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Hydraulic Transients

When the SteadyState design fails!


Monroe L. Weber-Shirk

School of Civil and


Environmental Engineering

Hydraulic Transients: Overview


In all of our flow analysis we have assumed
gradually
either _____
steady_____
state operation or ________
varied flow
______
What about rapidly varied flow?
How does flow from a faucet start?
How about flow startup in a large, long
pipeline?
What happens if we suddenly stop the flow of
water through a tunnel leading to a turbine?

Hydraulic Transients
Unsteady Pipe Flow: time varying flow and pressure

Routine transients
change in valve settings
starting or stopping of pumps
changes in power demand for
turbines
changes in reservoir elevation
turbine governor hunting
action of reciprocating pumps
lawn sprinkler

Catastrophic transients
unstable pump or turbine
operation
pipe breaks

References
Chaudhry, M. H. 1987. Applied Hydraulic
Transients. New York, Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company.
Wylie, E. B. and V. L. Streeter. 1983. Fluid
Transients. Ann Arbor, FEB Press.

Analysis of Transients
Gradually varied (Lumped) _________
ODE
conduit walls are assumed rigid
fluid assumed incompressible
flow is function of _____
time only
PDE
Rapidly varied (Distributed) _________
fluid assumed slightly compressible
conduit walls may also be assumed to be elastic
flow is a function of time and ________
location

Establishment of Flow:
Final Velocity
How long will it take?

1
H

EGL

2
2

2g

HGL
V2

L
p1 V12
p2 V22

z1

z 2 h f hL
2g
2g
m
aj
or

g = 9.8 m/s2
H = 100 m
1.5
K = ____
f = 0.02
L = 1000 m
V 2 D=1m
0.5
Ken= ____
1.0
Kexit= ____

m
in
o

Final Velocity
H z1 z 2 h f
2
2

LV
hf f
D 2g

hL

hL

V2 L

H
f

2g D

Vf

2 gH
fL
K
D

V2
2g

g = 9.8 m/s2
H = 100 m
K = 1.5
f = 0.02
L = 1000 m
D=1m

9.55 m/s

What would V be without losses? 44


_____
m/s

Establishment of Flow:
Navier Stokes? Initial Velocity

velocity (m/s)

before head loss becomes significant


mdV
10
F ma
F=
9
dt
8
pA
=
g
HA
F=
7
m = r AL

HA AL
t

dV
dt

6
5
4
3
2
1

Vf

g = 9.8 m/s2
H = 100 m
K = 1.5
f = 0.02
L = 1000 m
D=1m

gt

0
V

HA dt AL dV
0

HAt ALV

10

2 gH
fL
K
D

15

20

25

time (s)

HAt
AL

H
L

gt

30

Flow Establishment:
Full Solution
F

(mV )

dt

F =________,
t 0 =gravity ________
drag

g hl D
4L

F =t 0 Lp D

L V 2
d ALV
A H K f

D
2
g
dt
g

dt
0

L V 2
g H K f
D 2 g

dV

dt
0

gH 1

L 2

dV
K f
V2
L D

Flow Establishment:
tanh!
dV
1
- 1 bV
0 a 2 - b2V 2 =ab tanh a
V

t
V

1
ab
a
b

bV

tanh
1

tanh abt

if V

Vf

2 gH
gH
V
tanh t

fL
2L

K
D

gH

a
b

K f

L D

a
b

V < Vf

1 K f
b

2 L D

Time to reach final velocity



1
1
1 bV
1 V
t
tanh
tanh

V
ab
ab
a
f

t0.9V f

0.9V f
1
1

tanh

ab
Vf

Vf

tanh 1 (0.9)
gH K f

2 L L D

a
b

tanh 1 (0.9) 1.47

Time to reach 0.9Vf increases as:


tanh 1 (0.9)
t0.9V
L increases
gH
L
K f
H decreases
2
2L
D
Head loss decreases
f

Flow Establishment

t0.9V 14.34 s
f

2 gH
gH
V
tanh t

fL
2L

K
D

12
10
velocity (m/s)

g = 9.8 m/s2
H = 100 m
K = 1.5
f = 0.02
L = 1000 m
D=1m

8
6
4
2
0
0

K f

L D

10

20

30

time (s)

Was f constant?
VD
107
Re =
n

40

Household plumbing example


Have you observed the gradual increase in flow
when you turn on the faucet at a sink? No? Good!
50 psi - 350 kPa - 35 m of head
K = 10 (estimate based on significant losses in faucet)
f = 0.02
L = 5 m (distance to larger supply pipe where velocity
change is less significant)
D = 0.5 - 0.013 m
time to reach 90% of final velocity?
T0.9Vf = 0.13 s

V > Vf?
dV
1
1
a +bV
- 1 bV
t = 2
= ctnh
=
ln
a - b 2V 2
ab
a 2ab a - bV
V

a
V = ctnh ( abt )
b

tV0 =

a
if V >
b

If V0=

1
a +bV0
ln
2ab a - bV0

a
V = ctnh
ab t +tVo

sinh(2 x)
ctnh ( x ) =
cosh ( 2 x ) - 1

Why does velocity approach final velocity so rapidly?

Lake Source Cooling Intake


Schematic
Motor
Lake Water Surface
Steel Pipe
ipe
P
ic
t
s
a
Pl
m
0
0
31

100 m
Intake Pipe, with
flow Q and cross
sectional area Apipe

1m
Pump inlet

length of intake pipeline is 3200 m

What happens during startup?


What happens if pump is turned off?

Wet Pit,
with plan
view area
Atank

Transient with varying driving


force
F

(mv )

dt

d Apipe LV
Apipe H hl

dt
g

Apipe g
L

H hl dt dQ

What is z=f(Q)?
Q

Apipe g
L

H hl t

where

L
Q2
hl K f 2
D Apipe 2 g

Lake elevation - wet pit water level


H = ______________________________
dzwetpit
Q
=
dt
Awetpit

f(Q)

Finite Difference Solution!

Is f constant?

Wet Pit Water Level and Flow


Oscillations
Q

1.5

0.5

Q (m /s)

-0.5

-1

-1

-2

-1.5

-3

-2

-4
0

200

400

600
time (s)

800

What is happening on the vertical lines?

1000

z (m)

1200

constants

Wet Pit with Area Equal to Pipe


Area
2

1.5

15
10
5

-0.5

-5

Q (m3/s)

0.5

-1

Pipe collapse
Water Column Separation

-1.5
-2
0

200

Why is this unrealistic?

400

600 800
time (s)

1000

-10
-15
-20
1200

z (m)

20

Overflow Weir at 1 m
2

1.5

1.5
1

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5

-1.5

-2
0

200

400

600
800
time (s)

1000

-2
1200

z (m)

Q (m3/s)

Period of Oscillation:
Frictionless Case
Apipe g
L

H hl dt dQ

z = -H

z = 0 at lake surface
Wet pit mass balance

dQ
dt

Apipe g
L

Awetpit d 2 z
dt 2
2

d z
dt 2

Awetpit

Apipe g

gApipe
LAwetpit

dz
dt

Awetpit d 2 z
dt 2

dQ
dt

L
z0

gApipe

z C1 cos t

LAwetpit

gApipe

C
sin
2

LAwetpit

Period of Oscillations

T 2

Ap

3170m 24m 2
9.81m / s 2 1.7 m 2

T = 424 s

Pendulum Period?
L
T 2
g

1.5

4
3

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-2

-1.5

-3

-2

-4
1200

200

400

600 800
time (s)

1000

z (m)

T 2

plan view area of wet pit (m2)


24
pipeline length (m)
3170
inner diameter of pipe (m)
1.47
gravity (m/s2)
9.81

Q (m3/s)

L Awet pit

Transients
In previous example we assumed that the
velocity was the same everywhere in the
pipe
We did not consider compressibility of
water or elasticity of the pipe
In the next example water compressibility
and pipe elasticity will be central

Valve Closure in Pipeline


V2

Sudden valve closure at t = 0 causes change


in discharge at the valve
p at valve
What will make the fluid slow down?____
Instantaneous change would require
infinite force
__________
Impossible to stop all the fluid
instantaneously What do you think happens?

Transients: Distributed System


Tools
Conservation of mass
Conservation of momentum
Conservation of energy

Wed like to know


pressure change
rigid walls
elastic walls

propagation speed of pressure wave


time history of transient

Pressure change due to velocity


change
HGL

V0 V

V0

a
steady flow

unsteady flow
velocity

V0

V0 V

V0 a

V0 V a

density

pressure

P0

P0 P

P0

P0 P

Momentum Equation
HGL

V0 V

V0

M1 M 2 W Fp Fp Fss
1

M 1 x M 2 x Fp Fp
1x

M 1x 1V12 A1

Neglect head loss!


Mass conservation

M 2 x 2V22 A2

1V1 A1 2V2 A2

1V1 A1 V2 V1 p1 A1 p2 A2

A1 A2

1V1V p

p = p2 - p 1

Magnitude of Pressure Wave


V0 V

V0
1

1V1V p
V1 V0 a

a V0

p aV

- a DV
DH =
g

Dp =gDH

increase in HGL.
Decrease in V causes a(n) _______

Propagation Speed:
Rigid Walls
V0 V

V0

A(V0 a ) 0 A(V0 a V )( 0 )

V (V0 a )
1
0

V (V0 a )

Conservation of mass

Solve for V

Propagation Speed:
Rigid Walls
V0 V

V0

p 0 (V0 a )V

momentum

V (V0 a )

mass

p 0 (V0 a )
2

p a 2

V0 a

0
Need a relationship between pressure and density!

Propagation Speed:
Rigid Walls
K

a
2

definition of bulk modulus of elasticity


a

Example:
Find the speed of a pressure wave in a water pipeline
assuming rigid walls.
2.2 x 109
a
1480 m/s
K 2.2 GPa (for water)
1000
3
1000 Kg/m

speed of sound in water

Propagation Speed:
Elastic Walls
V0 V

V0

Additional parameters
D = diameter of pipe
t = thickness of thin walled pipe
E = bulk modulus of elasticity for pipe

K 0
effect of water compressibility
K D
1
effect of pipe elasticity
E t

Propagation Speed:
Elastic Walls
Example: How long does it take for a
pressure wave to travel 500 m after a rapid
valve closure in a 1 m diameter, 1 cm wall
thickness, steel pipeline? The initial flow
velocity was 5 m/s.
E for steel is 200 GPa
What is the increase in pressure?
solution

Time History of Hydraulic


Transients: Function of ...
Time history of valve operation (or other control device)
Pipeline characteristics
diameter, thickness, and modulus of elasticity
length of pipeline
frictional characteristics
tend to decrease magnitude of pressure wave

Presence and location of other control devices


pressure relief valves
surge tanks
reservoirs

Time History of Hydraulic


Transients
1

H
V=Vo

V=0

H
V= -Vo

V=0

H
V=0

4
V= -Vo

L
t

L
a

2L
a

Time History of Hydraulic


Transients
H

5
V= -Vo

7
V=Vo

V=0

a
L
2L
t

V=0
a

3L

8
H
V=0

V= Vo

L
t

L
3L
a

4L
a

Pressure head

Pressure variation over time


H

reservoir
level

Neglecting head loss!


4L
a

8L
a

12L
a

time

Pressure variation at valve: velocity head and friction


losses neglected
Real traces

Lumped vs. Distributed


4L
T >>
a

lumped system
For _______
pressure fluctuation period
= __________________________

For LSC wet pit

T 2

= 424 s
4L
= 4*3170 m/1400 m/s = ____
9.1 s

L Awet pit
g

Ap

What would it take to get a transient with a period of


9 s in Lake Source Cooling? Fast
____________
valve

Methods of Controlling
Transients
Valve operation
limit operation to slow changes
if rapid shutoff is necessary consider diverting the flow
and then shutting it off slowly

Surge tank
acts like a reservoir closer to the flow control point

Pressure relief valve


automatically opens and diverts some of the flow when
a set pressure is exceeded

Surge Tanks
Reservoir

Surge tank
Tunnel/Pipelin
e

Reduces amplitude of pressure


tunnel by reflecting
fluctuations in ________
incoming pressure waves
Decreases cycle time of pressure
wave in the penstock
Start-up/shut-down time for turbine
can be reduced (better response to
load changes)

Penstock
T
Tail water

Surge tanks

Use of Hydraulic Transients


There is an old technology that
used hydraulic transients to lift
water from a stream to a higher
elevation. The device was called a
Ram Pumpand it made a
rhythmic clacking noise.
How did it work?
High pressure pipe
Stream

Source pipe

Ram Pump

Minimum valve closure time


How would you stop a pipeline full of water
in the minimum time possible without
r a =- ( p +r g ) +m2 V
bursting the pipe?
Apipe g
L

H hl dt dQ

Apipe g p

z h l dt dQ

L g

H
z
g

EGL
HGL
V

Simplify: no head loss and hold


pressure constant
Apipe g p

z h l dt dQ

L g

HGL
V

Apipe g p

z dt dQ

L g

Apipe g p

z t Q0

L g

Q0 L
t
p

Apipe g
z
g

EGL

Integrate from 0 to t and from Q


to 0 (changes sign)
t
g

V0 L

p
z
g

Back to Ram Pump:


Pump Phase
12
10

v elo city (m /s)

Coordinate system?
P1 = _____
0
z3 g
P2 = _____
-z1
z2-z1 = ___

z1

Stream

8
6
4
2
0
0

10

20

30

40

time (s)

p
z z3 z1
g

dV g p

z h l

dt
L g

High pressure pipe

Source pipe

z3

Reflections

dV g p

z h l

dt
L g

What is the initial head loss term if the pump


stage begins after steady state flow has been
z1
reached? _____
p
z3
What is g z hl ?_____
What is p z hl when V approaches zero?
g
______ z3 z1
Low V (low hl)
Where is most efficient pumping? ___________
How do you pump the most water? ______
Maintain high V

Ram: Optimal Operation


What is the theoretical maximum ratio of
pumped water to wasted water?
Rate of decrease in PE of wasted water
equals rate of increase in PE of pumped
water
Qw z1 Q pumped z3 z1
Q pumped
Qw

z1

z3 z1

High Q and Low loses?


Acceleration
12
velocity (m/s)

10
8

Insignificant head loss

6
4

Keep V high for max Q

2
0
0

10

20
time (s)

30

40

dV g p

z h l

dt
L g

dV g

z1
dt
L

Deceleration (pumping)

dV g p

z h l

dt
L g

dV g

z3 z1
dt
L

Cycle times
gtacc
dV
tacc
z1
dt
L
gtdecel
dV
tdecel
z3 z1
dt
L
gtacc
gtdecel
z1
z3 z1
L
L
tacc
z1

tdecel z3 z1

Change in velocities must match


dV
dV
tdecel
tacc
dt
dt

Summary (exercise)

When designing systems, pay attention to


startup/shutdown
Design systems so that high pressure waves
never occur
High pressure waves are reflected at reservoirs
or surge tanks

Burst section of Penstock:


Oigawa Power Station, Japan

Chaudhry page 17

Collapsed section of Penstock:


Oigawa Power Station, Japan

Chaudhry page 18

Values for Wet Pit Analysis


Flow rate before pump failure (m3/s)
2
plan view area of wet pit (m2)
24
pipeline length (m)
3170
inner diameter of pipe (m)
1.47
elevation of outflow weir (m)
10
time interval to plot (s)
1000
pipe roughness (m)
0.001
density (kg/m3)
1000
dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)
1.00E-03
gravity (m/s2)
9.81

Pressure wave velocity: Elastic


Pipeline
E = 200 GPa
D=1m
t = 1 cm
K 0
a
K D
1
E t

2.2 x109 1000


1

2.2 x10

1020 m/s

200 x109 0.01

0.5 s to travel 500 m


aV
(1020 m/s)(-5 m/s)
H

520 m
g
9.8m/s 2
p gH

p (1000 kg/m 3 )(9.8 m/s 2 )(520 m) = 5.1 MPa = 740 psi

Ram Pump
Air Chamber

Rapid valve

Water inlet

Ram pump

H2
High pressure pipe
H1

Stream

Source pipe

Ram Pump

Ram animation

Ram Pump
Time to establish flow

t0.9V f

12

0.9V
f
tanh 1

ab
Vf

10
velocity (m/s)

tanh 1 (0.9)
gH1 K f

2L L D

HA AL

6
4

dV
dt

dV g
H2
dt L

2
0
0

10

20
time (s)

30

40

Surge Tanks

Real pressure traces


At valve

At midpoint