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The osmolality of the various body fluids

Feedback
device
forosmolality
the control of body wate
Substances
affect
Glucose
Protein
Several electrolytes, most notably sodium
Feedback mechanism for control of body water
(dehydration)
Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are
sensitive to
changes in osmotic pressure
These cells react to the more concentrated
body
fluids by stimulating the release of a hormone
from
the pituitary gland, ADH
Antidiuretic hormone travels by blood to the
kidneys
and directs them to reabsorb more water
Urinary output of water is diminished

Electrolytes

Acids, bases, and salts are common


electrolytes
The major electrolytes in the body fluids
Sodium

Potassium
Chloride
Bicarbonate
Sulfate
Magnesium
Calcium

Electrolyte functions in the body


Generate electrical current, such as in a
nerve
impulses
Activate enzymes to control a variety of
metabolic
activities in the cell

Sodium (Na)

One of the principle positive ions in


the body fluids
Estimated minimum requirements for
adults, 500
milligrams
DV is 2.4 grams
Dietary sources
Found in small amounts in most
natural
foods
Added from the salt shaker for flavor
Processing techniques add
significant
amounts of salt to the foods we buy

functions
in maintain
the
Sodium
It serves primarily
to help
normal body-fluid balance and
body
osmotic
pressure
It is critical for nerve impulse
transmission and muscle
contraction
It is a component of several
compounds
that help maintain normal acidbase
balance

Deficiency and excess


Deficiency states due to inadequate dietary intake
are not common
Prolonged sweating while exercising in the heat
may lead to short-term deficiencies that may be
debilitating to the athletic individual
Low sodium concentrations in the blood

cause a series of complex reactions that lead to


secretion of aldosterone
Aldosterone stimulates the kidney to retain
more sodium

Excesses of serum sodium will lead to decreased


aldosterone production and increased excretion of
sodium in the urine by the kidney
Other hormones, notably ADH, help maintain
normal sodium equilibrium in the body fluids

Chloride (Cl)

The major negative ion in the extracellular


fluids
Estimated daily adult minimum requirement,
750
milligrams
DV is 3,500 mg
Dietary sources of chloride are closely
associated
with that of sodium, notably in the form of table
salt
Functions of chloride

Chloride ions work with sodium in the


regulation of body-water balance and electrical
potentials across cell membranes
They are involved in the formation of
hydrochloric acid

Potassium (K)

Estimated daily adult requirement, 2,000


milligram
DV is 3,500 mg
Dietary sources
Bananas, Citrus fruits, Fresh vegetables, Milk,
Meat, Fish

Functions of potassium
Maintenance of body fluids and in the generation
of
electrical impulses
Plays an important role in the energy processes
in
the muscle
Helps in the transport of glucose into the muscle
cells
Helps in the storage of glycogen
Helps in the production of high-energy

Deficiency
and excess
Potassium balance is regulated by
aldosterone
from the adrenal cortex
Potassium deficiency may occur under
certain
conditions
During fasting
During bouts with diarrhea
With the use of diuretics
Symptoms
Muscular weakness
Cardiac arrest due to decreased
ability to
generate nerve impulses
Excessive potassium may cause cardiac
arrhythmias and possible death

The temperature of body parts may vary

considerably
Core temperature
Shell temperature
Normal body temperature is approximately
37o C
Rectal temperature is normally higher than
oral
temperature
Optimal physiological functioning usually
occurs
within a range of 36.1-40.0o C
Heat production and heat loss

Body temperature

Regulation of Body Temperature


Controlled by the hypothalamus
The hypothalamus receives input from several
sources
Receptors in the skin
Temperature of the blood
Heat loss if necessary
The blood will be channeled closer to the
skin
Sweating will begin and evaporation will
carry
away heat from the body
The body will react to conserve heat or increase
heat
production if necessary
The blood will be shunted away from the
skin to

Conditions Threatening Temperature Contro


Hypothermia
Falling into cold water
Slower runners during the latter part of
a
road race under cold, wet, and windy
conditions
Symptoms
Muscular un-coordination
Mental confusion
Hyperthermia
One of the major factors limiting
physical
performance
One of the most dangerous factors

Exercise
and Body
Temperature
Exercise increases
the metabolic
rate and the
production of energy
The total amount of heat produced depends on
the
intensity and duration of exercise
The average core temperature during exercise
may
reach about only 102.2-104.90 F (39-400 C)
because of the body's cooling system
Dissipation of heat during exercise
In a cool or cold environment via radiation,
convection and some evaporation
In a hot and dry environment via
evaporation
Maximal evaporation rate 30 ml/min
Dissipation of 580C from 1 liter of sweat if

Fluid and electrolyte losses

How does environmental heat affect physical


performance
Performance in strength, power, or speed
events that last less than a minute does not
appear to be affected adversely by warm
conditions
Performance in more prolonged aerobic
endurance activities is normally worse when
compared to performance in cooler
temperatures
In more prolonged events, above effects plus
effects of dehydration

Dehydration and hypohydration may affect


exercise
performance

Sweat
Sweat is derived from the extracellular fluids,
99%
water
The major electrolytes found in sweat
Sodium and chloride
Other minerals lost in small amounts
Potassium, magnesium, calcium,
iron,
copper, zinc
Small quantities are present in sweat, but are
easily
restored with a balanced diet
Nitrogen
Amino acids
Water-soluble vitamins

Exercise raises Balance


the concentration
of several
Electrolyte
During
Exercise
electrolytes in the blood
Sodium and potassium
Chloride and calcium ion concentrations
remain
relatively unchanged during exercise
Magnesium levels in the blood usually fall
It appears that an electrolyte deficiency will
not occur
If the electrolytes are not replaced daily, a
deficiency
may occur over time
Prolonged sweating has been shown to
decrease
the body content of sodium and chloride
by 5-7
percent

Fluid and electrolyte replacement

Gucose-electrolyte solutions (GES)


Glucose-polymer solutions
Provide carbohydrates while decreasing
the
osmotic concentration of the solution to
help minimize the effect upon gastric
emptying
When dehydration or hyperthermia is the major
threat
to performance, water replacement is the
primary consideration
In prolonged endurance events, carbohydrate
replacement may help improve performance
In very prolonged exercise in the heat with heavy
sweat
losses, electrolyte replacement may be essential

It is the most effective way to enhance


performance
Rehydration When Exercising in
Rehydration is recommended for wrestlers
Fluid ingestion during prolonged endurance
exercise

the He

Minimizes the rise in core temperature


Reduces stress on the cardiovascular system
by
minimizing the decrease in blood volume
Helps maintain an optimal race pace for a
longer
period

Water ingested during exercise may appear in


plasma
and sweat within 10-20 minutes
If ingestion of sufficient fluids is not possible
during
exercise

Factors Influencing Gastric Emptying

Fluid volume
Solute or caloric density
Osmolality
Fluid temperature
Exercise intensity
Mode of exercise
Dehydration

Electrolyte
Replacement
During very prolonged
bouts of physical activity,
electrolyte replacement may be necessary
Hyponatremia symptoms: Epileptic-like seizures
Heavy daily sweat losses do not lead to an
electrolyte
deficiency
If electrolytes are not adequately replaced a
deficiency
may occur over 4-7 days of very hard training,
especially in hot conditions
Exercising individuals who experience heavy
daily sweat
losses need both adequate fluids and sodium to
ensure
adequate rehydration

Fluid Replacement while Exercising


Guidelines for maintaining body fluid
in
the
Heat
balance
before competition
Be well trained and acclimated
Be adequately hydrated the day
before
and the morning of competition
10-17 oz. of cold fluid 15-30
minutes
before exercising
A 6-8 percent concentration of
carbohydrate may be added
Minimize the consumption of
alcohol
the evening before and avoid
caffeinated beverage 1-4 hours
before

Guidelines
during
competition

Cold water, about 4.4-100 C is effective when


carbohydrate intake
is of little or no concern
The fluid should contain small amounts of electrolytes,
400-1,100
mg of sodium and 120-225 mg of potassium per liter
Rehydrate with 180-240 ml of cold fluid during exercise at
10 to 15minute intervals
Start rehydrating early in endurance events because
thirst does
not develop until about 1-2 percent of body weight has
been
dehydrated
After competition during recovery, consume enough fluids
to
regain your body weight losses
In training, practice consuming fluids

Sodium Bicarbonate Loading


Does appear to enhance performance in exercise
tasks
dependent upon the lactic acid energy systems
The dosage of 300 mg/kg appears to be effective,
yet
safe
Disadvantages of sodium bicarbonate
supplementation
Gastrointestinal distress
Excessive doses could lead to alkalosis
Soda loading
It is an attempt to increase the supply of a
natural
body ingredient
It may be regarded as a drug