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Vedapriya Jayaramareddy
ITP Group(BO1)
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Data Models.

A data model is a model that describes in an

abstract way how data is represented in a business
organization, an information system or a database
management system.

There are basically 3 classic data models

1. Hierarchical Data Model
2. Network Data Model
3. Relational Data Model

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Type of Data Model


Hierarchical Model

Well suited for data which

are related hierarchically

Network Model

Database model conceived

as flexible way of
representing objects and
their relationships

Relational Model

Data is represented in the

form of two dimensional

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Features Of Relational
The relational model of data permits the database
designer to create a consistent, logical representation
of information.
The basic principle of the relational model is the
Information Principle: all information is represented by
data values in relations.
Database Management Systems must adhere to
Codds rules to be termed as RDBMS.
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A relational database management system

(RDBMS) uses matching values in multiple tables to
relate to the information in one table with the
information in the other table.

The two most prominent characteristics of a

relational database are
1. Data stored in tables
2. Relationships between tables

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Who Is Dr. CODD?

An IBM researcher.
Developed the relational data model in 1970.
Published a list of 12 rules that defined an ideal

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Codds Rules..
No commercial RDBMS fully conforms to all 12 rules.
The rules are so strict that all popular so called
relational DBMSs fail on many of the criteria.
In practice, many database products (for ex. Oracle,
Sybase etc..) are considered relational even if they do
not strictly adhere to all 12 rules.

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Lets begin..

Rule 1: The Information Rule :

1. All data should be presented to the user in table

2. All information in the database to be represented in
one and only one way, Namely by values in column
positions within rows of tables.

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Rule 2.

Guaranteed Access Rule :

Each piece of data (atomic data) must be logically

accessible by referencing
1. A table
2. A primary or unique key value and
3. A column

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Rule 3.

Systematic Treatment Of Null Values :

The DBMS must allow each field to remain null (or

Null must always be interpreted as an unknown

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Rule 4
Dynamic Online Catalog based on the
relational model :
Users must be able to access the databases structure
(catalog) using the same query language that they use
to access the databases data.

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Rule 5
Comprehensive Data Sublanguage Rule :
There must be a single language that handles all
communication with the database management
Every RDBMS should provide a language to allow the
user to query and manipulate the contents of the

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Rule 6
View Updating Rule :
All views that are theoretically updatable must be
updatable by the system.
Views are virtual tables or abstractions of the source

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Rule 7
High-level insert, update and delete :
The system must support set-at-a-time INSERT,
UPDATE, and DELETE operators.

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Rule 8
Physical Data Independence :
Applications that access data in a relational database
must be unaffected by changes in the way the data is
physically stored.

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Rule 9
Logical Data Independence :
The database schema or structure of tables (logical) &
relationships can change without having to recreate
the application that uses it.
Difficult to satisfy.

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Rule 10
Integrity Independence :
Integrity constraints specific to a particular relational
database must be stored separately from application
programs and stored in the catalog.
It must be possible to change such constraints as &
when appropriate without unnecessarily affecting
existing applications.
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Rule 11
Distribution Independence :
A relational DBMS has distribution independence.
The RDBMS may spread across more than one
system & across several networks, however to the
end-user the tables should appear no different to those
that are local.

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Rule 12
Non Subversion Rule :
No way to modify the database structure other than
through the multiple row database language.

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Thank You!

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