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Emotions and

Moods
AMIR ALI

Waheed Waheed

Mohsin
Raza

Malik
Aftab

Yousaf Wazir
Wasim
Jamali

EmotionsWhy
EmotionsWhy Emotions
Emotions Were
Were Ignored
Ignored
in
in OB
OB
Emotions are critical factor in employee behavior.
The myth of rationality
Emotions of any kind are disruptive to
organizations.
Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong
negative emotions that interfered with individual and
organizational efficiency.

What
What Are
Are Emotions?
Emotions?

Affect
Affect

AAbroad
broadrange
rangeof
ofemotions
emotionsthat
thatpeople
peopleexperience
experience

Emotions
Emotions

Intense
Intensefeelings
feelingsthat
thatare
are
directed
directedat
atsomeone
someoneor
or
something
something

Moods
Moods

Feelings
Feelingsthat
thattend
tendto
to
be
beless
lessintense
intensethan
than
emotions
emotionsand
andthat
thatlack
lack
aacontextual
contextualstimulus
stimulus

Aspects
Aspects of
of Emotions
Emotions
Biology of Emotions
Originate in brains limbic system

Intensity of Emotions
Personality
Job requirements

Frequency and Duration of Emotions


How often emotions are exhibited
How long emotions are displayed

Functions of Emotions
Critical for rational thinking
Motivate people

Mood
Mood as
as Positive
Positive and
and Negative
Negative Affect
Affect

Sources
of
Emotions
and
Moods
Sources
of
Emotions
and
Moods
Personality

Day and Time of the Week


NOT Weather
Stress
Social Activities
Sleep
Exercise
Age
Gender

Positive
PositiveMoods
Moodsare
are
Highest
Highest
At
Atthe
theEnd
Endof
ofthe
the
Week
Week
In
Inthe
theMiddle
Middle
Part
Partof
ofthe
theDay
Day

Negative
NegativeMoods
Moodsare
are
Highest
Highest
At
Atthe
the
Beginning
Beginningof
ofthe
the
Week
Week
And
Andshow
showlittle
little
variation
variation
throughout
throughoutthe
theday
day

Gender
Gender and
and Emotions
Emotions
Women

Can show greater emotional expression


Experience emotions more intensely
Display emotions more frequently
Are more comfortable in expressing emotions
Are better at reading others emotions

Men
Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with
the male image
Are innately less able to read and to identify with
others emotions
Have less need to seek social approval by showing
positive emotions

External
External Constraints
Constraints on
on Emotions
Emotions

Organizational
Organizational
Influences
Influences

Cultural
Cultural
Influences
Influences

Individual
Individual
Emotions
Emotions

Emotional
Emotional Labor
Labor
A situation in which an employee expresses
organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal
transactions.

Emotional dissonanceInconsistencies between the


emotions we feel and the emotions we project.

Felt
Felt vs.
vs. Displayed
Displayed Emotions
Emotions
Felt Emotions
An individuals actual emotions

Displayed Emotions
Emotions that are organizationally
required and considered appropriate in
a given job

Affective
Affective Events
Events Theory
Theory (AET)
(AET)
Work events trigger positive and negative emotional
reactions
Personality and mood determine the intensity of the
emotional response.
Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance
and job satisfaction variables.

Implications of the theory ACT


Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.
Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.
Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction
and performance.
Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers
and reduce job performance.

Affective
Affective Events
Events Theory
Theory (AET)
(AET)

Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, Emotion in the Workplace: The New
Challenge for Managers, Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, p. 77.

E X H I B I T 86
E X H I B I T 86

Emotional
Emotional Intelligence
Intelligence

Self-awareness
Self-awareness == Know
Know how
how you
youfeel
feel

Self-management
Self-management== Manage
Manageyour
your emotions
emotionsand
and
impulses
impulses

Self-motivation
Self-motivation== Can
Can motivate
motivateyourself
yourself and
andpersist
persist

Empathy
Empathy== Sense
Senseand
andunderstand
understandwhat
whatothers
othersfeel
feel

Social
SocialSkills
Skills== Can
Canhandle
handlethe
theemotions
emotionsof
ofothers
others

Research Findings: Characterize high


performers, high EI scores, not high IQ
scores.

OB
OB Applications
Applications of
of Emotions
Emotions and
and Moods
Moods
Emotions and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness.

Decision Making
Emotions are an important part of the decision-making
process in organizations.

Creativity
Positive mood increases creativity.

Motivation
Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are
strongly linked.

Leadership
Emotions are important to acceptance of messages
from organizational leaders.

OB
OB Applications
Applications .. .. .. (contd)
(contd)
Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are
strongly intertwined.

Negotiation
Emotions can impair negotiations.

Customer Services
Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers
which, in turn, affects customer relationships.

Job Attitudes
Can carry over to home

Deviant Workplace Behaviors


Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions
that violate norms and threaten the organization).

Chapter
Chapter Check-up:
Check-up: Emotions
Emotions and
and Moods
Moods
Lucy has a high need for achievement and likes
to come to work and focus on her job only. If
you were Lucys manager, how could you get
her to feel more emotion at work? Would you
want her to? Why or why not? Discuss with a
classmate.

Chapter
Chapter Check-up:
Check-up: Emotions
Emotions and
and Moods
Moods

Discuss
Discusshow
how low
low positive
positiveaffect
affect isisthe
thesame
same or
or
different
differentas
ashigh
high negative
negative affect.
affect. ??

Chapter
Chapter Check-up:
Check-up: Emotions
Emotions and
and Moods
Moods
Roberto comes to class and sits quietly
looking content and relaxed. The teacher is
guessing that Roberto is:
Low on negative affect
High on positive affect
High on negative affect
Low on positive affect
Discuss
Discusswith
withaaneighbor
neighbor why
why Roberto,
Roberto, who
whoisis
seemingly
seeminglyhappy
happybut
but calm,
calm, isnt
isnt just
just low
low on
on
positive
positiveaffect.
affect.

Chapter
Chapter Check-up:
Check-up: Emotions
Emotions and
and Moods
Moods
Do
Doyou
youthink
thinkthere
therecould
couldbe
beemotional
emotionaland
andmood
mood
implications
implicationsfor
fortelecommuting?
telecommuting?IfIfyes,
yes, how
howso?
so?
Discuss
Discusswith
withaaclassmate.
classmate.

Hint: Consider
this woman!