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# Curve and Curve Ranging

Introduction

A curve is used
to connect two straight lines
meeting at an angle
on highways and railways where it
is required to change the direction of
motion

Classification

Curve

Circular

Parabolic

Simple
Curve
Compound
Curve
Reverse
Curve

Vertical
Curve

Summit
Curve
Sag Curve

Transition or
Easement
Curve
Cubic
Parabola
Leminscate
of Bernolli

Spiral

## Definitions and Notations of a Circular Curve

Point of Curve
Point of Tangency
Tangent Points
Back/First Tangent
Forward/Second Tangent
Point of Intersection
Tangent Distance
Angle of Intersection

## Definitions and Notations of a Circular Curve

Angle of Deflection
Length of Curve
Long Chord
Normal Chord
Sub Chord
Summit
Mid Ordinate
Apex Distance

Length of
Length of
Apex

R tan
Distance
2

2
R
sin
Long Chord =2
R
30
Circular Curve =
180
D

DistanceR(sec
= 1)
2

R (1 =
cos )
Sine
2

## Chainage at T1 = Chainage at P PT1

Chainage at T2 = Chainage at T1 +
Length of Curve

## Elements of a Circular Curve

Problem#1
Two straight alignments of a proposed road
intersect at a chainage (78+34), the angle of
intersection being 139030/. If it is proposed to
introduce a simple circular curve of 10 chains
radius between the alignments, calculate (i) the
degree of the curve based on arc definition, (ii) the
tangent distance, (iii) the length of the circular
curve, (iv) the chainages at the tangent points, (v)
the long chord, (vi) the apex distance, and (vii) the
versed sine. Assume that the length of the chain is
20m.

Degree of Curve

## Degree of curve is the angle subtended

by a 30 m (100 ft) arc/chord at the center
Arc Definition
Generally adopted for railway curves
1718.9
R
m
D

Chord Definition
15
R
m
D
sin
2

Circular
Curve
Ranging

Linear
Methods

Ordinates from
Long Chord

Offsets from
Tangents

Angular
Methods

Offsets from
Chords

One
Theodolite
Method
Two
Theodolite
Method

Perpendicular
Offsets

## Ox is the ordinate from long chord at a

distance x from mid point of long chord
Ox R 2 x 2 ( R VS )

Locate P, T1, N, T2
Divide long chord into equal parts
Calculate offset Ox for different x
Locate H, draw offset by optical
squares
Measure Ox , locate G

## Curve can be set out by offsets from

the tangent
Ox is the radial offset at a distance x along
the tangent

Ox x 2 R 2 R
Locate P, T1, M, O, T2 (O must be located
first)
Measure different x along T1P and locate C
Measure Ox along CO to locate G

## Offsets From Tangents

Perpendicular Offsets
Ox is the offset perpendicular to the
tangent at a distance x along the tangent

Ox R R 2 x 2
Locate P, T1, M, T2
Measure different x along T1P and locate
C
From C, measure perpendicular offset Ox
with the help of an optical square and
locate G

## Curve and Curve Ranging

Curve Ranging

Problem#2
Calculate the necessary data for setting
out the curve of Problem#1 by drawing
offsets from long chord at 20m intervals.
Problem#3
Calculate the necessary data for setting
out the curve of Problem#1 by drawing (a)
radial offsets, and (b) perpendicular offsets,
from the tangents at 20m intervals.

## Super elevation Raising of the outer

edge of the road or the outer rail over the
inner one on curves
Shift Parallel displacement of the
original circular curve from its original
position to enable the transition curve to
be inserted between the straight line and
circular curve