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Introduction

What is Casting?
The Pros & Cons of Casting
What is Forging?
The Pros & Cons of Forging
Summary
Sources to find more information

What is Casting?

Forms of Casting: Investment, Sand,


Pressure
Casting is the procedure by which a liquid
metal is poured into a wheel mold or cast
and allowed to cool to a near final state.
Final machining is required for a finished
product.
Casting is a simple and fast method to
create wheels with greater detail than that
of other methods.
Pressure casting is the best way to cast a
wheel because it reduces void percentage.
Typically used for daily driving.

Sand Casting

Pressure Casting

Pros & Cons


of Casting

Low cost, $125 each


Before Track
After Track
Easy to mass produce Day
Day
Less material waste during production
Cannot withstand as much pressure or
frequency of impact as forged can
More impurities and voids due to the
production of wheels through a molten
state

What is
Forging?

Starts as billet, then cut into the right


length, heated to a T6 condition to get the
right mix of strength and ductility, and
pressed into shape undergoing 6-12000
tons of pressure.
Forging puts energy into the metal and
changes the internal grain structure
(crystalline) and this change in the grain
structure is what gives a forging additional
strength in comparison to the original billet
rod.
A forged aluminum wheel has a higher
specific strength as well as higher
toughness in comparison to a casting. This
allows an engineer to design a wheel that is
lighter, stiffer and less susceptible to
cracking under impact and with better
fatigue properties than a casting product. 1
Elongation of grain structure with
alignment of the shape of the wheel.
Used in racing applications.

Pros & Cons of


Forging

Cast
Steel

Forged
Aluminum

Light weight, more economical


Higher strength, safer in applications
High cost for products, $500 each
Longer process to make than casting
Waste of excess material
The wheel on the right withstands a load of
71,200 kg before it deforms by 5 cm. The
steel wheel on the left can only withstand
13,600 kg when it also deforms by 5cm.
This means that the wheel on the right is
5X as strong.

Summary of
Cast vs. Forged
Cast is heavier

Forged is stronger and has more


resistance to fatigue and impact
In comparison to forgings, castings are
made by pouring molten metal into a mold
and have considerably lower strength,
ductility, and fatigue resistance. Castings
often suffer from defects in the form of
voids or porosity. The main trait of
castings are their low cost and ability to
be produced in high volumes but at the
expense of strength and weight.

1. HRE Wheels
www.hrewheels.com/technology/materials/
2. Motor Archive
www.motoractive.com.au/wheels.htm
3. Alcoa
www.alcoa.com/alcoawheels/europe/en/benefit
s_forged.asp
4. GM
www.gmaccessorydealer.com/wheels/forgedve
rsuscast.asp
5. Google
www.jepsculpture.com/art/ben-casting.jpg