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Controle Ativo

de Vibrao

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Quais os principais beneficios ?
Estruturas mais leves;

Limitaes de espao e peso.


Atuadores

Sensores

Estrutura
Controlada

Controle

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Tipos:
Controle semi-ativo

Alterar o amortecimento;
Alterar a rigidez;
Alterar a massa;
Isoladores de vibrao ajustavl.

Controle Totalmente Ativo

Controle da fora e posio;


Controle antecipado;
Controle das respostas;
Controle da vibrao.

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO

Tipos de
controle
Semiativo

100%
ativo

Pertubao

Definida

Aleatoria

Objetivo do
controle
Controle
local

Controle
do meio

Controle
Total

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


fp

fp

m
c

fp

Passivo

fs

m
c

Semi-ativo

100%- ativo

Passivo Massa, rigidez e amortecimento (quantidade e distribuio)

fixa na fase de concepo.


Semi-ativo A rigidez e/ou amortecimento sofrem alteraes nas suas

propriedades afim de ajustar as foras dinmicas internas e com isso minimizar


os efeitos da vibrao.
100%-ativo So aplicadas foras dinmicas externas para

minimizar os efeitos da vibrao.

Controle de vibrao
SEMI-ATIVO

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Controle Amortecimento

Amplitude

f
m
k

Controle
Rigidez

Controle Massa

Alto Amortecimento
Baixo Amortecimento

Semi-ativo
frequncia

Alterao da Rigidez Baixas frequncias (molas de ar)


Alterao do Amortecimento Ressonncia (hidraulico, fluidos eletromagneticos e materiais viscoelsticos)
Alterao da Massa Altas frequncias ??

Amortecimento ativo

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Fluidos eletro-magneticos
O que so ?
Micro particulas polarizadas imersas em olo.
Como funciona?
So fluidos newtonianos sem a presena de um
campo magntico e desenvolvem foras de
escoamento quando sofrem a ao de um campo
magntico.

ER Fluidos que respondem a estimulos


eltricos
MR Fluidos que respondem a estimulos
magnticos

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Configurao bsica dos fluidos ER/MR
Modulao da Valvula

Cisalhamento direto
S

velocidade

fora
presso
Fluido

E
N

N
Aplicao campo
magntico

Controles hidraulicos
Servo vlvulas
Amortecedores
Absorvedores choque
Atenuadores

Aplicao
campo eltrico

Aplicao campo
magntico

Embreagens e freios
Travas
Amortecedores
Separadores
Estruturas

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Comportamento tipico de um fluido MR 25C
Modelo Bingham

120
240 kA/m
100

80

Shear Stress (kPa)

160 kA/m
60

40
80 kA/m
20
0 kA/m
0
0

25

50

Shear Strain Rate (sec

AmortecimentoTotal = Viscoso
Constante

75

100
-1

Coulomb
Efeito MR

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Exemplo de um equipamento com um fluido MR
Chave de fora

Amortecedor com fluido MR


Sensor de Controle

CONTROLE ATIVO DE VIBRAO


Aplicao fluido MR
Sistema com um grau de liberdadeSuspenso assento Heavy Duty Vehicle
Vibrao transmitida

Utilizados em veiculos off-road e equipamentos agricolas


Caminhes classe 8 (18 rodas)
nibus

Sensor
Banco

Controle

Amotercedor controlado

Mola

Vibrao
da estrada

Fluido
aletorio

Fluido padro
definido

Aplicao de fluido MR
Excitao Sismica
Edifcio do Museu nacional de
Cincia e Inovao
INAUGURADO em 2001
Tokyo, Japo
Tem 2 amortecedores de 30T
cada um instalado entre o 3
e o 5 andar.

Excitao Vento
Ponte lago Dong Ting
Hunan Provincia da China

Controle da Rigidez

Alterao da Rigidez
Mesa com 4 isoladores pneumticos

mA
mT
Isoladores Pneumticos

PA2
Clculo da rigidez de uma mola pneumtica K =
V
where

P
A
V

= Presso na mola pneumtica


= Ara da seco transversal do fole
= Volume de AR
= Relao dos calores especficos

Alterao da Rigidez
Considerando uma nica massa e uma nica mola pneumtica

A frequncia natural dada por:

k
m

Substituindo K da mola pneumtica temos:

PA2
Vm

Mas P.A=F=mg, ento:

gA
V

Assim, desde que a rea e o volume permaneam constante, a frequncia


natural independe da massa.
Para uma mola pneumtica de tamanho fixo, a rigidez varia com
a mudana da carga e, portanto, a frequncia se mantem quase constante.

Alterao da Rigidez Ligas com mmoria de forma

Liga de nquel e titnio


Esta pea passou pelo
processo de tratamento
trmico com as letras ICE e
depois foi resfriada.
Quando o metal puxado de memria distante, ela deforma. Quando colocados em
gua quente, o metal "lembra-se" a sua forma original, e forma a palavra ICE de novo.

Alterao da Rigidez Ligas com mmoria de forma

Menos Rigido

Aumento da rigidez
com a Temperatura
MaisRigido

Alterao da Rigidez Ligas com mmoria de forma


Material que altera seu mdulo de elasticidade com a temperatura

Painel Composto

Arames de SMA inseridos no painel


O arame ativado, atravs da passagem de uma corrente eltrica que
devido a resistncia do material a um aumento da temperatura, com isso a
o aumento da rigidez localizada, como consequncia a alterao
frequncia da vibrao natural, assim dependo da fora de excitao
possivel evitar o feito do fenomeno da ressonncia.

Aplicao da alterao da rigidez

ABSORVEDOR DE VIBRAO

Absorvedor de Vibraes
O absorvedor de vibraes o que ele faz?

X
F

x Xe jt

f Fe jt
estrutura

frequncia

Absorvedor de Vibraes

X
F

frequncia

Tunable Vibration Absorbers


Some Terminology
Natural frequency

X
F

Absorber:

Tuned to suppress the


response at a
troublesome resonance
frequency

Neutraliser:

Tuned to suppress the


response at a
troublesome forcing
frequency

frequency

X
F

frequency
Forcing frequency

The Absorber some key parameters

X
F

ma
ca

ka

m
k

c
frequency

ma
0.17
Mass ratio
0.1 Optimum Damping opt
3
8 1
m

Absorvedor de Vibraes

Localizao
ma
ca

ka

Edfico
Yokohama

ka
ma

Edficio Yokohama
Construido em uma rea de terremotos

Absorvedor de Vibraes

A fora secundria fs(t) usada para ajustar o absorverdor de vibrao

Valor mdido z(t)

ma
Deslocamento relativo
z(t) utilizando o
transdutor para medir
a diferena de altura.

ca

ka

fs (t )

+
_

Valor requerido z(t)

m
k

Modelo computacional de 2 grau de


liberdade, com frequncia e
amortecimento varivel.

Absorvedor de Vibraes

Planta do 63 andar do edficio Citicorp, de Nova York

Edficio Citicorp em Nova York

Absorvedor de Vibraes

X
F

XX
FF
Alterao
Amortecimento

frequncia

Alterao Rigidez

Alterao
frequncia

frequncia

Absorvedor de Vibraes

Alguns Parmetros importantes


X
F

ma
ca

ka

ka
ma

ma

t
4

Frequncia

Absorvedor de Vibrao Pneumtico


(50-100Hz)

Maior
Amortecimento

2 PA2
K =
Stiffness
V

Absorvedor de Vibraes
Tipo - Viga
m

excitao
L

k
meq

meq me m
Massa efetiva da viga

3EI
L3

Alterando E, I or L

Absorvedor de Vibraes
Tipo - Viga

h=Distancia entre viga


d=Espessura de uma viga

u
l

3h
1
8d

Absorvedor de Vibraes
Tipo - Viga
Servo motor

35% Alterao da frequncia natural

Absorvedor de Vibraes
Tipo Ligas com mmoria de forma

Liga com mmoria de forma

Absorvedor

Dispositivo que
altera temperatura
Agitador

Change in Stiffness Shape Memory Alloys

Change in Stiffness shape memory


alloys
Ea

Stiff
Cooling

Em

Heating

Stiffness increases
With temperature

Soft
Temperature

Elastic modulus changes from 40 to 59 MPa


Hysteresis of about 10C

Force/Velocity [Ns/m]

Shape Memory Alloy Beam-Like Neutraliser

Cold
state

Hot
state
ma
ka

ca

V
F

Frequency [Hz]

Shape Memory Alloy Beam-Like Neutraliser


Steady-State Experimental Results
Temperature below 35C

63.9 Hz

Temperature above 67C

+17.5%

77.6 Hz

Shape Memory Alloy Beam-Like Neutraliser


FRF - Impedance [dB]
50

10

30

90

-10
10

20

50
40

20

100

40
100

increasing
temperature

30
40
50

30

20

50

20

40
10

20

20

40

34
00

60

10

40
10

50

10

20

30

10

20
30
40 40
30

40

30

Temperature [ C ]

70

20

temperature (C)

80

natural frequency

-10

20
20

40

60

80

100
120
Frequency [Hz]

140

frequency (Hz)

160

180

200

Shape Memory Alloy Beam-Like Neutraliser


FRF - Impedance [dB]
50

45

10

40

30

20

20

50

20

90

40

decreasing
temperature

40
30
20

20

10
0
0

50
20

10

30

25

30

50

60

10

40

20

50

3030

40

20

10

10

20

10

30

40

10

20

20

20

10
10

30

15

30

natural frequency

10

30

10

20

20
20

40

60

80

-5

40
30

40

Temperature [ C ]

70

35

30

temperature (C)

80

100
120
Frequency [Hz]

140

frequency (Hz)

160

180

200

Performance
Good performance also with the real ATVA
No oscillation around the equilibrium point
Constant excitation frequency 59Hz from qamb
0

40

60

80

100 120
Time [sec]

140

160

180

200

1
0.5

-1
0
10

20

40

60

80

100 120
Time [sec]

140

160

180

200

20

40

60

80

100 120
Time [sec]

140

160

180

200

20

40

60

80

100 120
Time [sec]

140

160

180

200

5
0
0
1

D[cos(
)]
D[cos( )]

V(TVA)

20

Current [A]

-0.5
-1
0

[?V?]
Acceleration m
2

cos(
))
Cosine cos(

0.5

V(Host)
Acceleration m [?V?]

-0.5
-1
0

20

40

60

80

100 120
Time [sec]

Time

140

160

180

200

0
-1
0

Time

Change in natural frequency by shape change

mass
mass

Curved beams
Change curvature
Host structure

Low natural frequency

Host structure

High natural frequency

Change in stiffness by change in curvature

s
h

u
p

p
u
2

non-dimensional stiffness

EI h 2
s3
s

Adaptive Neutraliser using shape change

natural frequency: 39 Hz - 50 Hz

Adaptive Neutraliser using shape control


% increase in tuned frequency

50
40

predicted

30

measured (low force amplitude)

20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-300

-200

-100

0
100
200
voltage (volts, dc)

300

400

500

Control

small steps

y
Large steps

ma
ca

ka

Large steps

Y
X

Adjust stiffness so that natural frequency=forcing frequency

Control Algorithm

The controller updates the output current every


Tn seconds
en is the evaluation of cos at the nth time step
The current at the (n+1)th time step:

3
5

In 1 In P en en en Ddn

P: Constant of the non-linear proportional part


D: Constant of the derivative part

Control
Measure phase angle and set
y

x X cos t y Y cos t

1 T
x y x y dt X Y cos
T 0

ma
ka

ca
m

cos 0

xy
cos
X Y

Adaptive Neutraliser using shape control


Frequency sweep test
accelerometers
amplifier
ATVA
amplifier

a1

voltage
amplifier

electrodynamic
shaker
amplifier

a2

input/output
board

variable frequency
harmonic excitation
signal

PC

controller output

Vn 1 V n P en en3 en5 Den ,

en cos

acceleration (m/s 2)

frequency (Hz)

Frequency sweep test NO CONTROL

P-D CONTROL

55
50

52 Hz

2 Hz/s

45

t at 0 V

40
35
0

38 Hz
2

10

12

14

16

18

20

10

12

14

16

18

20

12

14

16

18

20

time (s)

10
0
-10
0

cos(phase)

time (s)
1
0
-1
0

10

time (s)

Boeing CH - 47C

Three adaptive selftuning absorbers


(neutralisers) are
installed and tuned to
the blade passage
frequency of
approximately 11 Hz

Hydraulic engine mount

Primary rubber
Decoupler

Upper chamber

Inertia track

Lower chamber
Rubber bellows

High damping at low frequencies


Low damping at high frequencies

damping

stiffness

Hydraulic engine mount

Amplitude sensitive device


Damping peaks at a low frequency which is controlled by the mass of
the fluid in the inertia track and stiffness of the rubber elements
Increased stiffness at high frequencies

damping

Adaptive hydraulic engine mount

Engine side

Effective length of inertia


track is adjusted in real-time

m
Structure side

Freudenburg active engine mount


actuator
diaphragm

working
reservoir

At low frequencies (<20Hz)


the mount behaves as a
conventional hydromount

At high frequencies the inertia


of the fluid is high decoupling
outer
the working and balance
reservoir
reservoirs

balance
reservoir
bellows

rubber
element

At high frequencies the


generated forces are in
anti-phase with the dynamic
forces generated by the engine

Combined active noise/engine mount


system

dB re 20 Pa

Combined active noise/engine mount


system

Engine speed (RPM)


Drivers position 3rd gear acceleration

Chassis acceleration (dB)

Active mount driven with a piezo actuator

Engine speed (RPM)

FULLY-ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL

FEEDFORWARD CONTROL OF VIBRATION

Used where it is possible to get advance


information on the vibration to be controlled
eg. To control machinery vibration which is generally
periodic in nature
Response

Excitation

Mechanical system

Controller

+
+

Fully-Active Systems where to place the


secondary force? - SDOF example
Fp

Fp

Fs

m
k

Fp

receiver

(1) Secondary source


applied to source

m
c F
s

receiver

(2) Secondary source


applied to receiver

c Fs

receiver

(3) Secondary source


applied between
source and receiver

Where to apply the secondary force to bring the receiver to


rest with a minimum applied force?

Fully-Active Systems where to place the


secondary force? - SDOF example
Fp

Fs
m

Fs ( ) Fp ( )

receiver

(1) Secondary source


applied to source

Fully-Active Systems where to place the


secondary force? - SDOF example
Fp

Fs ( )

m
k

c F
s

receiver

(2) Secondary source


applied to receiver

k jc
k m jc
2

Fp ( )

Or in non-dimensional terms as

Fs ( )

1 j 2
1 j 2
2

Fp ( )

where

c
2 mk

k
n
m

Fully-Active Systems where to place the


secondary force? - SDOF example

k j c
Fs ( )
Fp ( )
2
m

Fp
m

c Fs

receiver

(3) Secondary source


applied between
source and receiver

Or in non-dimensional terms as

1 j 2
Fs ( )
Fp ( )
2

Fully-Active Systems where to place the


secondary force? - SDOF example
2

10

Force applied to the receiver


Fs
Fp

10

Force applied to the source


0

10

-1

10

Force applied
between the receiver
and the source

-2

10 -1
10

10

10

Active Control of Structural Response


(Westlands, 1989)
Application of ACSR to the Westland/Agusta
EH101 Helicopter.

Active Control of Rotor Vibration


rotor

Active control at rotor blade


passing frequency at
about 18 Hz + harmonics
Feedforward control

Hydraulic actuators

fuselage

ACSR - Actuator Installation for Production


EH101
Hydraulic Supply

Composite
Compliant
Element

Titanium
Lug End

ACSR Actuator
sa

Steel downtube

Support
Strut/ACSR
Actuator
Assembly

Main Gearbox
Installation

FEEDBACK CONTROL OF VIBRATION


Used where it is not possible to get advance
information on the vibration to be controlled
Often used to control random vibration
Disturbance

Response
Mechanical system

Controller

Feedback Control of a Single-degree-of-freedom


System
accelerometer
m

equipment

vibrating
base

Can feed back displacement,


velocity or acceleration
H(j)
controller

Fs
actuator

H ( j ) K jC 2M
Feedback gains
Closed-loop response is given
by
X ( j )
k j c

Y ( j ) k K 2 m M j c C

Feedback Control of a Single-degree-of-freedom


System base excitation
accelerometer
m

equipment

H(j)
controller

X
Y
dB

fs
actuator
Non-dimensional frequency

vibrating
base

Y
Constant gain feedback control

Open-Loop FRF Nyquist Plots (simulations)

No high-pass filter
All are unconditionally stable

One high-pass filter


Velocity feedback is
the most stable

Active Vibration Isolation Feedback Control

Base
plate

Equipment

Objective
To isolate the delicate piece of
equipment using active vibration
control

Controller
Secondary shaker
Primary shaker

Electromagnetic actuator
- relatively low forces and large
displacements

The Control Problem

H11
0
H( s)
0

0
H 22

0
0

0
0

H 33
0

0
0
0

H 44

Decentralised
Control

imaginary

Stability of the Decentralised Control System


(measurements)

real

det I+G( j )H( j ) 1 1( j )1 2 ( j ) ......


Stability criterion: None of the eigenvalues i should encircle
the Nyquist point (-1,0) as varies from infinity to +infinity

Performance of the Decentralised Control System


(measurements)

y( j ) I+G( j )H( j ) d( j )
1

Overall Performance

Decentralised velocity
feedback control
Electromagnetic actuators in
parallel with resilient mounts
Feedback of absolute velocity
in 4 local loops
Analogue controller still
effective if one channel fails

Example: Feedback (displacment) control of


circular saw vibrations (Ellis and Mote, 1979)

Example: Ride comfort improvement o an aircraft


(Sensburg et al, 1980)
Discomfort due to fuselage bending
Mode at 9 Hz
Velocity feedback to the taileron
9Hz vibration reduced by 2/3

Frequency (Hz)

Flexural waves in a beam

power

power

Fe

j t

Active control of waves in beams

Equivalent block diagram

PSD at error sensor (dB)

Active control of waves in beams

Poor performance at
high frequencies
because of high
group velocity
causing causality
problems

Frequency (Hz)

Poor performance at low frequencies


because of noise and presence of near field wave

Concluding Remarks
Active control of vibration is being used as an alternative to passive
control in many different applications
Weight /space constraints

Novelty factor

Many more current and potential applications:


Dynamic control of large space structures
Flutter control in aircraft
Vibration isolation

Vibration control of rotating machines

References

C.R. FULLER, S.J. ELLIOTT and P.A. NELSON 1996. Active Control
of Vibration. Academic Press

P.A. NELSON and S.J. ELLIOTT 1992. Active Control of Sound.


Academic Press

C.H. HANSEN and S.D. SNYDER 1997 Active Control of Noise and
Vibration. E & F.N. Spon

R.L. CLARK, W.R. SAUNDERS and G.P. GIBBS 1998. Adaptive


Structures. Wiley Interscience

A.V. SRINIVASAN and D. MICHAEL McFARLAND 2001. Smart


Structures. Cambridge University Press

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