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The Federalist Era:

An explosive era in American


historyone that is vital to our
development as a nation.

Washington assumes control


4/30/1789
An exercise in

simplicity
Ocean of difficulties
Washington is about
the safest maybe not
the best (although you
could make a case for
that) president we have
ever had.
We knew exactly what
we were getting

Tasks facing Washington


Create Bureaucracy: the misunderstood

branch of Governmentis it a branch, lacks a


check/balance relationship?
Judiciary
Raise $$$$$
Bill of Rights issue
Start governance for this nation
Steady foreign relations

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Washington Heads the


New Government

The New Government Takes Shape


Judiciary Act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789 creates Supreme, 3 circuit,
13 district courts
State court decisions may be appealed to federal
courts
Washington Shapes the Executive Branch
Washington elected first president of U.S. in 1789
- executive branch is president, vice president
Congress creates State, War, Treasury Departments
Alexander Hamilton becomes secretary of treasury
Washington adds attorney general; these
Department heads are Cabinet

Image

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Hamilton and Jefferson Debate


Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict

Chart

Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy,


educated
Jefferson: strong state, local government; peoples
participation
Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has
Southern, Western

Hamiltons Economic Plan


U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private
citizens
Planpay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume
states debt
Some Southern states have paid debts, against
taxes to pay for North
Continued . . .
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Cabinet Government

Problem of National Debt


Hopefully we learned from the problems

caused by Shays Rebellion?


1790 estimates
Paying soldiersrevolution possible
the price of liberty
Hamilton: the Economic whiz kidan
important maligned figure in US History

Philosophies of Hamilton:
1st Conservative

Debt Assumption:
Demonstrates the supremacy of the National

Government
Laid ground work for Civil War?
Establishment of a National Bank?

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1
continued Hamilton

and Jefferson Debate

Plan for a National Bank


Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States:
- funded by government, private investors
- issue paper money, handle taxes
Disagreement over Congressional authority to
establish bank
Debate begins over strict and loose interpretation
of Constitution

The District of Columbia


To win Southern support for his debt plan,
Hamilton suggests:
- moving nations capital from NYC to South
Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale;
government seat by 1800
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The National Bank


Will serve to add to the problems of

sectionalism and will be an issue for the next


100 years!
Case for a national bank: series of papers
authored by Hamiltonsummary
Currency
Investment
Upper class
Government finance and taxes

Heated controversy over the


Bank?
Problemwill become the foundation for

modern politics!
Construction of the constitution
Political language, political interpretation and
a reading of the Constitution.

Whiskey Rebellion
The first true test of the Constitutions

power and authority.


What, and Why?

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1
continued The

First Political Parties and Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion


Protective tariff import tax on goods produced
overseas
Excise tax charged on products manufacture,
sale, or distribution
In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay
excise tax on whiskey
- beat up federal marshals, threaten secession
Federal government shows it can enforce laws by
sending in militia

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The Foundation of Modern


Politics: The Political Party
Birth: arising from the difference of opinion

between Jefferson and Hamilton


Jeffersonians: Republicans (modern
Democrats)
Hamiltonians: Federalists (modern
Republicans)
Role of Newspapers

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The First Political Parties and Rebellion


Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Split in Washingtons cabinet leads to first U.S.
political parties:
- Jeffersons allies: Democratic-Republicans
- Hamiltons allies: Federalists
Two-party system established as two major
parties compete for power

Continued . . .
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Conflicting Views

Two individuals: two stark


differences (page 215)
Hamilton:
Elitist

Strong Central Govt

Balanced economy with

National Bank
Ally of Britain
Model our nation after
Britain

Jefferson
Common man
Distrusted privilege
Weak central
government
Democratic govt
Agrarian economy
Support France

Their Biggest Difference


between the two men?

Construction of the
Constitution
How should the constitution be interpreted?

Jefferson a strict constructionist: reason

beingthe best way to check the level of


power of the large government
Hamilton a loose constructionist: reason
beingthe best way to enhance the level of
governmental power.

Washingtons worst fear


realized
One of the flaws in Washingtons armor.

Washington and King


A fierce advocate of Democracyyet?
Fear of factions
Benefits of Factions

Political Developments Aside:


Foreign Policy takes center stage.

Frenchwhat to do?
Native Americans
Problem?
Revolution:
Why do we feel the need for loyalty?

A Tale of Two Pictures?

The main difference?


Pursuit of goal, liberty?

Internal v. External destruction?


Probability of Success?

Why we didnt totally involve


ourselves with France?
Problems with their revolutionary aims and strategy.
Problems over land disputes here in colonies
Rise of political factionism, political parties and the

dispute between Jefferson and Hamilton


The idiocy of Edmond citizen Genetand his
privateer approach in Florida. A clue: dont irritate
George Washington.

Pinckneys Treaty
Agreed upon with Spain

Set the boundary of the US at the 31st parallel


US gains Mississippi. (HUGE)

Britain tests US neutrality and


authority.
The aforementioned problems along with

those presented by the Britishhave


illustrated the first challenge to the United
States from a diplomatic perspective.
Britain and neutrality?
Why is our role so importantan
explanation.

John Jay the Great Diplomat


His mission in

Britainsimple-stop
the seizure of American
Vessels.
His secondary
missionsecure neutral
alliances if mission 1
fails!

Jays Treaty
No agreement to stop

Damn John Jay, Damn

seizing ships
No agreement to leave
the Ohio Valley (agreed
to extend window by 18
months)
US had to repay British
debts
Ummm

any man who wont


damn John Jay, Damn
any man who wont stay
up all night damning
John Jay. Popular
song of the day
I imagine I could find
my way home (NY) by
following the fires of
burning effigies Jay

Problems with Indians


Vacuous western lands confusing in two

regardswho runs them from our


perspective and what about the Indians?
Remember the Iroqouis (4/6 of the groups)
sided with the British during the Revolution
and were obviously not in the best situation
since our victory.
The time saw a rise in raids on frontier areas
and families

Indian Actions?
Scalping and home

destruction were
common
There destructive
murderous raids
became a major
problem for the new
nation.

Response?
Our response was unkind to the Indians and

marks the beginning of our dramatic


mistreatment and relocation movements of
American Indians in the new national phase.
Indians will be forced to sell Ohio and much
of Illinois for a mere 10,000 annually!

Harmars Defeat and Mad


Anthony Wayne
Stunning defeat-Harmar; Victory for Wayne

whose name conjurs up images of heroism in


US History.

Treaty of Greenville
The tribes agreed to surrender their claims to lands in

the southeastern portion of the Northwest Territory


(mostly present-day southern and eastern Ohio)
The tribes also gave up additional defined areas that
were used by the whites as portages and fort
locations. This category included Fort Detroit and the
site of the future town of Chicago on Lake Michigan
The United States government agreed to make an
immediate payment of to $20,000 in goods to the
tribes, as well as annual payments of $9,500 in goods
to be divided among specified tribes
The tribes retained the right to hunt throughout the
area.

The End of the Washington Era


Refused to serve a third term as

Presidentestablished a trend.
Urged us in his notable Farewell Address to
avoid Alliances and Factions and threatened
that both could tear apart the Fragile
nation.
The next question becomesWho succeeds
the President?

Wellthat didnt last long


As soon as Washington and his term ended, the

partisan war over who was to replace him began.


Federalist assumedyou know what is to assume
that John Adams the VP founding father was the
logical selection. Problem herewho to nominate
for VP
Hamilton-the talented choice but people distrusted
him for anything other than a cabinet position.
Selection for VP candidate by Federalists: the
controllable popular Thomas Pinckney

Federalist ticket for 1796

Republican strategy
A key opportunity: they feared that the

country after the success of Washington who


most considered a Federalistwould lead to
a monarchy of sorts for the Federalists.
So they nominated their most popular
Candidate available to them and that was
Thomas Jefferson.

Results: a political catastrophe!

Order of finish:
Adams-71
Jefferson-68
Followed by Pinckney, and Aaron Burr
A political calamitythe Constitution called for candidates 1,
2 to finish Pres. And then VP.
However, the Constitution did not account for the partisan
nature of the new system.
So we have a federalist president, and republican VP.

Presidency of Adams
Characteristics

Good intentioned
Not very talented
Poor judge of character
An average President

XYZ AFFAIR
Continuation of problems with France

Outraged by Jays treaty


French began siezing US vessels
Negotiation team sent to avoid war

Bribery and deception


Issue now becomesdo we go to war or not
Adams was able to secure peace without having to

go to war but is was still a hated act?

Adams and
Washingtonproblem:
Both refused to accept themselves as

political beingsviewed themselves above


Partisan politics.
This is not possible.
Adams was our first president to be
criticizedand he got it bad from the
Republicans.
Adams takes it to the extreme! Alien and
Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts

Under the threat of war with France, Congress


in 1798 passed four laws in an effort to
strengthen the Federal government. Known
collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts, the
legislation sponsored by the Federalists was
also intended to quell any political opposition
from the Republicans, led by Thomas
Jefferson.

A series of Four Acts

Four Acts:

The first of the laws was the Naturalization Act, passed by


Congress on June 18. This act required that aliens be
residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they
became eligible for U.S. citizenship.
Congress then passed the Alien Act on June 25,
authorizing the President to deport aliens "dangerous to
the peace and safety of the United States" during
peacetime.

The third law, the Alien Enemies Act, was enacted by


Congress on July 6. This act allowed the wartime
arrest, imprisonment and deportation of any alien
subject to an enemy power.
The last of the laws, the Sedition Act, passed on July 14
declared that any treasonable activity, including the
publication of "any false, scandalous and malicious
writing," was a high misdemeanor, punishable by fine
and imprisonment. By virtue of this legislation twentyfive men, most of them editors of Republican
newspapers, were arrested and their newspapers
forced to shut down.

The effected!

One of the men arrested was Benjamin


Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache,
editor of the Philadelphia DemocratRepublican Aurora. Charged with libeling
President Adams, Bache's arrest erupted in a
public outcry against all of the Alien and
Sedition Acts
The arrest of Franklin-Bache caused a public
outrage that threatened the legitimacy of our
Constitution and the presidency of Adams

Impacts of the Alien and


Sedition Acts:
Set the US on a very dangerous political

course!
Threatened the future of American Party
Politics and its greatest gift: DISCOURSE
Further enhanced the bubbling sectional
conflict that has been brewing since pre
revolutionary dayswhy? Lets look at this
again:

The Virginia and Kentucky


Resolutions:
Led by our two main

Democratic Republican
forefathers: Madison and
Jefferson.
A movement in southern
legislatures that denounced
the acts as unconstitutional
and their role as parties to
the constitution gave them
the power to
nullifyexercise their rights
of social contract!

James Madison

Further impact
The acts encouraged other states to follow

their lead and declare the acts of congress


null and void however fortunately none did
sowith the weakness of our court system at
this time this could have torn apart the
country.
A second harbinger to events of the civil
warwhy?

Election of 1800:

A very modern election for


1800!
Adams: those who

Jefferson a defender of

own the country ought


to govern it!
Elitist, violator of civil
rights.
An ally of Britain

liberty
A heretic in the eyes of
federalists
An unpopular ally of
France

Results and Worry?


Worry:

The sectional partisan

election was so hotly


contested the fear was
that it could serve to
tear the country apart!

Result:
Jefferson-73
Adams-65
Only problem-Burr the VP

candidate for Jefferson also


got 73 votes!
Federalist congress has to
break tie between
Republicans!

An unlikely result
Jefferson: saved by the unlikely contribution of his

hated adversary: Alexander Hamilton! Why: he hated


Burr more!