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# Fundamentals of Physics

Chapter 13 Oscillations
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Oscillations
Simple Harmonic Motion
Velocity of SHM
Acceleration of SHM
The Force Law for SHM
Energy in SHM
An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator
Pendulums
The Simple Pendulum
The Physical Pendulum
Measuring g
SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
Damped SHM
Forced Oscillations & Resonance

Fundamentals of Physics

Oscillations
Oscillations - motions that repeat themselves.
Oscillation occurs when a system is disturbed from a position of
stable equilibrium.

## Clock pendulums swing

Boats bob up and down
Guitar strings vibrate
Diaphragms in speakers
Quartz crystals in watches
Air molecules
Electrons
Etc.

Fundamentals of Physics

Oscillations
Oscillations - motions that repeat themselves.

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Fundamentals of Physics

## Simple Harmonic Motion

Harmonic Motion - repeats itself at regular intervals (periodic).
Frequency - # of oscillations per second
1 oscillation / s = 1 hertz (Hz)
Period - time for one complete oscillation (one cycle)

1
f

T
T

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Fundamentals of Physics

Time

Position

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## Simple Harmonic Motion

2 f

cycles
cycle
s

1
f

T 2
Angles are in radians.
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Fundamentals of Physics

## Amplitude, Frequency & Phase

xm xm

x t xm cos t

x t xm cos t

x t xm cos 2 t
The frequency of SHM is
independent of the amplitude.

x t xm cos t 4

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Fundamentals of Physics

## Velocity & Acceleration of SHM

x t xm cos t
v t

vmax xm

dx
dt

v t xm sin t
The phase of v(t) is shifted period relative to x(t),

amax 2 xm

dv
dt
a t 2 xm cos t
a t

a t 2 x t
In SHM, a(t) is proportional to x(t) but opposite in sign.
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Fundamentals of Physics

## The Force Law for SHM

Simple Harmonic Motion is the motion executed by a particle of mass m subject to a
force proportional to the displacement of the particle but opposite in sign.

Hookes Law:

F t k x t

Linear Oscillator:

F ~ -x

SimpleHarmonicMotion/HorizSpring.html

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Fundamentals of Physics

## The Differential Equation that Describes SHM

F t k x t
Simple Harmonic Motion is the motion executed by a particle of mass m subject to a
force proportional to the displacement of the particle but opposite in sign.
Hookes Law!

F ma

d 2x
m 2 k x
dt
d 2x
2

x 0
2
dt

where 2

k
m

x t xm cos t

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k = 7580 N/m
m = 0.245 kg
f=?

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## xm without m falling off?

m = 1.0 kg
M = 10 kg
k = 200 N/m
s = 0.40
Maximum xm without slipping

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## Simple Harmonic Motion

SimpleHarmonicMotion/HorizSpring.html

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K

K t
Kt

m v2
U
E K U

2 m xm sin t

k xm2 sin 2 t

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k x2

U t
U t

k m 2
1

1
1

2 k xm cos t
2

k xm2 cos 2 t

2
k
x
2
m constant

Fundamentals of Physics

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2
k
x
2

range
of
motion

turning
point

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2
k
x
2
m constant

turning
point

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Gravitational Pendulum
Simple Pendulum: a bob of mass m hung on an unstretchable massless string
of length L.

SimpleHarmonicMotion/pendulum

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Simple Pendulum
Simple Pendulum: a bob of mass m hung on an unstretchable massless string
of length L.

L Fg sin L Fg
I

mg L

I m L2

acceleration ~ - displacement
SHM
a t 2 x t
T

T 2

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Fundamentals of Physics

L
g

18

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Physical Pendulum
A rigid body pivoted about a point other than its center of mass (com).
small

SHM for

h Fg sin h Fg
I

Pivot Point

mg h

I
acceleration ~ - displacement
SHM

Center of Mass

a t 2 x t
T

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Fundamentals of Physics

T 2

I
mgh

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## Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Torsion Pendulum:

Hookes Law

d 2
I I 2
dt
T 2

Spring:

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m I
k

21

T 2

m
k

T 2

L
g

T 2

I
mgh

T 2

## Any Oscillating System:

inertia versus springiness

T 2

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inertia
springiness

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## SHM & Uniform Circular Motion

The projection of a point moving in uniform circular motion on a diameter of the circle in
which the motion occurs executes SHM.

## The execution of uniform circular motion describes SHM.

http://positron.ps.uci.edu/~dkirkby/music/html/demos/SimpleHarmonicMotion/Circular.html

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## SHM & Uniform Circular Motion

The reference point P moves on a circle of radius xm.
The projection of xm on a diameter of the circle executes SHM.

angle t
x(t)

x t xm cos t
UC Irvine Physics of Music Simple Harmonic Motion Applet Demonstrations

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## SHM & Uniform Circular Motion

The reference point P moves on a circle of radius xm.
The projection of xm on a diameter of the circle executes SHM.

x(t)

x t xm cos t

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v(t)

v t xm sin t

v xm

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a(t)

a t 2 xm cos t

a 2 xm

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## SHM & Uniform Circular Motion

The projection of a point moving in uniform circular motion on a diameter of the circle in
which the motion occurs executes SHM.
Measurements of the angle between Callisto and Jupiter:
Galileo (1610)

planet

earth

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Damped SHM
SHM in which each oscillation is reduced by an external force.

F k x

FD b v

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Restoring Force
SHM

Damping Force
In opposite direction to velocity
Does negative work
Reduces the mechanical energy

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Damped SHM

Fnet m a
k x bv m a

dx
d 2x
k x b
m 2
dt
dt

differential equation

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Damped Oscillations
2nd Order Homogeneous Linear Differential Equation:

d 2x
dx
m 2 kx b
0
dt
dt
Solution of Differential Equation:

Eq. 15-41

x ( t ) xm e
where:

b
t
2m

cos t
b2
k

m 4 m2

b = 0 SHM

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Damped Oscillations

x (t ) xm e

b
t
2m

cos t

b
1

2 m

b
1
2m

small damping

k
m

b
1
2m

## 0 " critically damped "

b
1
2m

2 0 "overdamped "

## Exponential solution to the DE

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## Typical automobile shock absorbers are designed to produce

slightly under-damped motion

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Forced Oscillations
Each oscillation is driven by an external force to maintain motion in the presence of
damping:

F0 cos d t
d = driving frequency

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Forced Oscillations
Each oscillation is driven by an external force to maintain motion in the presence of
damping.

Fnet m a
k x b v F0 cos d t m a
2nd Order Inhomogeneous Linear Differential Equation:

d 2x
2 dx
m 2 k x m
F0 cos d t
dt
dt

k
m

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## Forced Oscillations & Resonance

2nd Order Homogeneous Linear Differential Equation:

d 2x
dx
m 2 k x m 2
F0 cos d t
dt
dt
Steady-State Solution of Differential Equation:

x ( t ) x m cos t
xm
where:

k
m

tan

F0

m d
2

bd
2
m 2 d

b2 d

= natural frequency
d = driving frequency

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## Forced Oscillations & Resonance

The natural frequency, , is the frequency of oscillation when
there is no external driving force or damping.

xm

F0

m2 2 d

b2 d

less damping

k
m

= natural frequency
d = driving frequency

more damping

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Oscillations

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Resonance

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## Stop the SHM caused by winds on a high-rise building

400 ton weight mounted on a spring on a high floor of the Citicorp building in New York.

## The weight is forced to oscillate at the same frequency as the building

but 180 degrees out of phase.

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## Forced Oscillations & Resonance

Mechanical Systems

d 2x
dx
m 2 k x m 2
F0 cos d t
dt
dt
e.g. the forced motion of a mass on a spring
Electrical Systems

d 2q
dq 1
L 2 R
q Em sin d t
dt
dt
C

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