M1 (342) + t22, Time M2 (34) + t22}

= max {34 + 11, 41 + 11}= 52

Time M3 (342) = max {Time M2 (342) + t23, Time M3 (34) + t23}

= max {52 + 5, 46 + 4}= 56

53

40 + 8 + 15 = 63

LB (31) = max 47 + 11 + 4 = 62

62 + 4

= 66

66

34+ 14 + 21 = 69

LB (32) = max 52+ 6 + 15 = 60

56 + 15

= 71

73

The smallest lower bound on the tree, as shown is LB (341) = 66. We have an optimal

sequence 3 4 1 2 with a makespan of 66 units of time.

54

Problem

55

for m machines

1. Minimize Machine Idle Time Method

2. Palmers Method

3. The NAWAZ Heuristics

4. The Campbell, Dudek, and Smith (CDS)

procedure

56

The basic principle is to schedule the jobs in such a way as to minimize the

idle times of the machines.

On table 1, machines are listed on the columns and jobs in rows. Job i can

start on the machine k only if 2 conditions are satisfied:

1. Job is available (it has been proceed on the previous machine, machine

k 1)

2. Machine k is available (machine has completed work on the previous

job.)

The time when job i is available is shown by the row i entry for

completion time of job in previous machine (column k 1). Wherein k is

available given by the completion time for previous job 9job i 1), the

completion time entry for job i 1 in column k.

Thus, the idle time of machine k is given by the completion time of job

i on the previous machine (row i, column k 1) minus completion time entry

for job i 1 in column k.

57

STEPS:

1. Find the sum of processing time for each job. Arrange the jobs in the

ascending order of their sum. Schedule the job with min. sum in the first

position. Calculate its completion time on each machine.

2. Select the three jobs, if available (the number has chosen somewhat

arbitrarily to minimize calculations), with the next min. sums of processing

times and list them in iteration table. List the last job confirmed in the

schedule developed and its completion times. Calculate the completion

times of each one of the testing jobs as if each job is the next one to be

scheduled.

3. Calculate the total machine idle time for each test jobs. The idle time on

machine only if job completion time (row i, column k 1) is greater than

machine free time (completion time for LJ column k). The value of the

machine idle time is the difference in these two values.

4. The next job to be put in sequence is the one with minimum total idle time.

If there is a tie, each schedule with tied jobs may be evaluated.

5. If all jobs are scheduled, stop. If not calculate the completion times for the

job added to the completion times for the job added to the schedule in step

4 and go back to step 2.

58

Example:

Flowshop with four machines and six jobs

Table 1.1 Processing

Times of each job on

Each machine and

Their sum

MACHINE

JOB

Pij

25

45

52

40

162

41

22

66

136

41

55

33

21

150

74

12

24

48

158

15

72

52

146

6

12

14

22

32

80

Processing Times of each job on each machine and their sum arranged in ascending job order.

SEQUENCE: 6 2 5 3 4- 1

First job sequence is Job 6 due to its minimum sum in first position. The next step is to

determine which job should follow job 6 in iteration table. List the last confirmed job in Sequence

and determine the next 3 jobs from ascending order as the test jobs.

59

JOB

CONFIRMED

6

12 12

MACHINE

2

3

TIME (if Ci, k - 1 > (r, k)

14 26

22 48 32 80

TEST

JOBS

7 19

41 67

7 19

Two entries for each machine the processing time entry and jobs

completion for the second entry completion time on each machine.

Each test job is compared with the last confirmed job r (job 6) to

determine its completion times. For the job 2s completion time on

machine 3 is calculated as max (67, 48) + 22 = 89. Similarly,

completion time for jobs on machine 3 is max (108, 48) + 33 = 141. The

idle time of each machine as a job is sequenced is calculated and

added to get total idle time.

60

Since job 2 has the minimum machine idle time it is scheduled next and job

2 becomes confirmed job.

SEQ. 6 2 __ __ __ __

SEARCH FOR POSITION 3 MACHINE:

JOB

CONFIRMED

19

67

89

155

TEST

JOBS

213 161 - 155 = 6 min.idle time

26 15

82 72 161 52

41

60 55

122 33 155 21

176 122 - 89 = 33

74

93 12

105 24 129 48

SEQ: 6 2 5 __ __ __

61

Position 4:

MACHINE

JOB

TOTAL MACHINE

26

82

161

213

IDLE TIME

CONFIRMED

5

TEST JOBS

3

4

1

74 100

12

24

48

0

> 0, no need to calculate

0

Jobs 3 and 1 have zero machines idle time and should be tried in 4th position. We have

not continued calculation for job 4 because on 1st machine alone has the idle time of

(100 82) = 18, greater than zero machine idle time. Job 1 was placed in position 4.

Neither job 3 or 4 may be in position 5 with other in position 6.

62

POSITION 5:

JOB

51

IDLE

TIME

TEST JOB

3

41

92

55

182

33

246

21

274

74

125

12

139

24

237

48

301

POSITION 6:

MACHINE

JOB

41

92

55

182

33

246

21

274

74

166

12

194

24

270

48

322

63

MACHINE

JOB

74

125

139

24

24

137

48 301

41

166

55

122

33

270

21 322

SEQUENCE: 6 - 2 - 5 - 1 - 3 4 and having makespan of 322.

6-2- 5- 143

64

PALMERS METHOD

Palmer's (1965) suggested developing the slope index for each job

given by:

Sj = (m 1) Pjm + (m 3) Pj (m 1) + (m 5) Pj (m 2) + . . . . . .- (m 5) Pj3 (m 3) Pj2 (m 1) Pj1

magnitude of Sj. The idea is to progress by scheduling jobs needing

short times first and continuing in terms of magnitude of times, with

longest job being scheduled last.

In having 4 machines, m = 4 wherein: Sj = 3 Pj4 + Pj3 Pj2 3Pj1

JOB

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

25

7

41

74

7

12

MACHINE

2

3

45

52

41

22

55

33

12

24

15

72

14

22

4

40

66

21

48

52

32

65

S1 = 52

S4 = - 66

S2 = 158

S5 = 192

S3 = - 82

S6 = 68

Arrange the sequence of the ob scheduled in descending order.

Sequence: 5 - 2 - 6 - 1 - 4 - 3

Sum up all its values by having a total makespan of 353.

66

NAWAZ HEURISTIC

It is describes a heuristic that is easy to construct and gives good results. In

constructing no. of schedules needs evaluation and considered be a time consuming.

STEPS:

1. Calculate the sum of processing times for each job. Arrange the jobs in the

descending order of their sums. Denote the job order as a1, a2, a3, ,am

2. Select the first two jobs from the job list. Determine the best minimum makespan of

two sequences. First by placing job a, in the first place and a 2 in the second place

and then reversing order. Do not change the relative positions of two jobs with

respects to each other in remaining steps of algorithm.

3. Pick the job that is in the next position in the job list and find the best sequence

placing it in all possible position in partial sequence developed. Make sure not to

change the relative position of a job that are already assigned in sequence.

4. Repeats step 3 until all jobs are placed in sequence.

67

Table 2:

Jobs

pij

25

45

52

40

162

41

22

66

136

41

55

33

21

150

74

12

24

48

158

15

72

52

146

12

14

22

32

80

68

Sequence: 1 4 3 5 2 6

Select first two jobs, which is job 1 and job 4. The completion time for sequence 1-4 is 210

and for sequence 4-1 is 236. The best relative positions of these two jobs will remain as

job 1 ahead of job 4. Next job 3 is added to the sequence developed. The three possible

partials sequences that can be formed now are 3 1 4, 1 3 4 and 1 4 3. The best

orders of jobs are 1 and 4, already found remains and job 3 has been added from left to

right. The makespan added for each partial sequence are 281, 231 and 249 respectively.

The best sequence is 1 3 4.

Based on the job list, job 5 is the next one to be added to the partial sequence. The

sequences to examine are 5 1 3 4, 1 5 3 4, 1 3 5 4 and 1 3 4 5. The

partial makespan times the 255, 315, and 306 respectively. The partial sequence 5 1 3

4 with makespan of 255 is selected at this stage.

The next job to be add is job 2 sequences to examine are 2 5 1 3 4, 5 2 1 3

4, 5 1 2 3 4, 5 1 3 2 4 and 5 1 3 4 2 with 304, 320, 321, 321 and 321

as their respective makespan. Partial sequence are 2 5 1 3 4 with makespan value

of 304 be selected. The last job to add job 6 sequences are 6 2 5 1 3 4, 2 6 5

1 3 4, 2 5 6 1 3 4, 2 5 1 6 3 4, 2 5 1 3 6 4 and 2 5 1

3 4 6 with makespan of 322, 332, 336, 336, 336 and 336. S

69

Job

12/12

14/26

22/48

32/80

7/19

41/67

22/89

66/155

7/26

15/82

72/161

52/213

25/51

45/127

52/213

40/253

41/92

55/182

33/246

21/274

74/166

12/194

24/270

48/322

70

CAMPBELL ALGORITHM

Campbell developed algorithm that generates a series of sums

for each job similar to the two sets of sums generated in the n-job,

three-machine problem (M1 and M2). With M machines, M-1 two

column sets of job times can be developed and can then solved

using Johnsons Algorithm for n jobs, two machines.

Example 1:

Find the best sequence for four jobs to be processed on four

machines by using CAMPBELL ALGORITHM.

Job

Machine 1

Machine 2

Machine 3

Machine 4

1

71

Solution:

Developed the first set of machines or alternative:

Job

M1

M2

2-1-3-4. The second set of machines to be constructed is M1,2 and

M3,4.

Job

M1,2

ti1 + ti2

M3,4

ti3 + ti4

11

11

14

14

5

72

Again, apply Johnsons Algorithm to obtain the optimal sequence 12-3-4. The final set of machines is M1,2,3 and M2,3,4.

Job

M1,2,3

ti1 + ti2 + ti3

M3,4

ti2 + ti3 + ti4

15

15

14

15

19

13

18

13

sequences: 1-2-3-4 and 2-1-3-4. then compute the makespan of

these two alternatives, and select the schedule that minimizes the

makespan.

73

Sequence: 1-2-3-4

JOB

M1

0(5) 5

(4)9

(9) 18

(6) 24

M2

5 (6) 11

(7) 18

(5) 13/24

(8)32

M3

11 (4) 15/18

(3) 21/23

(5) 28/32

(4) 36

M4

(15) 5 20/21

(5) 26/ 28

(3) 31/36

(10) 37

Sequence: 2-1-3-4

JOB

M1

0 (4) 4

(5) 9

(9) 18

(6)24

M2

4 (7) 11

(6) 17/18

(5) 23/24

(8) 32

M3

11 (30 14/17

(4) 21/23

(5) 28/32

(4) 36

M4

15 (5) 19/21

(5) 26/28

(3) 31/36

(10) 37

Therefore, since the 2 sequence has the same makespan, we can choose both sequence.

74

Example 2:

Find the best sequence for four jobs to be processed on four machines by

using Campbells Algorithm.

JOB

Machine 1

Machine 2

Machine 3

Machine 4

SOLUTION:

Develop the first set of machines as follows:

JOB

Machine 1

Machine 2

Apply Johnsons Algorithm, we obtain the optimal sequence 4-3-1-2. the second

75

set of machine to be constructed is M1,2 and M3,4.

JOB

10

13

17

12

11

15

JOB

10

13

17

12

11

15

76

For sequence 4-3-1-2

JOB

M1

0 (4) 4

(5) 9

(6) 15

(8) 23

M2

4 (3) 7/9

(7) 16

(4) 20/23

(9) 32

M3

7 (6) 13/16

(3) 19/20

(6) 26/32

(5) 37

M4

13 (9) 22

(8) 30

(7) 37

(4) 41

JOB

M1

0 (4) 4

(6) 10

(5) 15

(8) 23

M2

4 (3) 7/10

(4) 14/15

(7) 22

(9) 31

M3

7 (6) 13/14

(6) 20/22

(3) 25/31

(5) 36

M4

13 (9) 22

(7) 29

(8) 37

(4) 41

Therefore, since the 2 sequence has the same makespan, we can choose

both sequence

77

Example 3:

Find the best sequence for four jobs to be processed on five

machines by using Campbells Algorithm.

JOB

Machine 5

Solution:

Develop the first alternative

JOB

14

24

15

11

13

12

78

The second set of machines to be constructed is M1,2,3,4 and

M2,3,4,5.

JOB

14

24

15

11

13

12

79

For sequence 3-2-1-4

JOB

M1

0 (4)4

(2) 6

(3) 9

(5) 14

M2

4 (2) 6

(8) 14

(5) 19

94) 23

M3

6 (5) 11/14

(4) 18/19

(4) 23

(3) 26

M4

11 (3) 16/18

(5) 23

(2) 25/26

(1) 29

M5

16 (3) 19/23

(6) 29

93) 32

(1) 33

JOB

M1

0 (4)4

(4) 6

(3) 9

(5) 14

M2

2 (8) 10

(2) 12

(5) 17

(4) 21

M3

10 (4) 14

(5)19

(4) 23

(3) 26

M4

14 (5) 19

(5)24

(2) 26

(3) 29

M5

19 (6) 25

(3) 28

(3) 31

(1)32

makespan of 32.

80

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