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ENERGY FROM OCEAN

CONTENTS
Ocean Energy
Thermal Energy
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
Types Of OTEC
Advantages, disadvantages And

Applications
Wave Energy
Types Of Wave Energy Conversion
Systems
Advantages And Disadvantages
Conclusions
ENERGY FROM OCEANS

OCEAN ENERGY
The worlds oceans.
Covers more than 70% of the whole
earths volume
Are the largest solar energy collector,
Solar energy absorbed by oceans is =
(4000 x humanity annual consumption)
Less than 1 % of this energy would
satisfy all needs.
ENERGY FROM OCEANS

INTRODUCTION
The common forms of energy found
in the sea are
Thermal energy
Wave Energy
Tidal Energy

ENERGY FROM OCEANS

THERMAL ENERGY
On

an average day, tropical seas


absorb large amount of solar radiation.
This thermal energy can be converted
into electric power.
The solar energy can be converted into
electricity by OTEC

ENERGY FROM OCEANS

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY


CONVERSION
The main objective is

to turn the solar energy


trapped by the ocean
into useable energy
OTEC
generates
electricity by using the
temperature difference
of 20C (temperature
differs from surface to
deeper into the sea to
at least 20C )
ENERGY FROM OCEANS

To

convert this thermal gradient into


electrical energy, the warm water can be
used to heat and vaporize a liquid.
The working fluid develops pressure as it is
caused to evaporate.
This expanding vapor runs through a
turbine generator and is then condensed
back into a liquid by cold water brought up
from depth and the cycle is repeated.

ENERGY FROM OCEANS

OTEC Process
5. Heat
extraction from
cold-water sink to
condense the
working fluid in
the condenser.
Cycle begins
again
Return to
step 2

1. Power input
to pumps to
start process

4. Expanding
vapor drive the
turbine, and
electricity is
created by a
generator
2. Fluid pump pressurizes and
pushes working fluid to
evaporator

T Turbine
G - Generator
3. Heat addition
from the hot-water
source used to
evaporate the
working fluid within
the heat exchanger
(Evaporator)

Types of OTEC Plant


OTEC is classified depending upon
the cycle of operation
1.Open Cycle
2.Closed Cycle
3.Hybrid Cycle

ENERGY FROM OCEANS

Closed Cycle OTEC:

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Uses fluid with a low-boiling point, such as

ammonia,
,freon or propen to rotate a turbine to
generate electricity
Warm surface seawater is pumped through
a heat exchanger where the low-boilingpoint fluid is vaporized. The expanding vapor
turns
the
turbo-generator(Turbine
and
generator)
Then,
cold,
deep
seawaterpumped
through
a
second
heat
exchanger
condenses the vapor back into a liquid,
which is then recycled through the system.
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Open Cycle OTEC:

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Open-cycle OTEC uses the tropical oceans'

warm surface water to make electricity


The only difference is that an open cycle
OTEC does not use intermediate fluid. The
sea water is the fluid that pushes the
turbine.
When warm seawater is placed in a lowpressure container, it boils. The expanding
steam drives a low-pressure turbine
attached to an electrical generator
The steam is condensed back into a liquid
by exposure to cold temperatures from
deep-ocean water.
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Hybrid Cycle OTEC


There are two concepts:
The first one is to use a closed cycle OTEC
to generate electricity to create the
necessary low-pressure environment for
the open cycle OTEC.
The second concept is to integrate two
open cycle OTEC (one is used to create the
vacuumed environment) so that there will
be twice the amount of the original
desalinated water.
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Advantages of OTEC
Low Environmental Impact
Produces Freshwater
Helps to meet increased electricity

usage
Used to harvest large yields of
multispecies
mariculture,If
discharged into a pond
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Disadvantages of OTEC
OTEC plants can alter and maybe

damage the surrounding ecosystem.


Pollution can be caused by closed
cycle OTEC if intermediate chemicals
leak into the ocean.

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Applications of OTEC
Plant
Electricity generation
Open cycle and Hybrid cycle OTEC

plants can also produce desalinated


water.
A closed cycle OTEC plant can also act
as a chemical treatment plant.
Enhances aquaculture/marine culture
Mineral Extraction(mg)
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Advanced Applications
Sea Water Air Conditioning

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Hydrogen production

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WAVE ENERGY
Caused by wind, gravitational forces due

to sun and moon, change in atmospheric


pressure, earthquakes etc
The wave energy can be converted into
power by using 3 common types of
devices, they are
1. Oscillating Water Column(OWC)
2. Floating Devices
3. Focusing Devices
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Oscillating Water
Column(OWC)

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Floating Devices
Most common

float used is
Salters
Duck(Nodding
Duck)
Converts wave
power into
electricity
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Focusing Devices
Water

Tapered Channel
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collected in
reservoir is
used to run
hydro-electric
turbines to
produce
electricity
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Advantages of Wave
Energy
No fuel needed
No waste production
Less cost
No serious environmental impacts

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Disadvantages of Wave
Energy
Waves are largely inconsistent
Chances of causing distractions to

marine life
Climate may cause damage to energy

producing devices

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CONCLUSIONS
Closed cycle OTEC is favored for the

future development in expectation of


higher efficiency but does not yet have the
advantage of having been put in practice.
To proceed beyond experimental plants
and
towards
commercialization
in
developed nations, a scaled version of a
100 MW OTEC plant must be designed and
operated.
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CONCLUSIONS(Continued
)
Wave energy utilization is still in an

early
stage
of
technological
development.
With further research and development
wave-energy devices will become
economically competitive

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