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BSS Optimisation Workshop

Denpasar Bali
Oct 21-25, 2013
NSN TSEL

Nokia Siemens Networks

Radio Resource Administration


Idle Parameter Optimization
Radio resource Management
Measurement processing
Power Control Parameter
Handover Control parameter
KPI case
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Radio Resource Administration

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Basic TDMA Structure


tim
e

Physical channel

e.g. allocated to one


subscriber with FR voice
and no frequency hopping

6
4

5
TDMA frame
= 8 timeslots

0
6
4

200 kHz
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( 0.577ms * 8 = 4.615 ms)

2 2 2
TDMA frame

frequency

GSM Channel Organization

Logical Channels
for transport of specific content
mapping

MS

Physical Channels
transport medium
Physical channel parameters
ARFCN
Time slot number
Frequency hopping algorithm

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Base Station
Subsystem

Logical Channels
BCH

DL

Common
Channels
DL
UL

CCCH

DL

DCCH

UL/DL

FCCH

Frequency Correction Channel

SCH

Synchronisation Channel

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

CBCH

Cell Broadcast Channel

PCH

Paging Channel

RACH

Random Access Channel

AGCH

Access Grant Channel

SDCCH

Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel

SACCH

Slow Associated Control Channel

FACCH

Fast Associated Control Channel

FR/HR

Full rate / Halft rate TCH

EFR

Enhanced Full rate TCH

Dedicated
Channels

TCH

UL/DL

AMR FR/HR

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Adaptive multirate TCH (FR/HR)

Signalling Channel Mapping


(BCCH +CCCH/9)

Downlink

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

1
f s

f sf
BCCH

CCCH

Uplink
1

f s

f s

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

51
f s

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

r r r r r r r r r r r r rf r r r r r r r r r rf r r r r r r r r r rf r r r r r r r r r rf r r r r r r r r

f = FCCH, s = SCH, r = RACH TDMA frame


- = dummy burst

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51

Signalling Channel Mapping


(BCCH + SDCCH/4 + SACCH/C4)

Downlink

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

1
f s

f sf
BCCH

CCCH

f s

CCCH

51

f s

f s

CCCH
SDCCH 0
SDCCH 2
SDCCH 1
SDCCH 3

SACCH
0/2 SACCH
1/3

Uplink
51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

1
f

rr

SDCCH 3

r r r r r r r r rf r r r r r r r r r rf r r r r

SACCH
2/0 SACCH
3/1

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51
f

r r

SDCCH 0
SDCCH 1
f = FCCH, s = SCH, r = RACH TDMA frame
- = dummy burst

SDCCH 2

Traffic Channel Mapping


Full Rate Traffic Channel Configuration (UL & DL)
26 TDMA frames = 120 ms

t t t t t t t t t t t t sf t t t t t t t t t tf t t i
1

26

t = full rate TCH, s = SACCH/T, i = idle TDMA frame

Half Rate Traffic Channel Configuration (UL & DL)


26 TDMA frames = 120 ms
t
T

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t
T
...

t
T

t
T

s
f

t
T

t
T

t
T

t
T

t
f

t
T

S
26

t = half rate TCH, s = SACCH/T (first user)


T = half rate TCH, S = SACCH/T (second user) TDMA frame

Signalling Channel Mapping


(SDCCH/8 +SACCH/C4)

Downlink

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

51
i i i

SDCCH 0
SDCCH 6
SDCCH 2
SACCH
SDCCH 4
SACCH
0/4
SDCCH 1
SDCCH 7
SDCCH 3
SACCH 2/6 SACCH
SDCCH 5
1/5
3/7

Uplink

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

1
f

fi i i

SACCH
SACCH 6/2 SACCH
5/1
7/3

SDCCH 6
SACCH
SDCCH 2
SDCCH 4
SDCCH 0
SDCCH 1
SDCCH 7 4/0
SDCCH 3
SDCCH 5
i = idle TDMA frame

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51

Signalling Channel Mapping


New improved CCCH features in RG10
BSS20738 CS Paging Coordination in NMO II
BSS21538 Extended CCCH
Extended CCCH can be allocated to timeslot 2,4,6

BSS101411 Extended BCCH


For example Uncombined BCCH

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Channel Mapping
Parameter Setting

MO Class TR/RTSL
Parameter channelxType (CHx) where x = 07
Channel configuration defined by parameter channelType
TCHF (0)
TCHH (1)
TCHD (2)
SDCCH (3)
MBCCH (4)
MBCCHC (5)
MBCCB (7)
SDCCB (8)
NOTUSED (9)
ERACH (10)
EGTCH (14)
LRTCH (15)

= full rate traffic channel


= half rate traffic channel
= dual rate traffic channel
= standalone (SDCCH/8)
= broadcast control channel
= BCCH + SDCCH/4
= BCCH + SDCCH/3 with CBCH
= SDCCH/7 with CBCH
= timeslot has no radio definition or Abis allocation
= random access channel of extended area
= EGPRS packed data traffic channel for extended area
= long reach traffic channel
Note:
Some values not allowed in certain tsl (e.g. TSL0
cant have value 8)
PBCCH is not supported in S13 and onwards

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Paging Channel (PCH) Parameters


Mobile terminating call -> MSC performs paging
MS identifies paging message with the IMSI/TMSI
MS listens to own paging group only
SEG-BTS parameters
MO
Class
BTS

Abbreviated
Name

Range
And Step

noOfMFramesB
etweenPaging

2...9, step
1

Description

Default
value

Defines the number of multiframes between


two transmissions of the same paging
message to the MSs of the same paging
group.

BSC - MML
Name
MFR

MSC parameters
Repaging Interval (INT)

0.5s10s

Repaging Attempts (AT)

05

Time between consecutive paging


attempts
Number of paging repetitions

Buffering
BTS stores up to 8 paging messages of the MSC in page group buffer
BTS sends paging messages to MS according noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging

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RACH Parameters
Mobile sends channel requests to BTS separated by random time intervals in case of no answer!
Parameters
MO
Class

Abbreviated
Name

Range And Step

Description

Default
value

BTS

maxNumberRetra
nsmission

1,2,4,7

Maximum number of retransmissions on the RACH


that the MS can perform.

RET

BTS

nbrOfSlotsSpread
Trans

MML Range:
3..12, 14, 16, 20,
25, 32, 50

The number of TDMA frames over which


retransmission is spread on the RACH (random
access channel)

10

SLO

Random time interval between consecutive retransmissions


t = S + random [0,.. numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans 1] RACH slots
S depends on

numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans
signalling channel mapping (CCCH + SDCCH combined or not in one multi frame)

numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans = 10
signalling channel mapping = not combined S
= 58
Therefore t = 58..to..67 RACH slots
time
14

BSC - MML
Name

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channel requests

AGCH Parameters
Network gives the MS dedicated resources
Downlink CCCH blocks
PCH can be used for AGCH messages
AGCH cannot be used for PCH messages
Reservation of CCCH blocks for AGCH
noOfBlocksForAccessGrant (AG)

0..7
possible number, if CCCH and SDCCH are not combined
1..7
possible number, if CBCH is used in non combined
configuration
0..2
possible number, if CCCH and SDCCH are combined

Preference of AGCH messages on PCH


noOfBlocksForAccessGrant

0
=0

PCH can be used only, if no paging messages have to be


send
AGCH messages have higher priority than PCH ones

Number of paging groups


N = (number of CCCH blocks noOfBlocksForAccessGrant) * noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging

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Paging Capacity
Example

Combined CCCH / SDCCH configuration


noOfBlocksForAccessGrant = 1

BTS

3 MS

2 CCCH blocks for PCH


Paging_Request

3 MSs paged per paging message


2 blocks per multi frame

3 pages per block


3 * 2 = 6 pages per multiframe

Number of pages per hour

3600 s / 0.235 s * 6 = 91915

Avg of 2 pages required per MS


hour

91915 / 2 = 45957 MSs per

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BTS

3 MS

Paging_Request

SDCCH Signalling Capacity

Example with call Establishment & Location Update

Cell with 325 subscribers


1 call per subscriber once in a hour
1 location update (LU) per subscriber once in 2 hours
Duration of call assignment = 4 s
325 subscribers

4 s / 3600 s = 1.11 mErl on SDCCH per subscriber


325 * 1.11 mErl = 0.3607 Erl on SDCCH

Reservation time for LU = 5s


325 subscribers

5 s / 7200 s = 0.69 mErl on SDCCH per subscriber


0.2242 Erl on SDCCH

Total SDCCH traffic


Blocking probability = 1%

0.3607 Erl + 0.2242 Erl = 0.5849 Erl


4 SDCCHs required SDCCH combined with
CCCH can be used (MBCCHC)

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SDCCH Signalling Capacity


Example including SMS

Same cell with 325 subscribers


Additional SMS traffic of 1 mErl per subscriber
325 subscribers

325 * 1 mErl = 0.325 Erl on SDCCH

Total SDCCH traffic


Blocking probability = 1%

0.5849 + 0.325 Erl = 0.9099 Erl


5 SDCCHs required not combined with
CCCH (MBCCH)

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Base Station Identity Code


Base Station Identity Code BSIC = Network Colour Code NCC + Base Station Colour Code BCC
bsIdentityCode

Setting of BSIC

NCC
BCC

0..7, distinguishes between PLMNs


0..7, distinguishes between clusters

BSIC + frequency channel unique identity of adjacent cell

f1
bcc = 1

f1

bcc = 2

f2
f3
f1
bcc = 3

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Defining Frequency carrier number


Example: GSM 900
Absolute radio frequency carrier number ARFCN
890

915
1

123 124

935

960
1

123 124

duplex distance
200 kHz

uplink direction
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downlink direction

Frequency Reuse
Frequency to be used by TRX (must be unique within a BTS)
initialFrequency (FREQ)
GSM 800:
GSM 900:
GSM 1800:
GSM 1900:

11023

Setting of ARFCNs

128 .. 251
1..124 and 975..1023, 0
512..885
512..810

f2
f1
f5

f3

f2
f4
f7

f6

f1
f5

f6
f2

f1
f5

f3
f6

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f3

f4
f7

f4
f7

Principle of Frequency Hopping

Frequency hopping techniques


hoppingMode (HOP)

Frequency

BB,RF,N
BB = base band hopping (1)
RF = RF hopping (2)
N = no frequency hopping at all (0)

Call is transmitted through several frequencies to


average the interference (interference diversity)
minimise the impact of fading (frequency diversity)

F1
F2
F3

Time
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Base Band Hopping

TRXs do not hop


Physical channels moved from one TRX to another
Hopping sequence
hoppingSequenceNumber (HSN)

0..63
0 = cyclic hopping
1..63 = pseudorandom hopping

Baseband Hopping
0
TRX 1

BC
CH

Timeslot
f1

TRX 2

f2

TRX 3

f3

TRX 4

f4

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HSN1 (BB hopping group 1 and RF hopping)


Timeslot 0 hops over TRXs 2-4 only
BCCH does not hop
HSN2 (BB hopping group 2)
Timeslots 1-7 hop over all TRXs

RF Hopping

Standard technique

All TRXs hop except TRX1 (provides BCCH)


Up to 63 frequencies available defined by mobile allocation list -> better hopping gain
mobileAllocationList
usedMobileAllocation (MAL) 0,1...2000

0
TRX 1

BC
CH

Setting of ARFCN values


0 = BTS detached from any list
1..2000 = indicates list which shall be used

Timeslot
f1 no hopping

TRX 2
TRX 3
TRX 4

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f2,f3..fn hopping according


mobile allocation list
One hopping sequence
number only

RF Hopping
Freeform Hopping

Standard technique
9 hopping hopping frequencies MAI = 0..8
But 3 frequencies available for every TRX only

Freeform hopping
For every sector same
mobile allocation list
hopping sequence number
frame number (frame synchronization)
For every sector different
starting points for hopping sequence
possible by mobile allocation index offset
maioOffset (MO)
setting of MAIO
9 hopping hopping frequencies MAI = 0..8
9 frequencies available for every TRX

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0..62

RF Hopping

Flexible MAIO Management

Freeform hopping
Not adequate for MA list with consecutive ARFCN
values
Avoids co-channel interference but not adjacent
channel interference
Flexible MAIO management
MAIO increases with constant step size from one TRX
to the next one
maioStep (MS) 1..62
maioOffset = 0, 6, 12 for sector 1, 2, 3
maioStep = 2
18 frequencies required (2 * number of hopping TRXs)

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RF Hopping (Tight Frequency Reuse)

Flexible MAIO management


MAIO Offset + MAIO Step

Freeform hopping
MAIO Offset
Band allocation:

Band allocation:

BCCH

BCCH

MA list
Non-adjacent ARFCN

MA
MAlist
listand
andBCCH
BCCHfrequency
frequencyplanning
planningrequired
required

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MA list
Consecutive ARFCN

Only
OnlyBCCH
BCCHfrequency
frequencyplanning
planningrequired
required

Changing Frequency Plan

Plan downloaded to BSC/BTSs via MML or GUI


File-based plan provisioning
Immediate Plan activation method

BSIC / TSC
Frequencies
Frequency hopping setting
Intelligent underlay overlay TRX settings

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Idle Mode Operation

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IIdle Mode Operation


When?
When the MS is switched ON
When there is no dedicated connection

MS switched ON

Why?
To camp on the best suitable cell

Search RF channels
to find BCCH carrier

Why to camp on a specific cell?


For MS to receive system info from the NW on DL
For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed
For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is a
MT call/SMS

Idle Mode Tasks


PLMN selection
Cell selection & re-selection
Location updates

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Check that the PLMN


& cell is allowed

MS camps on
the best
suitable cell

See slide 10 for detail

IDs and ID Codes


Value

Parameter
LAI (locationAreaId)
MCC (Mobile Country Code)
MNC (Mobile Network Code)
LAC (Location Area Code)

0 999
0 99,
0 999 (optional 3-digit MNC)
1 65533

BSIC (bsIdentityCode)
NCC (Network Colour Code)
BCC (BTS Colour Code)

31

07
07

CI (cell-ID

0 65535

TSC (trainingSequenceCode)

07

CGI (Cell Global Identity)

MCC + MNC + LAC + CI

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States and State Transition for Cell Selection


go here whenever a
new PLMN is selected
2

no BA list stored
for PLMN

no suitable cell found

Normal
cell selection
no suitable
cell found

suitable cell found

Choose cell
return
to idle
mode
Connected
mode
no
suitable
cell
found
32

BA list stored
for PLMN

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suitable cell found

leave
idle
mode

Stored list
cell selection

suitable cell found

trigger
Normal
cell re-selection

Camped
normally
Suitable cell
re-selected

no suitable
cell found

IMSI unknown
Illegal MS
PLMN not allowed
2

(adopted from TS 43.022 V5.1.0 chap. 6

States and State Transition for Cell Selection

go here when no SIM in MS

no suitable
cell found

Choose cell
return
to idle
mode
Connected mode
(emergency call
only)

Any cell
selection

SIM inserted in MS

no suitable
cell found

cell found

suitable cell found

leave
idle
mode

Camped
on
any cell

trigger
cell
re-selected

Any
cell reselection

cell found
on selected
PLMN

(adopted from TS 43.022 V5.1


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Normal Cell Selection


Search all the RF channels, take samples during
3-5 s and calculate averages. And put them in
ascending order with respect to signal level.
Then tune to the strongest RF channel.

Search for the frequency correction burst in that


carrier in order to verify if it is a BCCH carrier

No

Is it a BCCH
carrier?
Yes

Try to synchronize to the carrier and read


the BCCH data

No

Is it a correct
PLMN ?
Yes

Yes

Is the cell barred?


No
Is C1>0
Yes
Camp on the cell
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No

Tune to the next highest


RF channel which is not
tried before

Pathloss Criterion C1 for Cell Selection


and Reselection
0..63

0..31

C1 = A max(B,0)
= RLA_C RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P , 0)
RLA_C = avg received RxLev on BCCH
P = MS max output power

I am
outside

I am inside, but
have not enough
power

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,
(B
x
ma

0)

Cell Selection with C1


In case the neighbouring cells belong to different Location Area, a hysteresis is applied
with C1 criteria
minimizing ping-pong cell reselections
cellReselectHysteresis (HYS)(BTS) (014 dB)

Cell1

Cell2

LAC1

LAC2

C1 ( Cell1)

C1 (Cell2)

A= 4 dB
B= 6 dB
C= 8 dB

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Pathloss Criterion C2
0, 10, 20, 30, 40,
50, 60, dB

0 .. 126 dB
step size: 2 dB

C2 =

20 .. 640 s
step size: 20 s

C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (TEMPORARY OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME - T))


for PENALTY_TIME 640 s
< C1 if temporary offset big
for PENALTY_TIME = 640 s
C2

no TEMPORARY OFFSET
C1

serving cell:
C2:
List of 6
strongest
carriers:
C2:
C2:
C2:
C2:
C2:
C2:

new candidate
= former serving
cell

CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
T
C2
C1
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

new candidate
= formerly nonserving cell

TEMPORARY OFFSET
PENALTY_TIME

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Cell Reselection Based on Pathloss


Criterion C2
C2
cell 1

cell reselection &


location update

cell
reselection

cell 3

cell 2

CELL_RESELECT_
HYSTERESIS (HYS)

5 seconds
LAC = A
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time

5 seconds
LAC = B

Cell Reselection Based on Pathloss


Criterion C2

Road

Macro 900 "C"

C1

Micro 900 "D"

Macro 1800 "B"

C2

Macro 900 "A"

Parameters

=30

Cell "A" (Serving Cell)

=25

Cell "B"

=5

Cell "C"

=50

Cell "D"

C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset temporaryOffset*H(penaltyTime-T)
=30 + 0 (H(x)=0, serving cell)

Cell "A"

=25 + 20 - 30*H(20 - T)

Cell "B"

=5 + 0 - 0*H(20 - T)

Cell "C"

=50 + 0 - 30*H(40 - T)

Cell "D"

Cell "A"

Cell "B"

Cell "C"

Cell "D"

cellReselectOffset

0 dB

20 dB

0 dB

0 dB

temporaryOffset

0 dB

30 dB

0 dB

30 dB

penaltyTime

20 s

20 s

20 s

40 s

Time T: (0 - 19 s)

Time T: (20 - 39 s)

Time T: (> 40 s)

C2 =30

Cell "A"

C2 =30

Cell "A"

C2 =30

Cell "A"

C2 =15

Cell "B"

C2 =45

Cell "B"

C2 =45

Cell "B"

C2 =5

Cell "C"

C2 =5

Cell "C"

C2 =5

Cell "C"

C2 =20

Cell "D"

C2 =20

Cell "D"

C2 =50

Cell "D"

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Cell Reselection Events


Authentication Failure
notification by upper layers

Pathloss Criterion C1
C1 0 for a period of 5 s

Cell has been barred


Pathloss Criterion C2
neighbours C2 value >
current cells C2 value (same LA)
neighbours C2 value >
current cells C2 value + HYS
(new LA)
for a period of 5 s.

CELL_BAR_ACCESS & CELL_BAR_QUALIFY

RACH Failure
MAX RETRANS + 1 times
Downlink Signalling Failure
DSC 0

When shall I
select a new cell?

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DL Signalling Failure
BCC H

90
BS_PA_MFRMS

DSCinit := round

(...

FRMS
M
_
A
,BS_P

,.. . )

MS

DSC := DSCinit

BTS
2..9 multiframe periods

yes

paging
message successfully
decoded?

no

DSC := DSC - 4

DSC := min (DSC+1, DSCinit)

no

DSC 0
yes

DSC = Downlink Signalling failure Counter

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Downlink radio link


failure detected!

Cell
Update

Location Update Procedure


MS

BSS

MSC

VLR

HLR

LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST

REQUEST SUBSCRIBER ID

SEND SUBSCRIBER ID
REQUEST SUBSCRIBER INFO

SEND SUBSCRIBER INFO


AUTHENTICATION

AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
ALL OK - HLR UPDATE

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Trade-off between Location Update and


Paging Traffic
signalling
traffic

function of user density,


cell size, call arrival rate ...

function of
user mobility

Paging

LocUp
optimum number
of cells in Loc. area

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# of cells in Loc. area

Location Updates
MS location & status flag => MSC / VLR
Mobile Station switched ON mode

IMSI Attach / Detach


Same Location Area => No Location Update
Different Location Area => Location Update

Change of the Location Area

Location Area under the same MSC / VLR


Location Area under another MSC / VLR => HLR will be updated

Service is rejected (MS unknown in VLR)


Time-Periodic LU (MS -> MSC/VLR)

44

MO
Class

Abbreviated
Name

Range And
Step

BTS

allowIMSIAtt
achDetach

Yes/No

Defines whether IMSI attach/detach is used in the cell.

Yes

ATT

BTS

timerPeriodic
UpdateMs

0...25.5 h,
step 0.1 h

Defines the interval between periodic MS location


updates.
The value 0 means that the periodic location update is
not used.

0.5 h

PER

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Description

Default
value

BSC MML
Name

IDLE MODE OPERATION


Idle Mode Controls
Parameter

45

Value

rxLevAccessMin

-110 ... -47 (dBm)

msTxPwrMaxCCH

13 ... 43

notAllowedAccessClasses

0 ... 9, 11 ... 15

emergencyCallRestricted

Yes/No

msMaxDistanceInCallSetup

0 ... 255

radiusExtension

0 ... 67 (Km)

cellBarred

Yes/No

plmn-permitted

0 ... 7

cellReselectHysteresis

0 ... 14

cellReselectOffset (REO)

0 ... 126

cell reselection parameter index (PI)

(N/Y)

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(dBm)

Access
Parameters

Mobility
Parameters
(dB)
(dB)

IDLE MODE OPERATION


Idle Mode Controls definitions
RxLevAccessmin :
With this parameter you define the minimum power level an MS has to receive before it is allowed to access the cell.
MsTxPwrMaxCCH :
With this parameter you define the maximum transmission power an MS may use when accessing a CCH in the cell.
notAllowedAccessClasses
With this parameter you define the MS access classes that are not allowed to access a cell.
Emergency Call Restricted
With this parameter you define if an emergency call in the cell is allowed to all MSs or only to the MSs which belong to
one of the classes between 11 to 15. Value Y means the latter case.
MsMaxDistancein CallSetup
With this parameter you define the maximum distance between the BTS and the MS in call setup. The maximum distance
is expressed as an access delay. Within the range of 0...62, one step correlates to a distance of 550 meters. If the access
delay of the channel request message exceeds the given maximum, the call attempt is rejected. When the parameter is
given a value from 63 to 255, call attempts are never rejected
radiusExtention
With this parameter you define the radius extension of an extended cell

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Radio Resource management

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Signalling (Mobile Originating Call)


MS

Channel request (RACH)

NETWORK

Immediate assignment (AGCH)

Immediate assignment

Service request (SDCCH)


Service request
Authentication request (SDCCH)

Idle
parameter

Authentication response (SDCCH)

Authentication

Ciphering mode command (SDCCH)


Ciphering mode complete (SDCCH)

Ciphering mode setting

Setup (SDCCH)
Call proceeding (SDCCH)

Call initiation

Assignment command (SDCCH)


Assignment complete (FACCH)

Assignment of traffic channel

Alert (FACCH)

Dedicated
parameter
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Call confirmation
Connect (FACCH)
Connect acknowledged (FACCH)

Call accepted

Signalling (Mobile Terminating Call)


MS

Page request (PCH)

NETWORK

Channel request (RACH)

Immediate assignment

Immediate assignment (AGCH)


Page response (SDCCH)
Service request

Idle
parameter

Authentication request (SDCCH)


Authentication response (SDCCH)

Authentication

Ciphering mode command (SDCCH)


Ciphering mode complete (SDCCH)

Ciphering mode setting

Setup (SDCCH)
Call confirmation (SDCCH)

Call initiation

Assignment command (SDCCH)


Assignment complete (FACCH)

Assignment of traffic channel

Alert (FACCH)

Dedicated
parameter
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Call confirmation
Connect (FACCH)
Connect acknowledged (FACCH)

Call accepted

Signalling (Call Release)


Network initiated
MS

Disconnect

NETWORK

Release

Call clearing

Release complete
Channel release
Release

MS initiated
MS

Disconnect

NETWORK

Release

Call clearing

Release complete
Channel release
Release

50

Nokia Siemens Networks

Standard TCH Allocation (General Criteria)

MS capabilities
Channel rate
: full, half, dual, multi rate
Speech codecs : normal FR, normal HR, EFR, AMR FR, AMR HR, doubleHR(OSC)
MSC demands
A interface circuit allocated for call
BTS demands
Speech codec capabilities
TCH configuration
Current resources
Homogeneous use of TRXs and radio time slots
Large free groups of radio time slots for high loaded HSCSD BTS

51

Nokia Siemens Networks

TCH Allocation

How can be optimized?


52

Nokia Siemens Networks

Channel allocation ( For each TS)


Each
EachTRX
TRXhave
haveits
itsown
ownQuality
Qualityboth
bothDL
DLand
andUL
ULand
andTRX
TRXwith
withbad
badquality
quality
(UL
and
DL)
will
result
bad
KPI
on
respective
TRX
(UL and DL) will result bad KPI on respective TRX
Placing each Time Slot (BCCH, SDCCH, TCH and PDTCH) properly will result
good KPI (SDSR, DCR, HOSR TBF Completion rate)

Shitting
ShittingSDCCH,
SDCCH,BCCH
BCCHcan
canimprove
improveSDSR
SDSRand
andDCR
DCR
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Standard TCH Allocation


(Interference Bands)
Measurement of uplink receive level on idle channels = uplink interference

Averaging over interferenceAveragingProcessAverPeriod (AP) = 1..32 SACCH


periods
Classification into interference bands based on interferenceAveragingProcess
(BO1..BO4) = -110..-47 dBm

BSC tries to allocate TCH from best interference band (can be requested by MSC)
If not available,
BSC tries to take TCH from next band

BO5 47 (fixed)
BO4 -90
BO3 -95
BO2 -100
BO1 -105
BO0 110 (fixed)
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Nokia Siemens Networks

rxLevUL = -75 dBm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Prioritized TCH Allocation (TRP)


Whole band , 50 channels 1 ch=200kHz
Case1
Case2

BCCH, 30 channels

TCH, 20 channels

All 50 channels for BCCH and TCH

Priority for TCH from BCCH TRX


BCCH transmitted permanently -> no additional interference in network
Planned to be least interfered channels
Priority for TCH from other TRX
BCCH TRX does not hop in case of RF hopping -> hopping gain only for other TRX
Parameter
trxPriorityInTCHAlloc (TRP)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

0 = no priority
1 = priority for BCCH TRX
2 = priority for other TRX
3 = priority for BCCH TRX for non-AMR users,
priority for other TRX for AMR users

RX level based TCH Allocation (RXP)


Enables to differentiate Rx level requirement for:
MS camping to the network /RxLev Access Min
MS accessing to TCH /RX level based TCH access
RX level based TCH allocation method
RX Level measured by the MS is used to determine whether the BTS is
acceptable for TCH allocation
TCH allocation for emergency calls is not restricted due to low RX level
Provides better drop call meters and better performance of MSs
MSs having too low Rx levels are not allowed to camp the network
By separating camping and TCH access thresholds the operator will be able to
provide the maximum camping footprint

Note! RG20 feature Energy optimized TCH allocation

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Nokia Siemens Networks

RX level based TCH Allocation (RXTA)


Allows to define minimum C/N ratios separately for each call type (AMR FR, AMR HR, EFR/FR, HR
and 14.4 data)
Parameter values RX level based TCH access:
0: RX level based TCH access is not used (C/N definitions not in use)
1: RX level based TCH access is used in call setup
2: RX level based TCH access is used in call setup and in handovers

Downlink RX Level
-> TCH Access

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Soft blocking C/N FR: 063dB/ def: 12dB


Soft blocking C/N FR: 063dB/ def: 12dB
Soft Blocking C/N HR: 063dB/ def: 14dB
Soft Blocking C/N HR: 063dB/ def: 14dB
Soft blocking C/N AMR FR: 063dB/ def: 7dB
Soft blocking C/N AMR FR: 063dB/ def: 7dB
Soft blocking C/N AMR HR: 063dB/ def: 12dB
Soft blocking C/N AMR HR: 063dB/ def: 12dB
Soft blocking C/N 14.4 : 063dB/ def: 14dB
Soft blocking C/N 14.4 : 063dB/ def: 14dB

Queuing (Parameters)
Priorities
No TCH available for call set up / handover -> request put into queue
Different kinds of requests can have different priorities
queuePriorityUsed (QPU)

Y/N

enables use of priorities

queueingPriorityCall (QPC)
queuePriorityNonUrgentHo (QPN)
budget,

1..14
1..14

priority for call set up request


priority for non urgent handover (power

queueingPriorityHandover (QPH)

1..14

umbrella, slow moving MS, traffic reason)


request
priority for urgent handover (all other) request

Queue length and time

58

maxQueueLength (MQL)
BTS timeLimitCall (TLC)

0..100%
0..15 s

timeLimitHandover (TLH)

0..10 s

Nokia Siemens Networks

percentage of number of TCHs handled by


time a call set up request is kept in the queue
0 = queuing is disabled
time a handover request is kept in the queue
0 = queuing is disabled

Queuing (Entering the Queue)

Conditions
Timers set to values > 0
User of priorities enabled
Queue not full with requests of equal or higher priority than the current one
Queuing of call set up requests
Reservation of SDCCH resources
-> SDCCH easily overbooked
-> blocking of services like SMS or location update

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Queuing (Handover)
Handover request queued by target BTS

Handover timers hoPeriodPBGT and hoPeriodUmbrella stopped


Measurement processing and averaging continues as usual

Intra BSC handover

Queuing possibility checked for all


possible target cells
Order
according conventional ranking

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Inter BSC handover

Target BTS given by MSC by


handover request message

Queuing (Leaving the Queue)

With TCH allocation


Release of busy TCH
Check of queue from top to bottom for best matching request
If TCH allocation possible, request removed from queue
Without TCH allocation
Queuing timer expires
Request of higher priority enters full queue

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Queuing (Together with Directed Retry)

Directed Retry Timer maxTimeLimitDirectedRetry expires


call cleared, even if still in queue
Queuing timer expires
target cell evaluation continues, if directed retry timer is still running

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Dropped Call Control


Radio Link Timeout

BTS does not receive measurement report on


SACCH for running call for the first time

Counter initialised with value of radioLinkTimeout


(4,8,..64 SACCH periods)

SACCH not received again

SACCH received again

Counter decremented by 1

Counter incremented by 2
(but not beyond initial value)

Counter has value 0

Call release due to radio link


time out

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Example: short tunnel

Dropped Call Control


Radio Link Timeout

RLT is based on SACCH deletion but SACCH is though not using a dynamic

64

codec like voice in AMR, which means:


Using the EFR RLT value an AMR customer can have the call dropped
because RLT = 0 when still the FER is good
RLT is not anymore reliable with the same value in AMR than in EFR
Due to the fact that the FER performance is different when comparing AMR
calls to EFR calls, the Radio Link Timeout need to be defined separately for
AMR
The Radio Link Timeout parameters for AMR are ARLT and AHRLT. The
principle of these is the same than in the RLT but it is used only for the AMR
capable mobile stations. ARLT & AHRLT are not supported in Talk Family
base stations.

Nokia Siemens Networks

Dropped Call Control


Call Reestablishment

Radio link timeout occurs


callReestablishmentAllowed (RE)

set to Y

Receive level of BCCH measured for serving and adjacent cell


Averaged over 5 s

Strongest cell considered

Example: long tunnel

BCCH decoded
C1 cell selection criterion fulfilled
Cell not barred
Cell belongs to selected PLMN

Attempt to re-establish call

Successful within 20s *


call re-established
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Not successful within 20s *


call released
* MAX WAIT TIME OF RE-ESTAB REQ is a modifiable timer in MSC

NPT parameter related (Idle Parameter)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Measurement Processing

67

Nokia Siemens Networks

Introduction

Measurement
Report

Measurements

Standard

Enhanced

Idle mode

Dedicated mode

Rx level
Rx quality
Level & BSIC of up
to 6 neighbours
3G cells

Standard + following:
DL frame erasure rate
DTX bit error probability
Real time difference serving
adjacent cell
3G cells
Control over reporting priority

MS listens
to BCCH

MS sends DL
measurement report on
SACCH
BTS performs UL
measurements

68

Nokia Siemens Networks

Introduction

Measurement
Report

Measurements

Standard

Enhanced

Idle mode

Dedicated mode

Rx level
Rx quality
Level & BSIC of up
to 6 neighbours
3G cells

Standard + following:
DL frame erasure rate
DTX bit error probability
Real time difference serving
adjacent cell
3G cells
Control over reporting priority

MS listens
to BCCH

MS sends DL
measurement report on
SACCH
BTS performs UL
measurements

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Coding of Rx Level
P (dBm)
No offset

P (dBm)
10 dB offset

-110
-109
-108
.
.
.
-49
-48
-47

-100
-99
-98
.
.
.
-39
-38
-37

LEV
0
1
2
.
.
.
61
62
63

Activation of offset to code high levels


scaleOrd (SCO)(SEG)(0,1,2)(0)
0 = no offset used
1 = offset used in general
2 = MS decides automatically about offset

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Coding of Rx Quality
BER (%)

BER (%)

RANGE
< 0.2
0.2-0.4
0.4-0.8
0.8-1.6
1.6-3.2
3.2-6.4
6.4-12.8
> 12.8

MEAN
0.14
0.28
0.57
1.13
2.26
4.53
9.05
18.1

QUAL
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Average window = 4
Quality samples 0,0,7,0
WRONG!!: (0+0+7+0)/4
= 1.75 (wrong!!)
RIGHT: (0.14+0.14.+18.1+0.14)/4 = 4.63 (right!!) => corresponds to Qual5

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Mapping of BEP to RX Quality

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Nokia Siemens Networks

BEP

BER (%)

QUAL

VALUE
22..31
19..21
16..18
13..15
10..12
7..9
4..6
0..3

RANGE
< 0.2
0.2-0.4
0.4-0.8
0.8-1.6
1.6-3.2
3.2-6.3
6.3-12.6
> 12.6

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Mapping of FER to RX Quality

X axis: frame erasure rate (< 1%, 1-5 %, 5-10 %, 10-15 %, > 15 %)
Y axis: RX quality (0..7)
Z axis: Percentage of measurements for each FER category
Frame Erasure Rate for Handover / Power Control Decision
fepInPcHoUse (FPHO)(BSC)(Y,N)(N)
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Nokia Siemens Networks

MS Measurement Execution
Idle Mode

Decoding of BCCH
for serving (camped) cell every 30 s
for adjacent cells every 5 min
Pre-synchronization and decoding of BSIC
for adjacent cells every 30 s
Adjacent cell list
Updating every 60 s
BCCH decoding of new cell in 30 s

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Nokia Siemens Networks

MS Measurement Execution
Dedicated Mode I

SACCH PERIOD = 480 ms


26 FRAME MULTIFRAME = 120 ms

TDMA FRAMES

TDMA FRAMES
4.615 ms

RX

TX

MEAS RX

TCH

MEAS

TX

RX

TX

MEAS

BSIC decoding for at least one adjacent cell


Pre-synchronization on SCH
Measures frequencies of adjacent cells
Measures RX level and quality for serving cell
Detects whether DTX is used
75

Nokia Siemens Networks

SACCH

IDLE

Power Control

76

Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Control Motivation

Reduced
interference on
DL/UL
Longer service time of battery
Realization of power class
Supported by default on UL
Activation of DL power control
powerCtrlEnabled (PENA)

Power control independent


for DL and UL
for each call

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Y,N

Power Control Parameter


Output Power Limits

Maximum MS output power


Power
class
dependent
range
Power Values

msTxPwrMaxGSM
(PMAX1)
msTxPwrMaxGSM1x00
TCH (PMAX2)
msTxPwrMaxCCH
(TXP1)
msTxPwrMaxCCH1x00
(TXP2)

5..39 dBm GSM 900 TCH


0..36/32,33 dBm GSM 1800/1900
5..39 dBm GSM 900 CCH
0..30 dBm GSM 1800 CCH
0..32 dBm GSM 1900 CCH

Minimum MS output power


minMSTxPower (PMIN)

5..39 dBm GSM 900


0..36 dBm GSM 1800
0..32 dBm GSM 1900

Maximum BTS output power (by minimum attenuation)


Attenuations
30 dB
Range

bsTxPwrMax (PMAX1)
bsTxPwrMax1x00 (PMAX2)

Minimum MS output power (by maximum attenuation)


bsTxPowerMin

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Nokia Siemens Networks

0..30 dB GSM 900


0..30 dB GSM 1800/1900

0..30 dB

Power Control Parameters


Power Change Step Sizes

Desired power level can be achieved in 1 or 2 commands

Yes

No

Fixed step size

Variable step size

Fixed increment step size


pcIncrStepSize (INC)

2,4,6 dB

Fixed decrement step size


pcRedStepSize (RED) 2,4,6 dB

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Power Control Strategy


Measurement Averaging

POWER CONTROL
UPLINK
UL Quality

<Av_RXQUAL_UL>

UL Level

<Av_RXLEV_UL>

DL Quality

<Av_RXQUAL_DL>

DL Level

<Av_RXLEV_DL>

THRESHOLD
COMPARISON

POWER CONTROL
DOWNLINK

Power control interval


powerCtrlInterval (INT)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

0..31 s

Power Control Strategy


Triggering

Nx samples
Less than Px samples exceed threshold
No power change triggered
Actual average samples

threshold
Nx samples
Px samples are equal to or exceed threshold
Power change triggered

Signal level thresholds


pcUpperThresholdLevelDL/UL (UDR/UUR) -110..-47 dBm
pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL (LDR/LUR) -110..-47 dBm

Power change step size estimation

Signal quality thresholds


pcUpperThresholdQualDL/UL (UDR/UUR)
pcLowerThresholdQualDL/UL (LDR/LUR)

0..7
0..7

Number of average samples (for each threshold)


Nx
Px

81

1..32
1..32

Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Control Strategy


Scenarios

82

Exceeded threshold

Action

Reason

pcUpperThresholdLevelDL
pcLowerThresholdLevelDL
pcUpperThresholdLevelUL
pcLowerThresholdLevelUL

BTS power decrease


BTS power increase
MS power decrease
MS power increase

Signal level
Signal level
Signal level
Signal level

pcUpperThresholdQualDL
pcLowerThresholdQualDL
pcUpperThresholdQualUL
pcLowerThresholdQualUL

BTS power decrease


BTS power increase
MS power decrease
MS power increase

Signal quality
Signal quality
Signal quality
Signal quality

Nokia Siemens Networks

AMR Power Control

AMR FR

AMR HR

Details in chapter on AMR

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Nokia Siemens Networks

POC
-110 dB

Lower
Level

Upper
Level

-47 dB

Qual 0

Signal level
Ping Decrease due to good quality
pong
effect

Upper
Quality

Lower
Quality

Increase
due to bad
Signal level

No action

Decrease
Due to good
Signal level

Increase due to Bad quality


Qual 7
Quality
84

Nokia Siemens Networks

POC
-110 dB

Lower
Level

Upper
Level

-47 dB

Qual 0

Signal level
6dB

Decrease due to quality

Upper
Quality
Increase
due to level

No action

Decrease
Due to level

Lower
Quality
Increase due to quality
Qual 7
Quality
85

Nokia Siemens Networks

POC and HOC (UL)


UL Level HO
-110 dB Threshold
Qual 0

Signal level

No action
UL Quality HO
Threshold

Qual 7
Quality
86

-47 dB

Nokia Siemens Networks

When UL quality HO is triggered


Should MS be sent full power?
What about UL level

Power Control Summary


-110 dBm

Upper Level

Lower Level

Qual 0

Power increase
due to level

6 dB

Power decrease
due to quality

Power decrease
due to level
or quality

Upper Quality

Power increase
due to level

No action

Power decrease
due to level

Lower Quality
Power increase
due to level
or quality

Qual 7
87

Nokia Siemens Networks

Power increase
due to quality

Power increase
due to quality

-47 dBm

Power Increase Due to Signal Level


For MS & BTS

Actual receive level RXLEV_DL/UL

pcLowerThresholdsLevelDL/UL

Power control triggered


UL: Power increase of MS
DL: Power increase of BTS

RXLEV_DL/UL > pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL - 2 powerIncrStepSize

Yes

88

No

Fixed step size

Variable step size

PWR_INCR_STEP = powerIncrStepSize

PWR_INCR_STEP = pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL
RXLEV_UL/DL

Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Decrease Due to Signal Level


For BTS

pcUpperThresholdsLevelDL

Actual received level RXLEV_DL


Power control triggered
Power decrease

RXLEV_DL < pcUpperThresholdLevelDL + 2 powerDecrStepSize OR


variableDLStepUse (VDLS) = No

Yes

No

Fixed step size

Variable step size

PWR_DECR_STEP = powerDecrStepSize

PWR_DECR_STEP = Min (RXLEV_DL


pcUpperThresholdLevelDL, 10)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Decrease Due to Signal Level


For MS

pcUpperThresholdsLevelUL

Actual received level RXLEV_UL


Power control triggered
Power decrease

RXLEV_UL < pcUpperThresholdLevelUL + 2 powerDecrStepSize

Yes

90

No

Fixed step size

Variable step size

PWR_DECR_STEP = powerDecrStepSize

PWR_DECR_STEP = RXLEV_UL
pcUpperThresholdLevelUL

Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Increase Due to Signal Quality


For MS & BTS

Actual receive quality RXQUAL_DL/UL

pcLowerThresholdsQualDL/UL

Power control triggered


UL: Power increase of MS
DL: Power increase of BTS

Variable step size based on actual quality


PWR_INCR_STEP = (1 + Max (0,QUAL)) * powerIncrStepSize
QUAL = RXQUAL_DL/UL pcLowerThresholdQualDL/UL
Take largest step size
Step size based on actual level
Take algorithm for power increase due to signal level

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality


For MS & BTS with No Power Optimization

pcUpperThresholdsQualDL/UL

Actual received quality RXQUAL_DL/UL


Power control triggered

Actual RXLEV_DL/UL pcLowerThresholdLevelDL/UL < 6 dB

Yes

92

No

No power decrease

Power decrease

Avoid ping pong effect

Take algorithm for power decrease due to signal level


(different for MS & BTS power decrease)

Nokia Siemens Networks

NPT parameter related (POC Parameter)

Should be greater
than HOC
93

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handover Control

94

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handover Types
Germany

Czech Republic

Intra PLMN
Simple Cell ID required
LAC + CI

Intra cell
Only other carrier / timeslot

Inter PLMN
Global Cell ID required
MCC + MNC + LAC + CI

Inter MSC

Inter cell
Intra BSC

Inter BSC
Intra MSC
95

Nokia Siemens Networks

Multi Layer Network Types


Normal
frequency

Super reuse
frequency

Macro cells
Micro cells

Intelligent Underlay Overlay


Different frequencies for high / low power TRx

GSM 900 cell

Coverage Layer: Gives access to the network


Capacity Layer: Provides additional capacity and allows traffic
distribution
96

Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM 1800 cell

Handover Strategy
Triggering
Nx samples
Less than Px samples >= threshold
No handover triggered
Actual average samples

threshold
Signal interference thresholds
hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL (IDR/IUR)

-110..-47 dBm

Signal quality thresholds


hoThresholdsQualDL/UL (QDR/QUR)

0..7

Signal level thresholds


hoThresholdLevelDL/UL (LDR/LUR)
hoThresholdRapidLevelUL (RPD)

-110..-47 dBm
-110..-47 dBm

MS speed thresholds
upper/lowerSpeedLimit (USL/LSL)

0..255 (unit = 2km/h)

Number of average samples


Nx
1..32
Px
1..32

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Nx samples
Px samples are >= threshold
handover triggered

Target cell selection

Trigger Point When the set


threshold has been met or
exceeded Px times of Nx times

Handover Strategy
(Priorities)
More than one handover criterion fulfilled -> process of higher priority performed
Handover and power control criteria fulfilled -> handover performed
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
28)
29)
98

Interference (uplink or downlink)


Intra-segment inter-band because of downlink level (from higher to lower frequency band)
Uplink quality
Downlink quality
AMR unpacking (uplink level and also uplink unpacking quality triggers)
Uplink level
AMR unpacking (downlink level and also downlink unpacking quality triggers)
Downlink level
Coverage based inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
IMSI-based inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
IMSI-based handover
DTM-based handover to WCDMA RAN
Inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
MS-BS distance (maximum or minimum)
Turn-around-corner MS
Rapid field drop
Slow/fast-moving MS
Umbrella
Power budget
DTM-based handover to a GSM DTM cell
BSC-initiated TRHO
IUO
Intra-segment HO based on load
AMR packing because of good uplink and downlink quality
AMR unpacking because of bad uplink or downlink quality
PC because of lower quality thresholds (uplink and downlink)
PC because of lower level thresholds (uplink and downlink)
PC because of upper quality thresholds (uplink and downlink)
PC because of upper level thresholds (uplink and downlink)

Nokia Siemens Networks

Exercise:
Whu UL has many times
higher priority than DL?

HO due to UL/DL Quality


IF
AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO >=
HoThresholdsQualDL
THEN
Handover cause Downlink quality

IF
AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO >=
HoThresholdsQualUL
THEN
Handover cause Uplink quality

Target cells is listed based on below criteria


1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0,Pa)
2.AND IF
EnableHoMarginLevQual(n)= Yes
THEN
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AV_RXLEV_DL_HO + (BsTxPwrMax - BS_TXPWR)
+ HoMarginQual(n)
3. ELSE
PBGT(n) > HoMarginPBGT(n) (2)

Order of preference of target cells


PRIORITY(n) = HoPriorityLevel(n) - HoLoadFactor(n)
HoLoadFactor value is taken into account when BTSLoadThreshold is
exceeded.

Interval between handovers and handover attempts


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Listing set of
target cell

Priority of
target cell

Timer of
source cell

HO due to UL/DL LEVEL


IF
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO<=
HoThresholdsLevDL
THEN
Handover cause Downlink level

IF
AV_RXLEV_UL_HO<=
HoThresholdsLevUL
THEN
Handover cause Uplink level

Target cells is listed based on below criteria


1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0,Pa)
2.AND IF
EnableHoMarginLevQual(n)= Yes
THEN
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AV_RXLEV_DL_HO + (BsTxPwrMax - BS_TXPWR)
+ HoMarginLev(n)
3. ELSE
PBGT(n) > HoMarginPBGT(n) (2)

Order of preference of target cells


PRIORITY(n) = HoPriorityLevel(n) - HoLoadFactor(n)
HoLoadFactor value is taken into account when BTSLoadThreshold is
exceeded.

GUARD_TIME = 2 * HoPeriodPBGT (Ho Due PBGT)


GUARD_TIME = 2 * HoPeriodUmbrella (HO Due to Umbrella)
100

Nokia Siemens Networks

Listing set of
target cell

Priority of
target cell

Timer of
source cell

HO due to Fast/Slow moving MS


MS speed in relation to cell size:
IF
MsSpeedDetectionState= 0
AdjCellLayer(n) = Lower
FastMovingThreshold(n)> 0

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) >
RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX (0, Pa)
THEN
RXLEV_CNT(n) = RXLEV_CNT(n) + 2
ELSE
RXLEV_CNT(n) = RXLEV_CNT(n) - 1
IF
RXLEV_CNT(n) >=
FastMovingThreshold(n)
THEN
Handover cause Slow-moving MS

Measured MS speed:
IF
AV_MS_SPEED <= LowerSpeedLimit
THEN
MS is slow-moving
IF
AV_MS_SPEED >= UpperSpeedLimit
THEN
MS is fast-moving

IF
MsSpeedDetectionState= 0
THEN
Handover Cause Fast/Slow-moving MS
ELSE
Scale averaging parameters

Target cell evaluation:


AdjCellLayer(n) = Lower/Upper
AND
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > HoLevelUmbrella(n) (1')
Handover to low layer cell is not possible if maximum power capability of MS exceeds
gsm/dcsMicrocellThreshold
101

Nokia Siemens Networks

HO due to Fast/Slow moving MS (Count)


Target cell evaluation:
AdjCellLayer(n) = Lower/Upper
AND
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > HoLevelUmbrella(n) (1')
Handover to low layer cell is not possible if maximum power capability of MS exceeds
gsm/dcsMicrocellThreshold

Order of preference of target cells


PRIORITY(n) = HoPriorityLevel(n) - HoLoadFactor(n)
HoLoadFactor value is taken into account when
BTSLoadThreshold is exceeded

Interval between handovers and handover attempts

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Nokia Siemens Networks

HO due to Umbrella
IF
EnableUmbrellaHO= Yes
HoPeriodUmbrella - interval between the umbrella
handover threshold comparisons

Umbrella handover and target cell evaluation:


AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > HoLevelUmbrella(n) (1')
AND
( [(P >= macro_thr) AND (pwr(n) >= macro_thr)]
OR
[(P <= micro_thr) AND (pwr(n) <= micro_thr)]
OR
[(P < macro_thr) AND (pwr(n) < macro_thr) AND
(P > micro_thr) AND (pwr(n) > micro_thr)] )

Order of preference of target cells


PRIORITY (n) = HoPriorityLevel(n) - HoLoadFactor(n)
HoLoadFactor value is taken into account when
BTSLoadThreshold is exceeded.

Interval between handovers and handover attempts


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Umbrella +FMT Handover


Example

hoLevelUmbrella
= -85 dBm
gsmMacrocellThreshold = 33 dBm
dcsMacrocellThreshold = 33 dBm

PTCH (msTxPwrMax(n))
PMAX
hoThresholdLevelDL

= 30 dBm -> micro cell


= 30 dBm -> handover to micro cell only
= -95 dBm

900 Macro

After FMT>1 (example)

1800 Micro

Threshold umbrella
handover 85 dBm
Threshold RX level
handover 95 dBm

B
104

Nokia Siemens Networks

Umbrella handover
Umbrella handover
toto1800
1800cell
cell

RX
RXlevel
levelhandover
handover
back
to
900
back to 900cell
cell

HO due to PBGT
IF
EnablePowerBudgetHO= Yes
HoPeriodPBGT - interval between the power budget
threshold comparisons

Power budget and target cell evaluation:


AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0, Pa) (1)
AND
PBGT(n) > HoMarginPBGT(n) (2)
PBGT(n) = (B - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO (BsTxPwrMax - BS_TXPWR)) - (A - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n))

Order of preference of target cells


PRIORITY (n) = HoPriorityLevel(n) - HoLoadFactor(n)
HoLoadFactor value is taken into account when
BTSLoadThreshold is exceeded.

Interval between handovers and handover attempts

105

Nokia Siemens Networks

Power Budget Handover


Exercise

BTS
Serving cell:
HO candidate target cells:

A
B, C, D

All cells have the following parameter set:


rxLevMinCell=
-99 dBm
msTxPwrMax=
33 dBm
btsTxPwrMax=
42 dBm
hoMarginPBGT=
6 dB

Serving cell A:
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO=
BTS_TX_PWR=

-92 dBm
42 dBm

BSC

Target cell hoPriorityLevel:


B priority: 4
C priority: 3
D priority: 3
Target cell HOLoadFactor:
B load factor: 2
C load factor: 1
D load factor: 1

BTS

BTS

BTS

AV_RXLEV_NCELL (B)= -80 dBm


AV_RXLEV_NCELL (C)= -83 dBm
AV_RXLEV_NCELL (D)= -85 dBm

Which
Whichcell
cell(B/C/D)
(B/C/D)will
willbe
bechosen
chosenas
as
target
for
the
Power
Budget
HO?
target for the Power Budget HO?

Target cell B is considered overloaded

Exercis e Solution

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget HO


Overview

enablePowerBudgetHo = Yes & enableUmbrellaHo = Yes


Power budget handover to cells of the same layer
Umbrella and FMT handover to cells of different layer
UMBR
RR
PBGT

umbrella HO
radio reason HO
power budget HO

macrocells

PBGT,RR
RR

UMBR+FMT
PBGT,RR

microcells

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget HO


Adjacent Cell Classification

Predefinition of layer possible by adjCellLayer (ACL)


Three layers visible relative to serving cell
Used for target cell evaluation
Combined umbrella and power budget
Handover based on MS speed
Fast moving MS handling in macro cell

UPPER layer (macro)

SAME layer (serving


layer)
LOWER layer (micro)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

N (no
predefinition)

HO due to Directed Retry


IF
DirectedRetryUsed = Yes
Handover from SDCCH of serving cell to TCH of adjacent cell due to congestion
minTimeLimitDR Target cell evaluation started
MaxTimeLimitDR - Target cell evaluation stopped
Target Cell evaluation
IF
DirectedRetryMethod = 1
THEN
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0, Pa) (1)
AND
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > DRThreshold
ELSE
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) >RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX (0,Pa)

Interval between handovers and handover attempts

109

Nokia Siemens Networks

Directed Retry
Parameters

No TCH available during call set up in serving cell -> handover to TCH of other cell
Must be enabled with
drInUse (DR)

Y/N

Thresholds to be exceeded by target cell according condition (1a)


drMethod (DRM)
0/1
Defined type of threshold
rxLevMinCell
-110..-47 dBm
Used if drMethod = 0
drThreshold (DRT)
-110..-47 dBm
Used if drMethod = 1 and
drThreshold > rxLevMin Cell
Timers (to be counted from TCH assignment)
minTimeLimitDirectedRetry (MIDR)
0..14 s
No target cell evaluation
allowed
maxTimeLimitDirectedRetry (MADR)
1..15 s
Target cell evaluation allowed

TCH
SDCCH

congested

minTimeLimitDR
Assignment
Request

maxTimeLimitDR
DR not allowed
DR allowed

110

Nokia Siemens Networks

Time

HO due to Rapid Field Drop


IF
HoThresholdsRapidLevUL/Px > 0
IF
Px number of RXLEV_UL measurement < HoThresholdsRapidLevUL
THEN
Handover cause Rapid field drop

Target cell evaluation


IF
ChainedAdjacentCell(n) = Yes
AND
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0, Pa) (1)

Order of preference of target cells:


The target cells are ranked according to radio link properties
(equation 1).

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Rapid Field Drop Handover


Example

hoThresholdRapidLevUL
hoThresholdRapidLevUlN
chainedAdjacentCell

Chained
Cell

= -93 dBm
=2
=Y

Serving Cell

Serving cell

Threshold rapid field drop


handover 93 dBm

1st
2nd

112

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handover
triggered

NPT parameter related (HOC Parameter)

Should be lower
than POC
113

Nokia Siemens Networks

NPT parameter related (HOC Parameter)

Should be lower
than POC
114

Nokia Siemens Networks

NPT parameter related (ADCE Parameter)

115

Nokia Siemens Networks

NPT parameter related (ADCE Parameter)

116

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI case

117

Nokia Siemens Networks

Optimization Principle
Optimization process is a way to do changes in
a network so that those network have maximum
on Capacity, Coverage and Quality

service
quality
Optimization
and Tailoring

cell coverage

cell capacity

Excessive value RxLevAmi will


improve KPI but coverage and
quality will reduce

Site with height >40m with


total tilt =2 will have wide
coverage but KPI will bad

Site with FRL/FRU = 100% will


have max capacity but have
lower Quality

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Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, SDCCH Blocking

If SDCCH block high please check:


1.TCH/SDCCH availability
2.LOC design (SDCCH traffic profile)
3.Parameter (CRO, CRH,
RxLevAmi)

119

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop

120

If SDCCH drop high please check:


1.DL/UL Quality
2.CRO/CRH, TRP setting
3.TA profile overshooting possibility
4.SDCCH TS location
Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop due to RF/Abis

121

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop due to Aif

122

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop (A)

123

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, SDCCH Drop (other)

124

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Block

125

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop Call Ratios


Dcr_3j
TCH DROPS AFTER SEIZURE
TCH_RADIO_FAIL
/c1013
+TCH_RF_OLD_HO
/c1014
+TCH_ABIS_FAIL_CALL /c1084
+TCH_ABIS_FAIL_OLD /c1085
+TCH_A_IF_FAIL_CALL /c1087
+TCH_A_IF_FAIL_OLD /c1088
+TCH_TR_FAIL
/c1029
+TCH_TR_FAIL_OLD
/c1030
+TCH_LAPD_FAIL
/c1046
+TCH_BTS_FAIL
/c1047
+TCH_USER_ACT
/c1048
+TCH_BCSU_RESET
/c1049
+TCH_NETW_ACT
/c1050
+TCH_ACT_FAIL_CALL /c1081
-tch_re_est_assign

Dcr_8h
Dcr_5a
TCH DROPS AFTER ASSIGNMENT
tch_new_call_assign /c57033
+tch_ho_assign
/c57034

/c57032 (S7)

-tch_norm_release
-tch_ho_release

/c57035
/c57036

-tch_re_est_assign

/c57032

CONVERSATION DROPS
dropped_calls /c57007

DROPS
100 *
TCH SEIZURES FOR NEW CALL
tch_norm_seiz
/c1009
+tch_seiz_due_sdcch_con /c1099 (S5)
+msc_i_sdcch_tch
/c4044

TCH SEIZED

-tch_re_est_assign

/c57032

/c57032 (S7)

BSC allocates a TCH as a response to


TCH request (Channel Activation)

CALLS

TCH ASSIGNMENTS FOR NEW CALL


tch_new_call_assign /c57033

+bsc_i_sdcch_tch
/c4057
+cell_sdcch_tch
/c4074
-tch_succ_seiz_for_dir_acc /c1165 (S7)
-tch_re_est_assign

STARTED CONVERSATIONS
conver_started /c57015
- msc_i_tch_tch /c4043

CONVERSATION STARTED

TCH RELEASE

Disconnect from MS

conn_ack to BTS

TCH ASSIGNED

Assignment_complete from BTS

RF CHN RELEASE
Rf_channel_release_ack
from BTS
126

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop due to RF/Abis

127

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop due to RF Old

128

Nokia Siemens Networks

How unnecessary HO happened??


RxLev = -80dBm
CRO=0

GSM

DCS
RxLev = -95dBm
CRO=23
HO threshold = 20

On idle mode received level for GSM is


-80 dBm while DCS can be (-95 dBm +
(2 x 23) -49dBm
On dedicated mode user will move
from DCS to GSM due to DCS level
already too low
129

Nokia Siemens Networks

Unecessary HO can lead to DCR due


to RF Old and HO fail (ex. Due to GSM
blocking)

How unnecessary HO happened??


RxLev = -95dBm
HO threshold = 20
RxLevmin from A to B = 12

GSM/DCS A

Call establish on cell A, then received


level drop below HO threshold. User
will move from cell A to cell B

130

Nokia Siemens Networks

RxLev = -92dBm
HO threshold = 20
RxLevmin from A to B = 12

GSM/DCS B

After user serve by cell B, cell B will


ask user to do handover as received
level on cell B already below HO
threshold.

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop due to Aif

131

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop due to Transcoder

132

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop

133

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, TCH Drop (Other)

134

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, coverage problems (dlq_2a and ulq_2a)


Here are some examples how different kind of HW problems can be found

3
1

2
1.
2.
3.
4.

135

Lots of Q4 samples. Distribution is not OK HW problem. Site reset will help


Lots of bad signal level samples. TRX/Combiner is broken. If no HW problem
Site is totally in wrong place, site is like transferring traffic to another cell ( cause
level HO). Typically a HW problem
Lots of Q6 and Q7 samples. Distribution is not OK, no Q5 samples HW
problems. Site reset or broken TRX
Typical normal interference problem.

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, Interference analysis DL /UL


Same level quality distribution
for both UL and DL

HW Problem
All samples below
-100dBm
CL10 <-100dBm

136

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, Interference, UL


MS power control can be seen here.
If Power is reduced no bad UL
problems. BSC border is increasing
good level samples

Bad interference problems. By POC


parameter interference can be
decreased, how power is adjusted
etc. Also optimum MS power feature
improves UL interference, no full
power is sent after HO.
Bad quality sample due to signal
level problems. Diversity should be
checked, also possibilities to use
LNA to improve UL signal level.
Antenna place should be also
checked if there are some obstacles
near the antenna.

137

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, Interference, UL, examples


Some UL interference in good signal
level. UL power control is not
working properly. Ul power control is
good indicator, if power is adjusted,
there are no big problems in UL
direction

There is no UL interference, or just a


little. MS is adjusting power properly,
there are only little samples in good
UL signal level.

Huge amount of UL bad samples. Cells is not working properly, it is like transferring traffic, UL quality/ UL level HOs are triggering
immediately. These kind of cells must be investigated.

138

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, Interference, DL


Really bad interference problem signal level is really
good (<-70dBm) and usually no better cell available no
HO samples can be seen in the table. Interference is
causing drops.

Bad interference problem signal level good (<-80dBm)


and sometimes no better cell available. If better cell
available and quality samples are 4 or worse HO (reason
quality or interference, depends on the parameter)
Interference is causing drops.

Situation is network is working properly If there are quality


4 or worse samples quality HO. Most of the samples are
q4 samples. If lots of q5..q7 samples interference
problem and interference must be analyzed / removed. If
quality HOs but no q5..q7 samples better cell is available
no interference problems. In these signal levels
overlapping exists and if handover reason is no PBGT, it will
be quality HO. By parameter amount of quality HOs can be
adjusted

Bad quality samples due to signal level problems. If PBGT


overlapping is not existing lots of quality HOs + level HOs
(margin are lower than in PBGT).
Not interference problem, more signal level problem.

139

Nokia Siemens Networks

Check how much samples vs. HOs are


better cells available or not.

KPI- Rules, Interference, DL, examples


There are almost as much samples Q5 and Q7 samples as
Q 4 samples even interference is really bad or there is
no better cell available ( no hos after bad quality samples).
These kind of interference cells should be optimized,
otherwise there are lots of drops etc

There are no as much Q5Q7 samples as Q4 samples


after interference samples Quality HO is done or the
interference situation is not so bad, for example sampling is
Q0,Q2,Q4,Q2,Q5,Q0,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q2 quality HO is not
triggering

There are bad quality samples only due to signal level


problems.

140

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, Interference (internal / external)


Internal Interference
Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner.
Neighbor cells (DL) or mobiles (UL) are causing interference.
By frequency / network planning interference can be decreased.

External Interference
Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner.
External radio frequencies are causing interference
Military use
In the border area, interference is coming from other country.
Some external wireless system (for example some wireless industry system)
is causing interference
Increased I level can be also due to external interference

141

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, HOSR

142

Nokia Siemens Networks

KPI- Rules, HO fail


sum(msc_o_succ_ho + bsc_o_succ_ho + cell_succ_ho)
Total HO success ratio = 100 * (-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ) (ho_65)
sum(msc_o_ho_cmd + bsc_o_ho_cmd_assgn + bts_ho_assgn)
sum(a.msc_o_succ_ho + a.bsc_o_succ_ho + a.cell_succ_ho +
a.msc_to_wcdma_ran_succ_tch_ho)
Total HO failure ratio = 100 * (1- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------) (hfr_2b)
sum(b.msc_o_ho_cmd + b.bsc_o_ho_cmd_assgn +
b.bts_ho_assgn+a.msc_gen_sys_wcdma_ran_ho_com)

/* handovers failing due to blocking */


sum(a.msc_o_fail_lack + a.bsc_o_fail_lack + a.cell_fail_lack
+ a.msc_to_wcdma_ran_fail_lack)
HO failure ratio due to RF blocking = 100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------/* all HO attempts */
sum(b.msc_o_ho_cmd + b.bsc_o_ho_cmd_assgn +
b.bts_ho_assgn + a.msc_gen_sys_wcdma_ran_ho_com)
(hfr_55a)

143

Nokia Siemens Networks