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micronutrients

Micronutrients
Def: substances needed only in minuscule
amounts, that enable the body to produce
enzymes, hormones and other substances
essential for proper growth and development.
Notes:
> As tiny as the amounts are the consequences of
their absence are severe
> Micro nutrients are the magic wands for the
body to function normally
> Micronutrient deficiency is called hidden
hunger

Micronutrients
1 Vitamins
2 Macrominerals
3 Trace minerals

VITAMINS
Vitamin A (retinol)
Vitamin B complex

Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 group:
Pyridoxine
Pyridoxal
Pyridoxamine

Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Vitamin B8 (ergadenylic acid)
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
Choline

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)


Vitamin D
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
Vitamin K
Carotenoids

Alpha carotene
Beta carotene
Cryptoxanthin
Lutein
Lycopene

Zeaxanthin

MINERALS
Macrominerals
Calcium
Chloride
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Iron

MINERALS
Trace minerals
Boron
Cobalt
Chloride
Chromium
Copper
Fluoride
Iodine
Iron
Manganese
Molybdenum
Selenium
Zinc

GENERAL STATEMENTS
1 Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important
in global public health particularly important
in children and pregnant women in lowincome countries.
2 Micronutrients vitamins A, E, C, iron, zinc,
selenium and copper play important role in
increasing a childs immune system

GENERAL STATEMENTS
3 There is strong evidence for the contribution
of zinc deficiency to growth faltering among
children; even mild to moderate zinc
deficiency may affect growth.
4 Vitamin A and iron deficiencies also have
been demonstrated to cause growth faltering,
however only when the deficiency state of
these nutrients is severe.

GENERAL STATEMENTS
5 Deficiencies of some micronutrients, such as i
ron, magnesium and zinc, result in anorexia
6 Several micronutrients, including zinc, iron and
vitamin A, are associated with immune
function and risk of morbidity, which in turn
affect growth

GENERAL STATEMENTS
7 The three micronutrients with the strongest
relationship to growth: iron, zinc and vitamin
A.
8 There is a theoretical basis to consider
potassium, manganese, thiamin and copper as
other micronutrients besides zinc, vitamin A
and iron as being growth-limiting nutrients in
populations

GENERAL STATEMENTS
Zinc has direct effects on the primary hormonal system
(IGF-I/GH) that controls growth in the postnatal phase
when the majority of stunting occurs.
On the other hand, iron and vitamin A do not appear
to influence this system directly, but more likely exert
their effects on growth when their functional stores
have been depleted and/or when deficiencies of these
nutrients result in increased morbidity, which in turn
contributes to growth faltering.