Você está na página 1de 37

BASIC ELECTRONIC

COMPONENT
LECTURE 1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

RESISTOR
CAPACITOR
DIODE
LED
TRANSISTOR

Resistor
Resistor is an electrical component that reduces the
electric current.
The resistor's ability to reduce the current is called
resistance and is measured in units of ohms
(symbol: ).
If we make an analogy to water flow through pipes,
the resistor is a thin pipe that reduces the water
flow.

Types of Resistor

Calculate total resistance value Rt :

Rt =

Calculate total resistance value Rt :

Rt =

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law


in any closed loop network, the total voltage
around the loop is equal to the sum of all the
voltage drops within the same loop

Calculate the VT

VT =

Using Kirchoff`s Voltage Law, find the


current,I

I=

Kirchoffs Current Law


total current or charge entering a junction or
node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the
node as it has no other place to go except to leave,
as no charge is lost within the node

Find the I3

I3 =

Find the IX

IX =

Capacitor
Capacitor is a passive element that stores electric
charge statistically and temporarily as an static
electric field. It is composed of two parallel
conducting plates separated by non-conducting
region that is called dielectric, such as vacuum,
ceramic, air, aluminum, etc.

Types of Capacitor

Paper Capacitor

Electrolytic
Capacitor

Mica
Capacitor
Ceramic
Capacitor

Plastic
Capacitor

How to read Capacitor ?

Determine the value of Capacitors

0.01 F

0.15 F

0.47 F

Parallel Capacitor

Series Capacitor

Diode
Specialized electronic component with two
electrodes called the anode and the cathode.
Most diodes are made with semiconductor
materials such as silicon, germanium, or
selenium.
Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters,
voltage regulators, switches, signal modulators,
signal mixers, signal demodulators, and
oscillators.

Symbol of Diode

Function of Diode
A diode is a simple electrical device that allows
the flow of current only in one direction. So it
can be said to act somewhat like a switch. A
specific arrangement of diodes can convert AC to
pulsating DC, hence it is sometimes also called
as a rectifier.

Light Emmiting Diode (LED)


LED lights are the latest technology in energy
efficient lighting. LED stands for Light Emitting
Diode
a
semiconductor
device
that
converts electricity into light.
LED lights are super energy efficient, using
approximately 85% less energy than halogen or
incandescent lighting meaning significant
savings on power bills. LED lights also have a
much longer lifespan than other types of lighting

Comparison between the LED with


others

Types of Light
Incandescent
light

Halogen
light

CFL light

LED

Polarity of LED

Internal Architecture

As LEDs are solid state components, they are


resistant to damage by impact shock or vibration
unlike fluorescent and incandescent lamps which
are fragile.
LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are
subject to frequent on/off switching, whereas
fluorescent lamps which can burn out quickly when
switched frequently and require several minutes
before re-starting.
LEDs light up very quickly, typically in
milliseconds. Dimmable and colour changing
versions are also available for flexibility and control
in any lighting application.

TRANSISTOR
A transistor is an electronic component used in a
circuit
to
control
a
large
amount
of current or voltage with a small amount of
voltage or current.
Acting as a switch.

Transistors are manufactured in different shapes


but they have three leads (legs).
1. The BASE - which is the lead responsible for
activating the transistor.
2. The COLLECTOR - which is the positive lead.
3. The EMITTER - which is the negative lead.

Types of Transistor

Two Diode Analogy

Voltage and Current Characteristic of


Diode