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# PRESENTED BY……

## JAI CHHABRA &

RAJESH KOUL
ANOVA
Professor R.A.fisher was the first man to use the term “variance” and in fact it
was he who developed this theory concerning ANOVA in year 1918,
explaining its usefulness in practical fields like economics, biology,
education, psychology, sociology, business/industry and in research of
several other disciplines.

## An analysis of the variance in the outcomes of an experiment is to assess the

contribution of each variable to the variation.

## The ANOVA technique is important in the context of all those situations

where we want to compare more then two populations for e.g. comparing
the yield of crop from several variety of seeds, the gasoline mileage of four
automobiles and so on
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ANOVA
The basic principle of ANOVA is to test for differences among the
means of population by examining the amount of variation within
each of these samples, relative to the amount of variation between
the samples
In ANOVA we have to make two estimates of population variance
viz., one based on between samples variance and other based on
within samples variance. Then these two estimates of population
variance are compared with F test, wherein we work out.

## Estimate of population variance based on between samples

variace
F = _________________________________________________
Estimate of population variance based on within sample variance
ANOVA TECHNIQUE

## 2. Two way ANOVA technique

ONE WAY ANOVA TECHNIQUE

One way ANOVA is also known as single factor ANOVA. Here we consider only one
factor and then observe that the reason for said factor to be important is that
several possible types of samples can occur within that factor. The technique
involves following steps :

1. obtain the mean of each sample when there are ‘k’ samples
X1, X2, X3,……..Xk
1. Workout the mean of the sample means
X = X1 + X2 + X3+………..Xk/k
1. Take the deviations of the sample means from the mean of the sample means &
then calculate the square of such deviations which may be multiplied by the
number of items in the corresponding samples and then obtain their total. This is
known as sum of squares for variance between the samples
4. Divide the result of third step by the degrees of freedom between the samples
to obtain variance or man squares between samples. Symbolically, this can be
written :

SS between
MS between = ______________
(k-1)

5. Obtain the deviations of the values of the sample item for all the samples from
corresponding means of the samples & calculate the squares of such deviations
& then obtain their total. This total is known as the sum of squares for variance
within samples.
6. Divide the value of fifth step by the degrees of freedom within samples to
obtain the variance or mean square within the samples. Symbolically this can
be written as :
SS within
MS between= __________
(n-k)
Where (n-k) represents degrees of freedom within samples,
N= total number of items in all the samples i.e. n1+n2+…….nk.
K= number of samples
7. For a check, the sum of squares of deviations for total
variance can also be worked out by adding the squares of
deviations when the deviations for the individual items in all
the samples have been taken from the mean of sample
means . The total should be equal to the total of the result of
the third & fifth step i.e.
SS for total variance = SS between + SS within
8. Finally, F-ratio may be worked out as under :
MS between
F-ratio = _______________
MS within

## The ratio is used to judge whether the difference among several

means is significant or is just a matter of sampling
fluctuations.
 Example of one way technique

## Group A is given vodka, Group B is given gin, and Group C is

given a placebo. All groups are then tested with a memory
task. A one-way ANOVA can be used to assess the effect of
the various treatments (that is, the vodka, gin, and placebo).

## Group A is given vodka and tested on a memory task. The same

group is allowed a rest period of five days and then the
experiment is repeated with gin. The procedure is repeated
using a placebo. A one-way ANOVA with repeated
measures can be used to assess the effect of the vodka versus
the impact of the placebo.
CODING METHOD

## It is furtherance of short cut method. It is based on an important property

of F-ratio that its value does not change if all the n item values are
either multiplied or divided by a common figure or if a common figure
is either added or subtracted from each of the given n item values

## Through this method big figures are reduced in magnitude by division or

subtraction & computation work is simplified without any disturbance
on F-ratio

Once the given figures are converted with the help of some common
figures, then all the steps of the short cut method are followed for
obtaining & interpreting F-ratio.
TWO WAY ANOVA TECHNIQUE

Two way ANOVA technique is used when the data are classified on the
basis of two factors. For example, the agriculture output may be
classified on the basis of different varieties of seeds & also on the
basis of different variety of fertilizers used. The various steps
involved are as follows :
1. Use the coding device if the same simplifies the task.
2. Take the total of the values of the individual items (or their coded
values as the case may be) in all the samples and call it ‘T’.
3. Work out the correction factor as under :
(T)2
correction factor = _____
n
4. Find out the square of all the item values one by one & then take its total.
Subtract the correction factor from this total to obtain the sum of squares
of deviations from total variance.
5. Take the total of different columns & then obtain the square of each
column total & divide such squared values of each column by the
number of items in the concerning column & take the total of the result
thus obtained. Finally subtract the correction factor from this total to
obtain the sum of squares of deviations for variance between columns or
(SS between columns).
6. Take the total of different rows & then obtain the square of each row
total & then divide such squared value of each row by the number of
items in the corresponding row & take the total of the result thus
obtained. Finally subtract the correction factor from this total to obtain
the sum of squares of deviations for variance between rows or (SS
between rows).
7. Sum of squares of deviations for residual or error variance can be
worked out by subtracting the result of the sum of (v)th & (vi)th step
stated above. In other words,

## Total SS – (SS between columns + SS between rows) = SS for

residual or error variance
8. Degrees of freedom (d.f) can be worked out as under :
d.f. for total variance = (c . R-1)
d.f. for variance between columns = (c-1)
d.f. for variance between rows = (r-1)
d.f. for residual variance = (c-1) (r-1)
where c = number of columns
r = number of rows

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