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# Question to ponder before you start .

## Numbers.What do they mean?

Levels of Measurement
Learning Objectives
Define the 4 levels of measurement
tendency

Nominal scales
Ordinal scales
Interval scales
Ratio scales

## Learn the use of correct levels of

measurement

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1. Levels of Measurement

Nominal Scales
Nominal scales are the most primitive level of
measurement.
The number assigned to the entity are merely to
identify the individual entity or to classify a set of
entity based on certain similarities or differences
Non-orderable
The Nominal level of measurement identifies variables
whose values have no mathematical interpretation;
they vary in kind or quality but not in amount.

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1. Levels of Measurement

## More Nominal Examples

Gender: male and female
Race-ethnicity: Malay, Chinese, Indian
Level of education: PMR, SPM, STPM
Nationality: Indonesian, Malaysian,
Russian

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1. Levels of Measurement

Ordinal Scales
Ordinal scales give richer information;
distinguish the differences and the
relative degree of difference.
Permit ranking of individuals
The Ordinal level of measurement allow the respondent to
express relative magnitude between the raw
responses to a question

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1. Levels of Measurement

## More Ordinal Examples

A likert scale is an ordinal scale
indicate the extent to which they
agree or disagree with a series of
mental or behavioral belief

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Min score
7
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## Summary - Levels of Measurement

Nominal

Ordinal

- categories only

## - categories with some

order

Interval

- differences but no
natural starting point

Ratio

## - differences and a natural

starting point

1. Levels of Measurement

Interval Scales
Interval level of measurement designates an

## equal-interval ordering between each scale point

It does not have the capacity to measure the complete
absence of a trait (have no absolute zero point).
The difference in temperature between 20oF
and 25oF is the same as the difference between
76oF and 81o F

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1. Levels of Measurement

## More Interval Examples

Income as a measure of wealth
Likert scale: How do you feel about Stats?
1 = Im totally dreading this class!
2 = Id rather not take this class.
4 = Im interested in this class.
5 = Im SO excited to take this class!

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## Bengkel Analisis Dapatan Kajian

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1. Levels of Measurement

Ratio Scales
Ratio level of measurement designates an equalinterval ordering with a true zero point (i.e., the zero
implies an absence of the thing being measured).
In this situation, zero means absolutely no amount of
whatever the variable indicates.
On a ratio scale, 10 is two points higher than 8 and is
also two times greater than 5. Ratio numbers can be
added and subtracted, and because the numbers begin
at an absolute zero point, they can also be multiplied
and divided (so ratios can be formed between the
numbers).
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1. Levels of Measurement

## More Ratio Examples

Comparison of how many times as intense.
For example - heart beats per minute has a
very natural zero point. Zero means no
heart beats. Weight (in grams) is also a
ratio variable. Again, the zero value is
meaningful, zero grams means the absence
of weight.
Please circle the number of children under 18 years of age currently
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (if more than 7, please specify ___.)

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1. Levels of Measurement

Level of
Measurement

Put data in
Categories

Arrange
data in
order

Subtract
data
values

Determine if one
data value is a
multiple of
another

Nominal

Yes

No

No

No

Ordinal

Yes

Yes

No

No

Interval

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Ratio

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

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Aktiviti 1

measurements

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

Sex
Height
Weight
Cigarettes
Exercise
Year of birth
Friends
Fruit/veg
Health
Pulse
Temp.
Residence
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## Bengkel Analisis Dapatan Kajian

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1. Levels of Measurement

Sex
Height
Weight
Cigarettes
Exercise
Year of birth
Friends
Fruit/veg
Health
Pulse
Temp.
Residence
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Nominal
x

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
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