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Simplified Example of a

LOCOS Fabrication Process


Prof. A. Mason
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Michigan State University

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 1

LOCOS Defined
LOCOS = LOCal Oxidation of Silicon
Defines a set of fabrication technologies where
the wafer is masked to cover all active regions
thick field oxide (FOX) is grown in all non-active regions

Used for electrical isolation of CMOS devices

Relatively simple to understand so often used to


introduce/describe CMOS fabrication flows
Not commonly used in modern fabrication
other techniques, such as Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) are
currently more common than LOCOS

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 2

LOCOS step 1
Form N-Well regions
Grow oxide
Deposit photoresist

NWELL mask

oxide

photoresist

p-type substrate

Cross section view


NWELL mask

Layout view
LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 3

LOCOS step 1
Form N-Well regions
Grow oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
NWELL Mask
expose only n-well
areas

NWELL mask

oxide

photoresist

p-type substrate

Cross section view


NWELL mask

Layout view
LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 4

LOCOS step 1
Form N-Well regions
Grow oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
NWELL Mask
expose only n-well
areas

Etch oxide
Remove photresist

oxide
p-type substrate

Cross section view

Layout view
LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 5

LOCOS step 1
Form N-Well regions
Grow oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
NWELL Mask
expose only n-well
areas

Etch oxide
Remove photoresist
Diffuse n-type
dopants through oxide
mask layer

n-well
p-type substrate

Cross section view

Layout view
LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 6

LOCOS step 2
Form Active Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist
over SiN layer

ACTIVE mask

n-well

SiN

photoresist

p-type substrate

ACTIVE mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 7

LOCOS step 2
Form Active Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist
over SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTIVE MASK

ACTIVE mask

n-well

SiN

photoresist

p-type substrate

ACTIVE mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 8

LOCOS step 2
Form Active Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist
over SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTIVE MASK

n-well

SiN

photoresist

p-type substrate

Etch SiN in exposed


areas
leaves SiN mask
which blocks oxide
growth

ACTIVE mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 9

LOCOS step 2
Form Active Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist
over SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTIVE MASK

n-well
FOX
p-type substrate

Etch SiN in exposed


areas
leaves SiN mask
which blocks oxide
growth

Remove photoresist
Grow Field Oxide
(FOX)

ACTIVE mask

thermal oxidation

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 10

LOCOS step 2
Form Active Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist
over SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTIVE MASK

n-well
FOX
p-type substrate

Etch SiN in exposed


areas
leaves SiN mask
which blocks oxide
growth

Remove photoresist
Grow Field Oxide
(FOX)

ACTIVE mask

thermal oxidation

Remove SiN
LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 11

LOCOS step 3
Form Gate (Poly layer)
Grow thin Gate Oxide
over entire wafer
negligible effect on
FOX regions

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

gate oxide

Prof. A. Mason

Page 12

LOCOS step 3
Form Gate (Poly layer)
Grow thin Gate Oxide

POLY mask

over entire wafer


negligible effect on
FOX regions

gate oxide

polysilicon

Deposit Polysilicon
Deposit Photoresist

POLY mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 13

LOCOS step 3
Form Gate (Poly layer)
Grow thin Gate Oxide

POLY mask

over entire wafer


negligible effect on
FOX regions

gate oxide

Deposit Polysilicon
Deposit Photoresist
Pattern Photoresist
*POLY MASK

Etch Poly in exposed


areas
Etch/remove Oxide
gate protected by
poly

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

POLY mask

Prof. A. Mason

Page 14

LOCOS step 3
Form Gate (Poly layer)
Grow thin Gate Oxide
over entire wafer
negligible effect on
FOX regions

gate oxide

Deposit Polysilicon
Deposit Photoresist
Pattern Photoresist
*POLY MASK

Etch Poly in exposed


areas
Etch/remove Oxide
gate protected by
poly

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 15

LOCOS step 4
Form pmos S/D
Cover with photoresist

PSELECT mask

PSELECT mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 16

LOCOS step 4
Form pmos S/D
Cover with photoresist
Pattern photoresist

PSELECT mask

*PSELECT MASK

POLY mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 17

LOCOS step 4
Form pmos S/D
Cover with photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*PSELECT MASK

Implant p-type dopants


Remove photoresist

p+ dopant

p+ dopant

POLY mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 18

LOCOS step 5
Form nmos S/D
Cover with photoresist

NSELECT mask

p+

p+

p+

POLY mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 19

LOCOS step 5
Form nmos S/D
Cover with photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*NSELECT MASK

NSELECT mask

p+

p+

p+

POLY mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 20

LOCOS step 5
Form nmos S/D
Cover with photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*NSELECT MASK

Implant n-type dopants


Remove photoresist

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

n+ dopant

n+ dopant

POLY mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 21

LOCOS step 6
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist

CONTACT mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

CONTACT mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 22

LOCOS step 6
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*CONTACT Mask
One mask for both
active and poly
contact shown

CONTACT mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

CONTACT mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 23

LOCOS step 6
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*CONTACT Mask
One mask for both
active and poly
contact shown

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

Etch oxide

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 24

LOCOS step 6
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*CONTACT Mask
One mask for both
active and poly
contact shown

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

Etch oxide
Remove photoresist
Deposit metal1
immediately after
opening contacts so
no native oxide
grows in contacts

Planerize
make top level
LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 25

LOCOS step 7
Form Metal 1 Traces
Deposit photoresist

METAL1 mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

METAL1 mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 26

LOCOS step 7
Form Metal 1 Traces
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*METAL1 Mask

METAL1 mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

METAL1 mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 27

LOCOS step 7
Form Metal 1 Traces
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*METAL1 Mask

Etch metal

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

metal over poly outside of cross section

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 28

LOCOS step 7
Form Metal 1 Traces
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*METAL1 Mask

Etch metal
Remove photoresist

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

Prof. A. Mason

Page 29

LOCOS step 8
Form Vias to Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize oxide
Deposit photoresist

VIA mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

VIA mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 30

LOCOS step 8
Form Vias to Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist

VIA mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

*VIA Mask

VIA mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 31

LOCOS step 8
Form Vias to Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

*VIA Mask

Etch oxide
Remove photoresist

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 32

LOCOS step 8
Form Vias to Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

*VIA Mask

Etch oxide
Remove photoresist
Deposit Metal2

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 33

LOCOS step 9
METAL2 mask

Form Metal2 Traces


Deposit photoresist

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

METAL2 mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 34

LOCOS step 9
METAL2 mask

Form Metal2 Traces


Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*METAL2 Mask

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

METAL2 mask

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 35

LOCOS step 9
Form Metal2 Traces
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*METAL2 Mask

Etch metal

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

Prof. A. Mason

Page 36

LOCOS step 9
Form Metal2 Traces
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*METAL2 Mask

Etch metal
Remove photoresist

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

Prof. A. Mason

Page 37

LOCOS step 10+


Form Additional Traces
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
Etch oxide
Deposit metal
Deposit photresist
Pattern photoresist
Etch metal
Repeat for each
additional metal

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

n+

p+

p+

n+

n+

p+

p-type substrate

Prof. A. Mason

Page 38

Simplifications from complete process


skipped several substrate doping steps
channel implant to adjust threshold voltages
surface implant to increase breakdown voltage

no LDD, lightly-doped drain


no deposition of contact interface materials
metal patterning simplified
more complex lift-off process often used

no overglass (thick top dielectric) layer


no bonding pad layer
simplified use of dark/clear field masks and
positive/negative photoresist

LOCOS Fabrication
Illustration

Prof. A. Mason

Page 39