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Astronomi dan astrofisika

2. Penciptaan alam semesta

The Big Bang Theory


Teori menyatakan bahwa alam semesta berasal dari ledakan spontan
materi kecil dengan densiti dan temperatur tinggi

EvidencefortheBigBang
Pada 1927,
ilmuan
Belgian,
Georges
Lematre
orang pertama
yang
menyatakan
bahwa alam
semesta
berasal dari
ledakan atom
purba.

The Cosmic Background Radiation (Microwaves)

Radiasi latarbelakang dari


bigbang secara bebas
menyebar sejak atom
dibentuk pada at temperature
~ 3,000 K: visible/IR

Photons berubah menjadi


pasangan particle-antiparticle
and vice-versa

E = mc2
Alam semesta awal penuh
dengan partikel dan radiasi
karena temperaturnya yang
tinggi

TheBigBandTheory

Mendeskripsikan bagaimana perluasan dan


pendinginan partikel dapat menghasilkan
bintang dan galaksi
Teori ini menjelaskan dengan sangat akurat
beberapa aspek alam semesta saat ini

TheBigBandTheory

Teori ini dapat membuat prediksiprediksi yang dapat diamati melalui


observasi, contohnya
1. Radiasilatarbelakanggelombangmikro.
2.Reaksifusihidrogenmenjadihelium

Bukti Model Big Bang


Teori big bang memprediksi bahwa radiasi dari
alam semesta ketika awala penciptaan masih
ada hingga saat ini. Ternyata alam semesta
saat ini memang diisi oleh cosmic microwave
background. Karakteristiknya cocok dengan
Big Bang model.
The Big Bang model juga memprediksi bahwa
hidrogen mengalami fusi menjadi helium
selama the era of nucleosynthesis. Pengamatan
jumlah helium di alam semesta mendekati
prediksi nilai dari the Big Bang model.

BuktiBigBang
The Cosmic Background Radiation (Microwaves)

Penzias & Wilson (1962) menemukan sinyal isotropik


gelombang mikro latar belakang ketika mencoba
antena gelombang mikro di Bell Labs 1965. The
noise ditemukan dari semua arah.
Pada saat yang bersamaan, fisiakawan dari Priceton
menghitung radiasi dari alam semesta mula. Mereka
merekomendasikan radiasi tersebut dapat dideteksi
menggunakan antena gelombang mikro

TheresultwasaNobelPrizeinphysicsfor1978.

TheCosmicMicrowaveBackground
Radiasi latar belakang terdiri dari photon yang sampai ke bumi
langsung dari akhir era nuclei (when the Universe was about 380,000
years old).
Atom netral menangkap hampir semua elektron Neutral atoms
captured most of the electrons. Photon dibebaskan dan melayang
secara bebas pada alam semesta sejak saat itu.

Radiasi latar belakang ini dapat dideteksi dengan


antena TV kecil. spectrum pergeseran merak dari
radiasi latar belakang menunjukkan bahwa radiasi
latar belakang sekarang bersuhu 2.73 K.

WMAP

Radiasi termal

Perluasan alam semesta menunjukan radiasi termal pergeseran merah


dari waktu itu menjadi 1000 kali gelombang lebih panjang (microwaves)

Arno Penzias and Robert


Wilson
Menemuk
an
gelomban
g mikro
latar
belakang
cosmic

Cosmic Background Explorer

satellite pertama yang dibuat untuk cosmology.


Tujuannya untuk menginvestigasi cosmic
microwave background radiation (CMB) dari alam
semesta dan memberikan pengukuran-pengukuran yang
akan membentuk pemahaman kita akan alam semesta

Cosmic Background Explorer

Cosmic Background Explorer

Peta CMB anisotropy dari data COBE spacecraft.

EvidencefortheBigBang
Edwin Hubble found experimental evidence
to help justify Lematre's theory. He found that
distant galaxies in every direction are going
away from us with speeds proportional to their
distance (the redshift).
The big bang was initially suggested because it
explains why distant galaxies are traveling away
from us at great speeds. The theory also predicts the
existence of cosmic background radiation (the glow
left over from the explosion itself). The Big Bang
Theory received its strongest confirmation when this
radiation was discovered in 1964 by Arno Penzias
and Robert Wilson, who later won the Nobel Prize for
this discovery.

Hubbles Evidence

Doppler shifting - wavelength emitted by something moving


away from us is shifted to a lower frequency
Sound of a fire truck siren - pitch of the siren is higher as
the fire truck moves towards you, and lower as it moves
away from you
Visible wavelengths emitted by objects moving away from
us are shifted towards the red part of the visible spectrum
The faster they move away from us, the more they are
redshifted. Thus, redshift is a reasonable way to measure
the speed of an object (this, by the way, is the principal by
which radar guns measure the speed of a car or baseball)
When we observe the redshift of galaxies outside our local
group, every galaxy appears to be moving away from us universe is expanding.

EvidencefortheBigBang
Big Bang Theory - Evidence for the Theory
What are the major evidences which support the Big Bang
theory?

First of all, we are reasonably certain that the


universe had a beginning.
Second, galaxies appear to be moving away
from us at speeds proportional to their
distance. This is called "Hubble's Law," named
after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) who
discovered this phenomenon in 1929. This
observation supports the expansion of the
universe and suggests that the universe was
once compacted.

EvidencefortheBigBang
Third, if the universe was initially very, very
hot as the Big Bang suggests, we should be
able to find some remnant of this heat. In 1965,
Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert
Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin (454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree
Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background
radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable
universe. This is thought to be the remnant
which scientists were looking for. Penzias and
Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for
Physics for their discovery.

EvidencefortheBigBang
Finally, the abundance of the "light elements"
Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable
universe are thought to support the Big Bang
model of origins.

SynthesisofHelium
The current CMB temperature tells us precisely
how hot the universe was when it appeared.
It tells us how much helium was initially
produced.
A helium nucleus contains 2 protons and 2
neutrons.
At T > 1011 K, nuclear reactions converted
protons into neutrons and back, keeping their
numbers nearly equal.
Between 1010 and 1011 K, neutron proton
reactions favor protons, because neutrons are

SynthesisofHelium
Energy is required to convert protons to neutrons.
At T < 1010 K, only neutrons can be changed into
protons.
However, fusion continued to operate
and protons and neutrons combined into
deuterium.
Then deuterium fused into helium.
During the early era of nucleosynthesis, helium
nuclei were being destroyed by gamma-rays.
At ~1 minute, gamma-rays were gone and the
proton neutron ratio was set to 7:1.

SynthesisofHelium
Big Bang theory
prediction: 75% H,
25% He (by mass)
Matches observations
of nearly primordial
gases

SynthesisofHelium
Abundances of other
light elements agree
with Big Bang model
having 4.4% normal
matter more
evidence for WIMPS!

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