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Welding Inspection

Standard for Visual Inspection - Basic Requirements


BS EN 17637

Non-destructive examination of fusion welds


- Visual examination

Welding Inspection Personnel

should be familiar with relevant standards, rules and specifications


applicable to the fabrication work to be undertaken

should be informed about the welding procedures to be used

have good vision (should be checked every 12 months)

Important Qualities Inspectors Should Have

high integrity

a good standard of literacy and numeracy

good general fitness

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Welding Inspection
Conditions for Visual Inspection (to BS EN 970)
Illumination
350 lux minimum required

(recommends 500 lux - equivalent to normal shop floor or office lighting)

Access
eye should be within 600mm of the surface
viewing angle (line from eye to surface) to be not less than 30
600mm

30

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Welding Inspection
Aids to Visual Inspection (to BS EN 970)
When Access is Restricted

a mirrored boroscope or fibre optic viewing system may be used

(usually by agreement between fabricator & Client)

Other aids to Inspection

welding gauges

(for checking bevel angles, weld profile, fillet sizing, undercut depth)

gauges to measure weld-gap and linear misalignment (high-low)

straight edges and measuring tapes

a magnifying lens
(if magnification lens used it should have magnification between X2 to X5)

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Welding Inspection
Stages of Visual Inspection (to BS EN 970)
How much inspection, and when it is required, should be specified by the
Application Standard (Code) or be agreed between the contracting parties

It is normal practice to visually inspect the finished weld for all classes
of work

For high integrity fabrications, a Welding Inspector will usually


have inspection duties throughout the whole of the fabrication process,
namely: before welding
during welding
after welding

(preparation & checking materials etc)


(checking welding parameters etc)
(visual inspection etc)

The sort of inspection duties that a Welding Inspector may have when working
on high integrity fabrications are considered to be: -

The Duties of the Welding Inspector


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Joint Types - Weld Types


Butt Joints

Weld Types
single-V butt weld
(full penetration)
double-V butt weld
(partial penetration)

butt-fillet weld

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Joint Types - Weld Types


T-Joints

Weld Types

fillet welds

butt weld
(full penetration)

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Joint Types - Weld Types


Corner Joints

Weld Types
fillet welds

butt weld
(full penetration)

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Joint Types - Weld Types


Lap Joints

Weld Types
fillet weld

hole or slot
plug weld
fusion
spot-weld
resistance
spot-weld

Edge Joint

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Edge weld

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Joint Types - Weld Types


SUMMARY
JOINT
TYPES

WELD TYPES
butt

BUTT
TEE
CORNER
LAP
EDGE

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fillet

plug

spot

edge

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Joint Design & Weld Preparation


Bevel Angle

Bevel angle must allow: good access to the root


manipulation of electrode to ensure sidewall fusion

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Joint Design & Weld Preparation


Root Face
Root Face Size set to: allow controlled root fusion
reduce the risk of burn-through

Too small = burn-through

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Too large = lack of root penetration

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Joint Design & Weld Preparation


Root Gap
Root Gap set to: allow controlled root fusion
reduce the risk of burn-through

Too large = burn-through


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Too small = lack of root penetration

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Weld Preparation
Terminology & Typical Dimensions: V-Joints
bevel angle
included angle

root face
root gap

Typical Dimensions
bevel angle

30 to 35

root face

~1.5 to ~2.5mm

root gap

~2 to ~4mm

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Weld Preparation
Terminology: U-Joints
bevel angle

root face

land

bevel angle

root face
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WELD PREPARATION
Joint Design / Weld Preparation to Reduce Weld Volumes
12 to 15
35

for MMA welding of pipe joints


> ~20mm (compound bevel)
55
~6mm

for double-Vee joint for SAW


of thicker sections
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~5

for mechanised GMAW of


pipework

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Weld Terminology
Butt Weld
10 = cap profile or contour

9 = weld face or weld


cap or crown surface
2 = weld toe
1 = excess weld metal

3 = fusion boundary
or
fusion line

4 = heat affected zone


(HAZ)

weld metal

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Weld Terminology
Fillet Weld

9 = HAZ

10 = weld toe

2 = leg length
8 = throat thickness

1 = leg length
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Joint Types - Weld Types


Fillet Welds

mitre fillet

convex fillet

concave fillet

The fillet weld shape


normally produced

The fillet weld shape


that may not satisfy
design requirements

(45 - isosceles triangle)


The perfect fillet weld
or the design fillet weld

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Joint Types - Weld Types


Fillet welds

throat
thickness
a

leg length

For a Mitre Fillet


Leg length

= 1.4 x throat thickness (Z = 1.4 x a)

Throat thickness

= O.7 x leg length

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(a = 0.7 x Z)

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Weld Imperfections
Lack of Fusion

lack of sidewall fusion

lack of inter-run fusion

lack of root fusion on one, or


both sides, of the root
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Weld Imperfections
Typical Causes of Lack of Fusion
welding current too low
bevel angle too small
root face too large (single-sided weld)
root gap too small (single-sided weld)
incorrect electrode angle
poor inter-run cleaning / dressing

welding speed too high


welding process related particularly dip-transfer GMAW
flooding the joint with too much weld metal
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Weld Imperfections
Incomplete Penetration / Lack of Penetration
nominal penetration
is full penetration from both sides

actual
penetration
depths

incomplete penetration
or
lack of cross-penetration

incomplete root penetration


(both sides)

incomplete root penetration


(one side)

Note: may be called lack of root fusion


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Weld Imperfections
Typical Causes of
Incomplete Penetration / Lack of Penetration

welding current too low

root gap too small


welding speed too high
joint misalignment / high-low
insufficient depth of back-gouge (double sided weld)

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Weld Imperfections
Imperfect Shape - Undercut
cap undercut - in parent material

inter-run undercut - in weld metal


most common
at vertical toe
of fillet welds

root undercut (may also be called shrinkage grooves)


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Weld Imperfections
Typical Causes of Undercut
welding current too high

incorrect electrode angle


welding speed too high
arc voltage too high

(presence of oxide scale on steel)

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Weld Imperfections
Imperfect Shape
excess weld metal

excess convexity

excess penetration

plan view of weld root


2nd pass

root pass

burn-through (excessive melt through)


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Weld Imperfections
Imperfect Shape - Weld Profile or Toe Blend

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angle is >> 90 - the normal aim


to give a good/smooth toe blend

angle is relatively small (close to 90)


and gives a poor/sharp toe blend

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Weld Imperfections
Typical Causes of Imperfect Shape
(including poor toe blend)
Poor welding technique is the usual cause these
imperfections - such as: electrode size for the cap passes is too large
welding speed too slow

welding current too low


arc voltage too low (SAW and GMAW)
poor manipulation of the electrode
incorrect weld bead positioning / placement

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Weld Imperfections
Imperfect Shape - Misalignment / Distortion
linear misalignment

angular misalignment

angular distortion

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Weld Imperfections
Imperfect Shape Incomplete Fill

sagging in the flat position


sagging in the
horizontal position

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Weld Imperfections
Lack of Fusion Overlap
lack of fusion

lack of fusion

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Weld Imperfections
Incomplete Filling
edges not fused
associated with no fusion of the
sidewall at the weld surface &
often referred to as missed
edges

localised incomplete filling

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Weld Imperfections
Root Concavity
depth of root concavity

Typical causes
root gap too large - excessive weaving required

current too high - overhead welding


welding speed too slow - overhead welding
welding current too high for 2nd pass
back-purge pressure too high - for TIG welding
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Weld Imperfections
Other imperfections associated with fabricated components
Arc strike or stray arc - accidental striking of an arc on to base material
- loss of welding cable insulation
- poor connection of current return cable

Spatter

- excessive current or voltage

Slag residue

- poor workmanship (inadequate cleaning)

Grinding mark / mechanical damage


Torn surface

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bad workmanship

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