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Overvief of anatomy

Anatomy study of the


structure of body part and their
relationship to one another
Gros or macroscopic
Microscopic
Developmental

Gross anatomy
Regional ; all structures in one part of

the
body (such as the abdomen or
leg)
Systemic ; gros anatomy of the body
studied by system
Surface ; study of internal structures as
they relate to the overlying skin

Anatomy and Physiology


complementary
Function always reflect struvture.
What a structure can do depends on
its specific form.

Level of structural
organization
Chemical : atoms combined to form

molecules.
Cellular : cells are made of molecules.
Tissue : consist of similar types of cells.
Organ : made up of different types of
tissue.
Organ system : consist of different organ
that work closely together.
Organismal : made up of the organ
system

ANATOMICAL POSITION
Body erect,
feet slightly apart,
palms facing forward
thumbs point away from
body

REGIONAL ANATOMY
CONSIDERS THE ORGANIZATION OF THE

HUMAN BODY AS SEGMENTS OR MAJOR


PARTS BASED ON FORM AND MASS.
RECOGNIZES THE BODYS ORGANIZATION
BY LAYERS : SKIN, SUB- CUTANEOUS
TISSUE, AND DEEP FASCIA COVERING THE
DEEP STRUCTURES OF MUSCLES,
SKELETON AND CAVITIES, WICH CONTAIN
VISCERA

SYSTEMIC ANATOMY
SYSTEMIC ANATOMY
RECOCNIZES THE ORGANIZATION OF
THE BODYS ORGANS INTO SYSTEMS OR
COLLECTIVE APPARATUSES THAT WORK
TOGETHER TO CARRY OUT COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS ; THUS IT IS A SEQUENTIAL
STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS
OF THE BODY.

SYSTEMIC ANATOMY

THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM.


THE SKELETAL SYSTEM.
THE ARTICULAR SYSTEM.
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM.
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

DIRECTIONAL TERMS
Superior and inferior
- toward and away from the head,
respectively.
Anterior and posterior
-toward the front and back of the
body.
Medial, lateral, and intermediate
-toward the midline, away from midline,
and between a more medial and lateral
structure.

DIRECTIONAL TERM
Proximal and distal closer to and

farther from the origin of the body


Superficial and deep toward and
away from the body surface

Body cavities
Dorsal cavity, protects the nervous system,
and is divided into two subdivisions

Cranial cavity is within theskull and encases


the brain
Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral
column
and encases the spinal cord.
Ventral cavity houses the internal organs
(viscera) and is divided into two subdivisions ;
thoracic and abdominopelvic

Body cavity
Thoracic cavity is subdivided into

pleural cavities, and the mediastinum,


and the pericardial cavity

Pleural cavities each houses a lung


Mediastinum contains the pericardial
cavity, and surrounds the remaining
thoracic organs
Pericardial cavity encloses the heart.

Body cavities
The abdominopelvic cavity is

separated from the supereior thoracic


cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm.
It is composed of two subdivision
Abdominal cavity contain the stomach,
intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
Pelvic cavity lies within the pelvic and
contains the bladder, reproductive organs
and rectum.

Ventral body cavity


membranes
Parietal serosa lines internal body

walls.
Visceral serosa covers the internal
organs.
Serous fluid separates the serosae.

Other body cavities


Oral and digestive mouth and

cavities of the digestive organs.


Nasal located within and posterior
to the nose.
Orbital house the eyes.
Middle ear contain bones ( ossicles )
that transmit sound vibration.
Synovial join cavities.