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Human

Human Factors
Factors /Ergonomics
/Ergonomics

Prepared by: rahmanarief

ASSESSING WORK SYSTEM


STRUCTURE

The Concept of Macroergonomics


The unique technology of HF/E

human-system interface (HSI)


technology
The subpart of HIS:
Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Human-Machine interface Tech.

(Hardware ergonomics)
Human-Environment interface Tech.
(Environmental Ergonomics)
Human-Software interface Tech.
(Cognitive Ergonomics)
Human-job interface Tech. (Work
design Ergonomics)
Human-organization Tech.
(Macroergonomics)

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MACHI
MACHI
NE
NE

ORGAN
ORGAN
IZATIO
IZATIO
N
N

ENVIRO
ENVIRO
NMENT
NMENT
HUMAN
HUMAN

JOB
JOB

SOFTW
SOFTW
ARE
ARE

Macroergonomics : the definition


Macroergonomics : a perspective, a methodology, and a

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

recognized subdicipline of HF/E.


As a perspective: an appreciation for larger system
As a subdicipline: concerned with human-organization
interface (HOI) tech.
Conceptually, Macroergonomics is a top-down
sociotechnical systems approach to the design of work
system, and the carry-through of the overall work
system design to the design of human-job, humanmachine, and human-software interface.
Goal: to optimize the work systems design in terms of
its sociotechnical characteristics.
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Macroergonomics Versus Industrial and


Organization Psychology

Macroergomics

flip side) of macroergonomics


Macroergonomics focuses on designing
work systems to fit people
I/O psychology primarily is concerned
with selecting people to fit work
systems.
Both : concerned with the design of
organization structures and processes.

P s yc h o l o g y

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

I/O psychology is the opposite site (the

ORGANIZATION
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Work Systems Structure


3 Major sociotechnical systems element:

A. The technological Subsystems

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

B. Personnel Subsystems
C. Relevant external environment

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Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

A. TECHNOLOGICAL SUBSYSTEM
Several determinant of technological
subsystem:
1. By the mode of production (production
tech.)
2. By the action individuals perform on an
object to change it (knowledge-based
tech.)
3. By the way it reduces uncertainty
(strategy for reducing uncertainty)
4. By the degree of automation and workflow
rigidity (workflow integration)

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Production Technology

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Scale of increasing technological complexity :

Unit, Mass, and Process Production


Highest the technological complexity
heavily automated production firms.
3 organizational structure variables to increase
as the increase of technological complexity:
the degree of vertical differentiation
the optimal ratio of administrative support staff to

industrial line employees


the span of control of the top-line managers
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Knowledge-Based Technology

Perrow (1967) developed a more generalizeable model that uses knowledge b


rather than a production clasification sceme.
2 dimensions of knowledge based tech. :
Task variability ( the number of exceptions)
Task analyzability (type of search procedures)
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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Task Variability

Problem
Analyzability

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Routine with few


exceptions

High variety with


many exceptions

Well defined
and analyzable

ROUTINE

ENGINEERING

ill defined and


un-analyzable

CRAFT

NON-ROUTINE

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Technology Uncertainty
Thomson (1967) identified 3 types of
technology:
Long-linked (sequential interdependence
of its units), such as : automobile assembly
line.
Mediating (links clients on both input and
output sides), such as: banks, post offices,
logistics, etc.
Intensive (provides a customized
response to a diverse set of contingencies),
such as: hospital

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Workflow Integration

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Workflow integration : automation of

equipment
For smaller organization this factor was
found weakly related to the structure
For larger organization as workflow
increase, the specialization, the
formalization, the decentralization should
be increased.

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Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

B. PERSONNEL SUBSYSTEM
Three major characteristics of subsystem
(Hendrick, 1977):
Degree of Professionalism
Demographics factors (Graying of
workforce, value system shifts, cultural
diversity, and women)
Psychological aspects of workforces

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Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

C. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
ANALYSIS
5 types of external environment that affect
organizational functioning:
Socioeconomics
Educational
Political
Cultural
Legal
Negandhi (1977)

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Environmental Uncertainty
Dimentions

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Degree of Change
Degree of Complexity

Stable

Dynamics

Simple

Low Uncertainty

Moderate-High
Uncertainty

Complex

Moderate-Low
Uncertainty

High Uncertainty

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ORGANIZATION STRUCTURAL
DESIGN
Classical or Machine Bureaucracy
Professional Bureaucracy

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Adhocracies
Matrix design
Free-form design
Modular form
Virtual Organizations

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Human
Human Factors
Factors /Ergonomics
/Ergonomics

Macroergonomic as
an organizing
process for systems
safety

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

MacroErgonomic
Analysis of Structure
(MAS)

Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure


Hasil

metode MAS dapat dapat mengidentifikasi adanya


ketidakcocokan sistem kerja dalam keadaan organisasi yang
sebenarnya atau dapat diaplikasikan kedalam desain organisasi
yang baru.

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Ada 3 elemen utama MAS :

1. Technological Subsystem
2. Personnel System
3. Relevant External Environment
Dimana model empris yang dibangun menurut studi yang

berkaitan dengan elemen sistem sosiotechnical mempunyai


hubungan dengan platform dimensi utama.

Platform Metode MAS


1. Complexity

Adalah derajat perbedaan yang ada dalam struktur kerja

2. Formalization

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
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Adalah derajat yang menyatakan pekerjaan apa yang sesuai


dengan standard yang sudah ada

3. Centralization

Adalah dimana proses pengambilan keputusan terjadi dalam


sistem kerja tersebut

Task Variability

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Problem
Analyzability

Routine with few


expectations

High variety with many


expectations

Well defined and


analyzability

Routine

engineering

ill defined and analyzability

craft

Nonroutine

Degree of Change

Degree of
Complexity

Stable

Dynamic

Simple

Low uncertainty

Moderately high
uncertainy

comple
c

Moderately low
uncertainty

high uncertainty

Tecnological Subsystem
Model Charles Parrow untuk teknologi hubungan sistem kerja

menggunakan dasar ilmu skema klasifikasi.

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Factors/Ergonomics

Mempunyai 2 dimensi utama :


1.

Task Variability : Jumlah pengecualian dalam satu pekerjaan

2.

Task Analyzability : Tipe prosedur oencarian yang tersedia untuk


merespon pengecualian task

. Penurunan tabel matrix mempunyai 4 dasar, yaitu :


1.

Routine

2.

Nonroutine

3.

Engineering

4.

Craft

Personel Subsystem Analysis

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Hal

ini selalu berkaitan dengan cognitive


individu yang nantinya akan berpengaruh
pada pekerjaan, yaitu :
1. Profesonalism
2. Cultural Factors
3. Psycosocial Factors

Relevant External Environment


Menurut

Negandhi (1973), Relevant External Environment


mempunyai 5 tipe yang dapat mempengaruhi organisasi , yaitu :

1. Socioeconomic
2. Educational

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

3. Political
4. Cultural
5. Legal
. Selanjutnya

environment
uncertainty
dipertimbangkan
menggunakan dimensi perubahan, penambahan untuk
lingkungan yang diberi task yang spesifik adalah dinamis atau
tetap stabil dan overtime yang terprediksi.

Cont
Penggunaan MAS sebagai alat

merupakan penilaian subyektif terhadap

organisasi, berhubungan dengan atau nilai skala yang digunakan. Outcome nya
akan menghasilkan nilai numeric yang dapat dibandingkan dengan data work

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

sistem yang keluar pada saat sekarang.

Analisis dari masing2 kunci vari sociotecnical dan structure work system

memerlukan

pengetahuan

akan

organisasi

dan

assesementnya,

yang

berhubungan dengan kombinasi proses subyektif dan obyektif.

Analisis struktural melalui MAS merupakan sebuah konteks untuk analisis proses

melalui MEAD.

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

MacroErgonomic
Analysis and Design
(MEAD) Method

10 Framework untuk melakukan assessmet


dalam MEAD
1. Scanning analysis
2. System type and Performance analysis.
3. Technical work process analysis.
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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

4. Variance data collection.


5. Variance matrix analysis.
6. Variance control and role analysis.
7. Organizational , joint and function design.
8. Resposibility perception analysis
9. Support system & Interface design
10.Implement iterate and improve.

10 Framework MEAD
1. Scanning analysis
mengidentifikasi elemen utama sistem. (input, output, batasan, interaksi
lingkungan, stakeholder, dan obyektif)

2. System type and performance analysis

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

mengidentifikasi ekspektasi performa dan kriteria performa untuk


sistem.

3. Technical work process analysis.


melakukan flowcharting proses sistem dan mengidentifikasi unit
operasi. Menggunakan pendekatan participatory.

4. Variance data collection.


Variansi (penyimpangan SOP) diidentifikasikan, diklasifikasikan,dan
dibuat matriks variansi

5. Variance matrix analysis.


matriks variansi dianalisa dan adan tabel kontrol dibuat.

10 Framework MEAD
6. Variance control and role analysis.
role matrix mngidentifikasikan peranan (eksternal & internal) dan
hubungannya.

7. Organizational , joint and function design.

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
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Mengontrol variansi melalui pengenalan sebuah intervesi atau


solusi. Digunakan pendekatan participatory.

8. Resposibility perception analysis


peran dan tanggung jawab dievaluasi melalui metode partisipatori.

9. Support system & Interface design


Subsistem pendukung dievaluasi dan di desain ulang jika perlu.

10.Implement iterate and improve.


implementasi, iterasi , dan perbaikan perubahan. Dapat berupa
bentuk proposal yang berisi rekomendasi

HAZARD

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Adalah sumber bahaya (material, sumber

energi, ataupun operasi) dengan potensi


menyebabkan penyakit, injury, atau
kematian peda orang atau kerusakan pada
failitas dan lingkungan.

SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Analisis formal mengenai sistem dan

hubungannya dengan banyak part yang


bervariasi ( plant, hardware, peraturan,
prosedur, dan personnel) untuk
mengetahui hazard sebenarnya dan
potensialnya dan memberikan saran untuk
mengurangi dan mengontrol hazard

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Macroergonomics and
system safety selection
criteria

System Safety Analysis


Preeliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)
Event Tree Analysis (ETA)

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)


Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

(FMEA)
Fault Hazard Analysis
Subsystem Hazards Analysis (SSHA)
System Hazards Analysis (SHA)
Cause-Consequence Analysis
Project Evaluation Tree (PET)

Human
Human

Organization
Organization
al
al Level
Level

Technology
Technology

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Environmen
Environmen
tt

Regulatory
Regulatory
Level
Level

National
National
Level
Level

Safety
Syste
m

Based on the MEAD process and MAS, a system accident


causation model, and the existing system safety analysis
tools, general criteria for selecting a system analysis tool has
been create include: Human, Technology, Environment.
When evaluating the safety system, several questions were
considered at the O,R,N

MAS

MEAD
Sociotechn
ical

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Designing
Implementin
g
Me
as
uri
ng

Example :

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Subsyste
m
Hazards

Subsystems

Evaluating
Project

Man-Machine
HardwareSoftware

Hazard
analysis

Evaluating a spesific Project with subsystem hazards


combining with hazards analysis, it analyze system by the
interfaces between subsystem, man-machine, and hardwaresoftware.

Human
Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Thank You

End of Presentation, Thank U

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Human Factors/Ergonomics
Factors/Ergonomics

Q&A

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