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A Seminar Presentation on

UPS
( Uninterrupted Power
Supply) :
An
Overview

Under Supervision Of:

Submitted By:
3141705

Contents :
Introduction
Key Components
Why use UPS ?
Categorization of UPS
Working Principle
Comparison between different topologies
Applications of UPS
Comparison between transformer-based and
transformer-less UPS System
Control Techniques
Control of Distributed UPS System
Future Trends
Conclusion

Introduction :

An equipment that has been highlighting in the


power electronics on its ability to supply clean and
reliable power to critical loads such as industrial
processes, network servers, telecommunications
systems, medical systems, even in situations of
power outages or anomalies of the mains is the
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) System.

Key components :

1. Rectifier : Converts AC to DC
Provide battery charging voltage
2 Battery : UPS battery is an energy storage device, with
several
cells in series. Main function is to
convert the stored chemical energy into electrical energy
during power failure.
3. Inverter : Converts DC to AC, has a inverter bridge
control logic and filter circuit.
4. Static switch : Also known as non-contact switch.

Why we need UPS ? :

Modern electronic gadgets are highly sensitive to


power supply fluctuations.
Disruption of power supplies may lead to data
loss/malfunction
Standby power source
Starting of generators take a few minutes, UPS is used
as a power backup in these few minutes
Used to condition the power by reducing spikes and
harmonics
Designed to correct a variety of power problems: sags,
surge, spikes, burnouts, noise, frequency variations.

Categorization Of UPS :
Conventional UPS topologies can mainly be
categorized
into three different types :
Off- line
Line interactive
On- line

Off-line UPS and its working

Consists of a static bypass


switch
Also that
referred
to as
connects
the line
preferred
passive
critical load or
directly to
the
unconditioned
standby
UPS utility mains
normal
while
under
Used
withcondition
low power
the battery is charged through
applications
with
power
the rectifier/charger. In the
ratings
less
thanfailures,
2kVA the
event of
power
static switch disconnects the
mains, and the critical load
gets fed from the backup
battery through the inverter

off-line UPS topology

Line- Interactive UPS and its working :


(i)

Line-interactive UPS
topology with single
converter structure

Consists of a series
inductor between the utility
mains and the critical load,
and a bilateral converter in
parallel with the critical load,
acting as a battery charger
under normal condition and
an inverter supply backup
power from the battery to
the load in the event of
power outage.
Also known as Parallel
Processing UPS
Used for medium power
applications

(ii)

Line-interactive UPS topology


with two converter structure

During
the
normal

Also knownthe
as theutility
operation,
series-parallel
mains supplies power
compensated
directly to thelineload while
interactive
the
the
batteryUPS
is or
charged
so-called
through deltathe
parallel
conversion UPS
converter.
When
the

Consists
mains
fail,of two
the power
static
conversion
stages,
switch
opens one to
converter in
series
disconnect
the
loadwith
from
the utility
mainsand
through
mains,
the
a series transformer
battery
maintains and
the
the
other in of
parallel
with
continuity
power
to
the load.
load through the
parallel converter. Series
power converter acts as

Online UPS and its working

On-line UPS topology

The on-line UPS, which is


also sometimes referred to
as inverter preferred or
double-conversion UPS.
consists
of
rectifier/charger
that
converts the ac input
supply
voltage
into
unregulated dc voltage
for the battery charging,
an inverter that converts
the unregulated dc voltage
from the rectifier into
regulated and filtered ac
voltage for the load, and a

Comparison between the three


topologies :
Topologies of UPS

Advantages

Disadvantages

Offline UPS

Simple design, low


cost, small size,
high efficiency

Power supplied to the


critical load is neither
regulated nor filtered

Line-interactive
Input harmonic
UPS topology
current suppression
with
single
converter
structure

Very little reactive


power compensation,
does not provide
voltage sag
compensation
capability

Line-interactive
UPS topology with
two converter
structure

Independent control
of output voltage,
input power factor
correction

Lack of isolation
between load and
utility mains, complex
control algorithms

Online UPS

Supply conditioned
and regulated

UPS is unable to
supply full power to

Applications of
UPS :

1. To provide a break-free supply of electrical energy to


protected loads in the event of a mains power failure,
and in between mains failure and generator start up
2. To monitor and maintain voltage values to within
prescribed parameters, control voltage swells and sags,
filter out harmonics.
3. Prevents data loss

Power line problems


Type of UPS

Waveforms

Dependent on

Comparison between Transformer-based Vs


Transformer-less UPS system :

IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) is used in


transformer-less UPS systems are starting to be widely
used for UPS size 300 KVA
The IGBT has the output switching and conduction
characteristics of a bipolar transistor but is voltagecontrolled like a MOSFET. This means it has the advantage
of high current handling capability of a bipolar transistor
and easy to control as a MOSFET

With Transformer

UPS
UPSInverter
Rectifier

Without
Transformer

Comparison Results :
Cost : The initial cost of the transformer-less UPS is
much less.
Reliability : It is always perceived that a transformerbased UPS is more reliable.
Size And Weight : Removing the transformer from a
UPS can result in a size saving of about 50~60%
Power factor and Harmonics : Transformer-less UPS
can maintain a unity power factor and THD < 3%
Noise : The transformer in the transformer-based UPS
produces a loud and intensive hum.

Control Techniques :

High performance UPS inverters have stringent steadystate voltage control requirements both under steadystate and under transient conditions. Many different
control techniques have been applied to UPS inverters.
These control systems are classified into 3 groups :
1. Model-based instantaneous feedback control
2. Feed-forward learning control
3. Non-linear control

1. Instantaneous feedback control: The instantaneous


feedback control
schemes for UPS inverters are all
different types of linear controllers. In these controllers
system variables such as output voltage, load current,
and/or inductor/capacitor current are fed back to achieve
very good steady state and transient performance
2. Feed forward learning control of UPS : FLC schemes
have the ability to achieve excellent steady state
performance by sensing only the output voltage. FLC
schemes may not be suitable for analog implementation
3. Non-linear control : It includes Sliding mode controller,
Adaptive controller and Neural Network based controller.
Advantages include high robustness and very good
performance

Control of Distributed Uninterruptible


Power Supply
Systems
In the last years, the use of distributed uninterruptible
power supply (UPS) systems has been growing into the
market, becoming an alternative to large conventional
UPS systems. In addition, with the increasing interest in
renewable energy integration and distributed generation,
distributed UPS systems can be a suitable solution for
storage energy in microgrids.

Future Trends
1. Transformer less modern UPS systems have been
rapidly
replacing the old technology due to their superior
performance
and size attributes, and high efficiency.
2. In the coming years, inverters should be able to
operate in island mode due the high penetration of
distributed generation. The connection in parallel of several
UPSs to a common microgrid is also rising as a new concept
in order to supply energy in a distributed and cooperated
form.
3. Green energy saving, modular and intelligent
UPS have become the developing trend. Fuel-Cell UPS (FC-

Conclusion:
1. Nowadays, Uninterruptable
Power Supply (UPS)
systems are in use throughout the world, helping to
supply a wide variety of critical loads, such as
telecommunication systems, computer sets, and
hospital equipment, in situations of power outage or
anomalies of the mains.
2. This presentation thus describes the most common line
problems and the relationship between these and the
different existing kinds of UPS, showing their operation
modes. It also addresses an overview of the control
schemes applied. Finally, it points out the applicability
of such systems in distributed generation, microgrids,
and renewable energy systems.
.

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