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# Under Guidance of:

Dr. U. P. Singh
Presented
By:

Suryanshu
Satapathy

CONTENTS
This presentation covers:
What is a image?
What is digital image?
What is digital image processing?
Key Stages In Digital Image Processing
Applications

WHAT I S AN IMAGE?
An image, derived from a Latin word imago, stands for an
artifact, such as a two dimensional picture, that has a similar
appearance to some subjectusually a physical object or a person.

SIMPLE MODEL:
Image refers to a two dimensional light intensity function denoted
by f(x,y) - x and y denote the spatial co-ordinates. The magnitude
of f( ) at spatial co-ordinates (x,y) gives the intensity of image at
that point.
f(x,y) can be characterized by two components The amount of source light being incident on the scene being
viewed illumination component (i(x,y)).
The amount of light reflected by the objects in the scene
reflectance component (r(x,y)).

## Now, f(x,y) = i(x,y)*r(x,y)

0 < i(x,y) <
0 < r(x,y) < 1
f(x,y) can be treated as an MxN array for processing, where M
and N are the dimension of the image along X and Y directions.
Each element of the array represents the intensity values and can
be called as pixel or pel.

1 pixel

RESOLUTION OF AN IMAGE:
the dpi (dots per inch = pixels per inch) of an image.

## The resolution of a digital image is defined as the number of pixels it

contains. The higher the resolution, the higher the print quality and the
larger the data size of the image (in kilobytes or megabytes)

TYPES OF IMAGE:
Color Image(R,Y,B-each 0~255)
Intensity (Gray level image)(0~255)
Binary Image(0~1)

IMAGE: EXAMPLES

## Gray level Image

Coloured
Image

Binary Image

W H AT I S A D I G I TAL I M AGE ?
Processing of a picture or image by digital computer, But computer
processes only digital data. So we need a digital image.

Continuos
Image

Sampling and
quantization

Digital
image

## Digitization of the spatial co-ordinates (x,y) is called image

sampling.
The amplitude digitization is called gray-level quantization

## We usually operate on digital (discrete) images by:

Sample the 2D space on a regular grid
Quantize each sample (round to nearest integer)
If our samples are D apart, we can write this as:
f[i ,j] = Quantize{ f(i D, j D) }
The image can now be represented as a matrix of integer
values

Result Of
SAMPLING
AND
QUANTIZATION

## W HAT I S D I G I TAL I M AGE

PROCESSING?
Processing describes the act of taking something through an established
and usually routine set of procedures to convert it from one form to
another, such as processing milk into cheese.
Image processing is a form of signal processing for which the input is
an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output of image
processing can be either an image or a set of characteristics or
parameters related to the image. Most image processing techniques
involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying
standard signal-processing techniques to it.
The following example represents a basic operation of image processing
The composite image (4)
has been split into red (1),
green (2) and
blue (3) channels

IMAGE
PROCESSING

## An image processing operation typically defines a new image g in

terms of an existing image f
We can transform either the range of t:

Or the domain of f:

Why ?
Coding/compression
Enhancement, restoration, reconstruction
Analysis, detection, recognition, understanding
Visualization
To improve image quality for human perception and/or
computer interpretation
Image

Image
processing

Better
image

Image

Image
processing

Compressed
Image

## A TYPICAL DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

SEQUENCE

Imaging
systems

object

observe

Sample
and
quantize

digitize

Image Acquisition

Digital
storage
(disk)

store

Digital
computer

On-line
buffer

process

Refresh/
store

Processing

Display output

Record

Display/Storage
/ Transmission

## KEY STAGES IN DIGITAL IMAGE

PROCESSING
Image
Restoration

Image
Enhancement

Segmentation

Image
Acquisition

Object
Recognition

Problem Domain
Colour Image
Processing

Image
Compression

Representation
& Description

IMAGE ACQUISITION
Images are generated by the combination of an illumination source
and the reflection or absorption of energy from that source by the
elements of the scene being imaged. For eg. Visible light source
illuminates a common everyday 3-D scene.
To get a 2-D picture of the scene we can use a camera which contains
light sensors.
The reflected light from the scene being imaged is focused by the
camera lens
Light falls on the sensing material (a CCD array) and produces
electrical signals proportional to the light intensity
An A/D converter converts this signal to a set of discrete numbers.
(Gray level quantization).
The illumination may originate from a source of electromagnetic energy
Scene elements can be familiar objects or may be a molecule, buried rock
formations, human brain

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
To process an image so that the result is more suitable than the
original image for a specific application
Accentuate certain image features for subsequent analysis or for image
display
Contrast enhancement, noise filtering, sharpening, magnifying

ORIGINAL IMAGE

## HIGH PASS FILTERED IMAGE

IMAGE RESTORATION
A class of methods that aim to remove or reduce the degradations
that were incurred while the digital image being obtained.
The degradations can occur due to: Sensor noise
Blur due to camera misfocus
Relative object camera motion
Random atmospheric turbulence
Original image

## Distorted image(Random Noise)

IMAGE COMPRESSION

## The storage requirement for images are high.

Reduce the number of bits requires to represent an image.
By compressing an image we can reduce the memory needed to store
the image, reduce the time required for transmission, also reduction in
bandwidth

SEGMENTATION
Partition of an image into its constituent parts or objects.
Involves feature selection/Identification and feature extraction.

A P P L I C ATI O N S( NAM I NG
FEW)

INDUSTRIAL INSPECTION

## Human operators are

expensive, slow and unreliable
make machines do the job
systems are used in all kinds of
industries

19

MEDICINE
Take slice from MRI scan of canine heart, and find
boundaries between types of tissue
Image with grey levels representing tissue density
Use a suitable filter to highlight edges

Heart

## Edge Detection Image

BIOMETRICS
ASTRONOMY

TRAFFIC MONITOR
DOCUMENT HANDLING

K
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