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Quality is the degree to which a product lives up to its

performance, endurance, maintainability, and other attributes
that a customer expects to receive from purchasing this
The definition of quality by the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society for
Quality Control (ASQC) is the totality of features and
characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability
to satisfy given needs.
ISO-9000 Definition
Quality the totality of features and characteristics of a product
and service that bears on its ability to meet stated or implied

i) Quality is defined as being about value (Feigenbaum,

ii) Quality is conformance to standards, specifications or
requirements (Crosby, 1979)
iii) Quality is fitness for use (Juran, 1989)
iv) Quality as excellence (Peters and Waterman, 1982)
v) Quality is concerned with meeting or exceeding
customer expectations (Parasuraman et al., 1985)
vi) Quality means delighting the customer

Other meanings associated with the word quality are as

A good product
Made of best materials
Easy to operate
Nice in appearance and touch
Produced with care

Dimensions of quality for manufactured products

The basic operating characteristic of a product is performance. For
example, how well a car handles or its gas mileage etc.
Features are the extra items added to the basic features, such as
stereo CD or a leather interior in a car.
Reliability is the probability that a product will operate properly within
an expected time frame, e.g., a TV without repair for about 7 years.
Conformance is the degree to which a product meets pre-established

Durability tells how long a product lasts, i.e. its life span before
Serviceability is the ease of getting repairs, the speed of repairs, and
the courtesy and competence of the repairperson.
Aesthetics tells how a product looks, feels, sounds, smells or tastes.
Safety refers to assurance that the customer will not suffer injury or
harm from the product.
Other Perceptions
Other perceptions include the subjective perceptions based on brand
name, advertising and the like.

Dimensions of service quality

Time and Timeliness
Time and timeliness tells how long a customer should wait for
a particular service and if it is completed in time. For
example, is an overnight package delivered overnight?
Completeness answers, Has everything a customer asked
for been provided? For example, is a mail order from a
catalog company complete when delivered?
Courtesy tells how employees treat customers. For example,
are catalog phone operators nice and are their voices

Consistency answers, Is the same level of service provided to
each customer each time? Another example could be is your
newspaper delivered on time every morning?
Accessibility and Convenience
Accessibility and convenience answers, How easy it is to
obtain the service? For example, when you call BPL Mobile,
does the service representative answer quickly?
Is the service performed right every time? Is your bank or
credit card statement correct every month?
How well the company reacts to unusual situations, which can
happen frequently in a service company.

Total - made up of the whole
Quality - degree of excellence a product or service
Management - act, art or manner of planning,
controlling, directing,.
Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole
to achieve excellence.

TQM is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles

that represent the foundation for a continuously
improving organization.
TQM is the application of quantitative methods and
human resources to improve the material and services
supplied to an organization, and the degree to which the
needs of the customers are met, now and in the future.
TQM integrates fundamental management techniques,
existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under
a disciplined approach focused on continuous

According to the American Society for Quality Control

(ASQC), total quality management (TQM) "is a
management approach to long-term success through
customer satisfaction.

Whats the goal of TQM?

Do the right things right the first time, every time.