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Fundamentals of Physics

Chapter 13 Oscillations
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Oscillations
Simple Harmonic Motion
Velocity of SHM
Acceleration of SHM
The Force Law for SHM
Energy in SHM
An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator
Pendulums
The Simple Pendulum
The Physical Pendulum
Measuring g
SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
Damped SHM
Forced Oscillations & Resonance

Fundamentals of Physics

Oscillations
Oscillations - motions that repeat themselves.
Oscillation occurs when a system is disturbed from a position of
stable equilibrium.

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Clock pendulums swing


Boats bob up and down
Guitar strings vibrate
Diaphragms in speakers
Quartz crystals in watches
Air molecules
Electrons
Etc.

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Oscillations
Oscillations - motions that repeat themselves.

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Simple Harmonic Motion


Harmonic Motion - repeats itself at regular intervals (periodic).
Frequency - # of oscillations per second
1 oscillation / s = 1 hertz (Hz)
Period - time for one complete oscillation (one cycle)

1
f

T
T

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Simple Harmonic Motion

Time

Position

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Simple Harmonic Motion

2 f
radians

cycles
radians
cycle
s

1
f

T 2
Angles are in radians.
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Amplitude, Frequency & Phase

xm xm

x t xm cos t

x t xm cos t

x t xm cos 2 t
The frequency of SHM is
independent of the amplitude.

x t xm cos t 4

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Velocity & Acceleration of SHM

x t xm cos t
v t

vmax xm

dx
dt

v t xm sin t
The phase of v(t) is shifted period relative to x(t),

amax 2 xm

dv
dt
a t 2 xm cos t
a t

a t 2 x t
In SHM, a(t) is proportional to x(t) but opposite in sign.
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The Force Law for SHM


Simple Harmonic Motion is the motion executed by a particle of mass m subject to a
force proportional to the displacement of the particle but opposite in sign.

Hookes Law:

F t k x t

Linear Oscillator:

F ~ -x

SimpleHarmonicMotion/HorizSpring.html

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The Differential Equation that Describes SHM

F t k x t
Simple Harmonic Motion is the motion executed by a particle of mass m subject to a
force proportional to the displacement of the particle but opposite in sign.
Hookes Law!

Newtons 2nd Law:

F ma

d 2x
m 2 k x
dt
d 2x
2

x 0
2
dt

where 2

k
m

The general solution of this differential equation is:

x t xm cos t

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What is the frequency?

k = 7580 N/m
m = 0.245 kg
f=?

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xm without m falling off?

m = 1.0 kg
M = 10 kg
k = 200 N/m
s = 0.40
Maximum xm without slipping

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Simple Harmonic Motion

SimpleHarmonicMotion/HorizSpring.html

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Vertical Spring Oscillations

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Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion


K

K t
Kt

m v2
U
E K U

2 m xm sin t

k xm2 sin 2 t

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k x2

U t
U t

k m 2
1

1
1

2 k xm cos t
2

k xm2 cos 2 t

2
k
x
2
m constant

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Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

2
k
x
2

range
of
motion

turning
point

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2
k
x
2
m constant

turning
point

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Gravitational Pendulum
Simple Pendulum: a bob of mass m hung on an unstretchable massless string
of length L.

SimpleHarmonicMotion/pendulum

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Simple Pendulum
Simple Pendulum: a bob of mass m hung on an unstretchable massless string
of length L.

L Fg sin L Fg
I

mg L

I m L2

acceleration ~ - displacement
SHM
a t 2 x t
T

T 2

SHM for small

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L
g

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A pendulum leaving a trail of ink:

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Physical Pendulum
A rigid body pivoted about a point other than its center of mass (com).
small

SHM for

h Fg sin h Fg
I

Pivot Point

mg h

I
acceleration ~ - displacement
SHM

Center of Mass

a t 2 x t
T

quick method to measure g

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T 2

I
mgh

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Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator


Torsion Pendulum:

Hookes Law

d 2
I I 2
dt
T 2

Spring:

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m I
k

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Simple Harmonic Motion

T 2

m
k

T 2

L
g

T 2

I
mgh

T 2

Any Oscillating System:


inertia versus springiness

T 2

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inertia
springiness

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SHM & Uniform Circular Motion


The projection of a point moving in uniform circular motion on a diameter of the circle in
which the motion occurs executes SHM.

The execution of uniform circular motion describes SHM.


http://positron.ps.uci.edu/~dkirkby/music/html/demos/SimpleHarmonicMotion/Circular.html

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SHM & Uniform Circular Motion


The reference point P moves on a circle of radius xm.
The projection of xm on a diameter of the circle executes SHM.
radius = xm

angle t
x(t)

x t xm cos t
UC Irvine Physics of Music Simple Harmonic Motion Applet Demonstrations

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SHM & Uniform Circular Motion


The reference point P moves on a circle of radius xm.
The projection of xm on a diameter of the circle executes SHM.

x(t)

x t xm cos t

radius = xm

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v(t)

v t xm sin t

v xm

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a(t)

a t 2 xm cos t

a 2 xm

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SHM & Uniform Circular Motion


The projection of a point moving in uniform circular motion on a diameter of the circle in
which the motion occurs executes SHM.
Measurements of the angle between Callisto and Jupiter:
Galileo (1610)

planet

earth

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Damped SHM
SHM in which each oscillation is reduced by an external force.

F k x

FD b v

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Restoring Force
SHM

Damping Force
In opposite direction to velocity
Does negative work
Reduces the mechanical energy

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Damped SHM

Fnet m a
k x bv m a

dx
d 2x
k x b
m 2
dt
dt

differential equation

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Damped Oscillations
2nd Order Homogeneous Linear Differential Equation:

d 2x
dx
m 2 kx b
0
dt
dt
Solution of Differential Equation:

Eq. 15-41

x ( t ) xm e
where:

b
t
2m

cos t
b2
k

m 4 m2

b = 0 SHM

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Damped Oscillations

x (t ) xm e

b
t
2m

cos t

b
1

2 m

b
1
2m

small damping

k
m

the natural frequency

b
1
2m

0 " critically damped "

b
1
2m

2 0 "overdamped "

Exponential solution to the DE


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Auto Shock Absorbers

Typical automobile shock absorbers are designed to produce


slightly under-damped motion

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Forced Oscillations
Each oscillation is driven by an external force to maintain motion in the presence of
damping:

F0 cos d t
d = driving frequency

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Forced Oscillations
Each oscillation is driven by an external force to maintain motion in the presence of
damping.

Fnet m a
k x b v F0 cos d t m a
2nd Order Inhomogeneous Linear Differential Equation:

d 2x
2 dx
m 2 k x m
F0 cos d t
dt
dt

k
m

the natural frequency

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Forced Oscillations & Resonance


2nd Order Homogeneous Linear Differential Equation:

d 2x
dx
m 2 k x m 2
F0 cos d t
dt
dt
Steady-State Solution of Differential Equation:

x ( t ) x m cos t
xm
where:

k
m

tan

F0

m d
2

bd
2
m 2 d

b2 d

= natural frequency
d = driving frequency

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Forced Oscillations & Resonance


The natural frequency, , is the frequency of oscillation when
there is no external driving force or damping.

xm

F0

m2 2 d

b2 d

less damping

k
m

= natural frequency
d = driving frequency

more damping

When = d resonance occurs!

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Oscillations

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Resonance

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Stop the SHM caused by winds on a high-rise building


400 ton weight mounted on a spring on a high floor of the Citicorp building in New York.

The weight is forced to oscillate at the same frequency as the building


but 180 degrees out of phase.

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Forced Oscillations & Resonance

Mechanical Systems

d 2x
dx
m 2 k x m 2
F0 cos d t
dt
dt
e.g. the forced motion of a mass on a spring
Electrical Systems

d 2q
dq 1
L 2 R
q Em sin d t
dt
dt
C

e.g. the charge on a capacitor in an LRC circuit

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