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WASTE DISPOSAL

MANAGEMENT
Submitted By : Mohd. Yasser Arafat

MEDICAL WASTE

Bio-medical waste is defined as


any solid and/or liquid waste
including its container and any
intermediate product, which is
generated during the diagnosis,
treatment or immunization of human
beings or animals or in research.

NEED OF MANAGEMENT

Medical waste can potentially be re used without


sterilization. This reuse of non-sterile waste
material poses a serious threat of the diseases.
In addition, if waste is not disposed of properly,
members of the community may have an
opportunity to collect disposable medical items
(particularly syringes) and to repack and sell
these materials.
It may also damage the environment (e.g.,
contamination of water, air, and food).

HOSPITAL WASTE CYCLE

CATEGORISATION OF
WASTE

The following categories of waste have been


utilised either because of their potentially
hazardous nature, the volume generated or
aesthetic considerations:

Discarded sharps;
Laboratory and associated waste directly involved in
specimen processing;
Human tissues, including materials or solutions
containing free flowing blood or expressible blood;
Animal tissue or carcasses used in research;
Cytotoxic waste;
Pharmaceutical waste;
Chemical waste;

WASTE SEGREGATION

Waste segregation refers to the process of separating wastes at


the point of generation (also known as separation at source), and
keeping them apart during handling, accumulation, interim
storage and transportation.
The segregation requirements depend on the disposal methods
chosen.
Underlying principles of waste segregation :

to reduce the volume of hazardous waste destined for


special treatment or expensive off-site disposal;
to maintain safety standards during handling,
transportation and treatment;
to eliminate the need for waste segregation to occur at
disposal sites; and
to facilitate the recycling process

WASTE SEGREGATION

Through colour :

Trolleys used for the movement of clinical and related


wastes should be designed to prevent leakage, be easily

TRANSPORTATION OF
WASTE

ON-SITE TRANSPORT.
On-site transport of waste is usually from the
initial storage point to an assembly storage or
treatment area by means of trolleys or handcarts,
which should have a solid base and bunding to
contain spills.
Wherever possible, the transport of clinical and
related wastes should be separate from general
traffic

STORAGE
LOCATION

The receiving area (Storage Area) should be


located to promote the safe, secure, and efficient
movement of arriving materials without
compromising patient areas.
Red bag waste shall be staged in enclosed and
secured areas.
Biohazardous and environmentally hazardous
materials, including mercury, nuclear reagent
waste, and other regulated waste types, shall be
segregated and secured.

STORAGE
SIZE REQUIREMENTS :

Size of spaces shall be based upon the volume of projected


waste.
The functional program shall stipulate the categories and
volumes of waste for disposal and the methods of handling
and disposal of waste.

REGULATED WASTE STORAGE SPACES :


If provided, regulated medical waste or infectious waste
storage spaces shall have a floor drain, cleanable floor and
wall surfaces, lighting, and exhaust ventilation, and should
be safe from weather, animals and unauthorized entry

STORAGE

Building should include adequate space to


accommodate bins/carts for appropriate waste
segregation such as recyclables, infectious
waste, sharps, etc.
Corridors and materials handling systems should
be designed to achieve an efficient movement of
waste from points of generation to storage or
treatment while minimizing the risk to personnel.
an area of controlled access that is minimally
trafficked by staff, clients, and visitors.

TREATMENT OF MEDICAL
WASTE

INCENERATION:
Is awaste treatment processthat involves
thecombustionof organicsubstances
contained in waste materials, also described
as thermal treatment".
Incineration of waste materials converts the
waste intoash, fumes, gas and heat. It is a
controlled combustion process where waste is
completely oxidized and harmful
microorganisms present in it are
destroyed/denatured under high temperature.
Incinerator ash is generally land filled.

TREATMENT OF MEDICAL
WASTE

MICROWAVING: In microwaving, microbial inactivation


occurs as a result of the thermal effect of electromagnetic
radiation spectrum lying between the frequencies 300 and
300,000 mhz. The heating occurs inside the waste material
in the presence of steam.
AUTOCLAVING: Highly effective and inexpensive.
Unsuitable for heat sensitive objects. Autoclaving is a lowheat thermal process where steam is brought into direct
contact with waste in a controlled manner and for sufficient
duration to disinfect the wastes. For ease and safety in
operation, the system should be horizontal type and
exclusively designed for the treatment of bio-medical
waste. Often followed by compaction process, and
eventually reaches landfills.

SHREDDING: It is a process by which waste are de-shaped or


cut into smaller pieces so as to make the wastes
unrecognizable. It helps in prevention of reuse of bio-medical
waste and also acts as identifier that the wastes have been
disinfected and are safe to dispose off.
CHEMICAL DISINFECTING: Primarily through the use of chlorine
products. Waste is first shredded and mixed with water. Though
chemical disinfection is also an option for the treatment of
certain categories of bio-medical waste but looking at the
volume of waste to be disinfected at the CBWTF and the
pollution load associated with the use of disinfectants. The use
of chemical disinfection for the treatment of bio-medical waste
at CBWTF is not recommended.

IRRADIATION: exposure of waste to cobalt source


gamma radiation inactivates all microbes. Special
treatment sites are required (no mobile or in
house process).High capital cost. Operators
safety risk in irradiation plant is an issue. Does
not sterilize pathological wastes.