Você está na página 1de 51

Treinamento Lubrificantes

•Post lubricants
•Cupper Emulsions
•Cupper neat oil applied using HST’s
Appli coater™
•Bodymaker lubricants
CMB/Sept 2000
Tipos de lubrificação

CMB/Sept 2000
Formación de
Emulsiones
con los Tensiactivos
aceite

agua

emulsión

CMB/Sept 2000
Tipos de emulsiones

Emulsión O/W Emulsión W/O


(aceite en agua) (agua en aceite)

CMB/Sept 2000
Burbuja de espuma
Fase acuosa Fase gaseosa (aire)

Moléculas de tensiactivo
CMB/Sept 2000
Post (ou Pre-lube)
Lubricant Funções
• Garante a base de lubrificação para a fabricação da lata e completa a
lubrificação da cupper.
• Melhora a molhabilidade da bobina ( para aplicação de óleo de copo).

• Protege a superfície da bobina contra manchas de água e oxidações.

• Reduz os arranhões produzidos pelo transportes das bobinas.

• Dispersa as sujidades provenientes do processo de laminação

• É aplicado por energia eletroestática e se molda ao requisitos do fabricante de


alumínio.

CMB/Sept 2000
Lubrificante de Copos
Funções
• Reduz o atrito entre a superfície do alumínio e o corpo da
ferramente, pela lubrificação hidrodinâmica.

• Promove a base de lubrificação para fabricação da lata na body


maker

• Garante a lubrificação necessária para expulsar a lata do


punção no final do processo de estiramento
• Aumenta o controle na processo de formação do copo, sem
rugas, o que diminui a incidência de blush.
• Promove uma proteção extra contra corrosão do ferramental
pela presença de inibidores de corrosão no óleo.

CMB/Sept 2000
Cupper & Post (or Pre-lube)
Lubricant classification
• Semi-Synthetic Emulsion Based
– Mineral Oil
– Synthetic Ester
– Fatty Acid Amine Soap
– Non-ionic Emulsifiers
– Corrosion Inhibitors
• Semi-Synthetic Non-Emulsion Based (APPLI-COATER™)
– Mineral Oil
– Synthetic Ester
– Fatty Acid
– Corrosion Inhibitors

CMB/Sept 2000
Tipos de Post Lubes

• DTI 5600-PL
– Um dos primeiros a serem desenvolvidos. É o utilizado no Brasil

• DTI 5600-PLE

• DTI 5600-PLR

• DTI 6000 CPL é o lançamento mais recente e supera todos os anteriores e


está sendo introduzido no Brasil por apresentar melhores caracteristicas para
climas como o do Brasil

CMB/Sept 2000
Appli-Coater™
instalação

CMB/Sept 2000
Parametros
Lubrificantes de copos emulsão
DTI-M3, M3B and C1 cupping lubricants
Concentration 20-40%
(dependant on Durometer of rollers)
Cup Weights 20–25mgrms/cup (33cl)
25-30mgrms/cup (50cl)
Biocide M3B - bio-stable
M3/C1- 1000 – 1200ppm
PH 8.0-8.8
Bacteria <10³
Fungus <10
Pre-mix conc As required to maintain cupper
concentration
CMB/Sept 2000
Products for Aluminum
Cupper Lubricants
• DTI M3A com buffer de biocida pode ser considerado bioestático
• DTI C1 Cupper
– Melhora aparência da lata, latas mais claras e maior brilho, melhor performance ( reduz
short can)
• DTI SNL-2 Cupper Applicação Neat applicoater.
Ultimo desenvolvimento reduz significativamente o TOR, latas com interior
claro, latas mais brilhantes.
• CL 300B – Neat oil usado no applicoater não é bioestático
• CL 400 -- Neat oil usado no applicoater não é bioestático.

CMB/Sept 2000
Parametros
Óleo integral
• DTI-C1 applied as a neat cupping oil using HST
Appli-coater™

Concentration Not applicable


Cup weights 20-25mgrms/cup (33cl)
25-30mgrms/cup (50cl)
Biocide Not required
Bacteria/fungus No check required
Pre-mix Not required

CMB/Sept 2000
Parametros
Óleo integral
• CL300 B – Aplicação integral no applicoater

Concentração Não aplicável


Cup weights 18-25mgrms/cup (12 oz)
25-30mgrms/cup (16 oz)
Biocide Não necessário
Bacteria/fungus Não requer checagem
Pre-mix Não requerido

CMB/Sept 2000
Filter system

CMB/Sept 2000
Troubleshooting lube parameters

• Cupper parameters • Bodymaker parameters


1. General comments
1. General comments 2. pH control
2. Emulsions 3. Concentration
3. Appli-coater neat oils 4. Tramp
5. Cup and post lube
6. Bacteria
7. Water hardness
8. Aluminium
9. Temperature
10. Coolant flow
11. Foam

CMB/Sept 2000
Coolant e suas Funções

• Boundary Lubricant Function


– complementa a lubrificação feita no copo.
– Garante bom acabamento da superfície da lata
– reduz o atrito entre o alumínio e as ferramentas reduzindo assim os
short cans, marcas de estiramento e desplacamento
– Promove detergência necessária para efetuar a limpeza das
ferrametas, limpar o alumínio incrustado, e facilita a limpeza da lata
na lavadora
– Protege as ferramentas e o equipamento contra corrosão/oxidação
– Refrigera o ferramental
– Cuida do tramp oil limpando e dispersando dentro do coolant. Não
o deixa dentro da máquina
• Coolant / Detergent Function

CMB/Sept 2000
Parameters
Bodymaker lubricants
• WBLF Bodymaker lubricant (standard technology since 1991)
Concentration 2.0 – 2.5%
pH 8.8 – 9.1 9.2 – 9.4
Tramp 0.5-2.0%
Cupper oil 0.5-1.5%
Biocide 1000 – 1500ppm
Bacteria/Fungus <10³/<10
Temperature 42 – 46°C
Flow rate 65 – 75litres/minute
Water quality <50ppm

• TRLEX bodymaker lubricant (first generation bio-stable lubricant


containing no biocide)
Concentration 2.0 – 2.5%
pH 9.2 – 9.4
Tramp 0.5-2.0%
Cupper oil 0.5-1.5%
Biocide Triazine may be added if required to maximum 500ppm
Bacteria/Fungus <10³/<10
Temperature 42-45°C
Flow rate 65 – 75litres/minute
Water quality <50ppm

CMB/Sept 2000
O que é tramp oil ?

• Tramp = Tudo o que não é coolant


( óleo de copo, óleo mineral, finos de alumínio,
sabões, graxa, cinzas, e outras impurezas)
• O tramp é medido em % dentro do sistema de
óleo solúvel.
• Lubrificantes DTI analisam o tramp bom ( o
óleo de copo)

CMB/Sept 2000
Geração do tramp ruim
no sistema de óleo solúvel

CMB/Sept 2000
SUBCONJUNTOS
Ram To Yolk
Yolk Slide

Ram
Ram Spacer

Locking Collar
CMB/Sept 2000
SUBCONJUNTOS
Primary and Secondary Bushing

Entrada de óleo

Haste
do
punção

8 Lee-Jets

Bucha Bucha
primári
CMB/Sept 2000 secundária
LUBRIFICAÇÃO
O fluxo do Coolant Soluble Oil Function
é de 26 GPM / 120
lPM Temperatura
de 40ºC

O óleo solúvel refrigera e limpa o ferramental removendo


parte
CMB/Sept 2000 . do óxido de alumínio dando maior durabilidade
LUBRIFICAÇÃO
Soluble Oil Function

Algumas máquinas
possuem medidores de
vazão diferentes e
termômetros acoplados.
Além de medir ele
também monitora se há
fluxo mínimo.

CMB/Sept 2000
LUBRIFICAÇÃO
Soluble Oil

Estas características devem ser acompanhadas a cada turno ,


pois2000problemas podem surgir na lata como, blush, meia-lata e
CMB/Sept
Bodymaker
(1) Coolant parameters
• General comments
– Making the coolant captive (leak free)
• Maintaining a high level of cupper lubricant helps bodymaker performance
• Tramp is important to remove aluminium fines, but too much can create
their own problems
• Water quality of low hardness is needed to prevent sludge build up and keep
detergency in the coolant
• Keeping consistent coolant parameters helps maintain continuity in the
process
• Captive trench reclaim systems always challenge the pH and the bacteria free
coolant system
• TRLEX will require some support from either Buffer ‘B’, or biocide to
prevent bacteria

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(2) Coolant pH

• Coolant pH is affected and determined by


– Concentration of product
– Age of coolant (how captive the coolant is)
– Amount of cupper lubricant in the coolant
– Biocide
– Buffer ‘B’
– Bacteria activity
– Contamination
– Water quality/hardness

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(2a) pH control
Cause Line issues Solution
Low pH due to bacteria •Can Scoring and tear-offs •Switch off trench reclaim
activity •High tooling usage •Find the source of the problem
•Difficulty in testing concentration •Clean and sterilise the problem area
•Bad egg smell •Set the AMU concentration high
•Health issues-dermatitis •Do not rely on concentration check
•Tooling leaching and ‘pin holes’ •Add biocide to main system to 1500ppm or a
•High filter usage Kathon dose if allowed at 200ppm
•Conveyor bio build up •Correct pH by addition of Buffer ‘B’

Low pH due to washer •Can scoring and tear-offs •Coolant analysis may be required to find cause –
contamination or floor soaps •Tooling usage Sulphates/fluorides
•Difficulty in testing coolant •Find the source of the contamination – washer
•Encouraged bacteria activity infeed (overspray)
•Partial dump may be required
•Correction of the pH by adding Buffer ‘B’

High pH caused by biocide •Health issues Check biocide ppm and correct
High pH caused by caustic •Possible stripping/rollback issues Check DI regeneration leaks
Partial dump may be needed if severe
CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(3) Concentration (WBLF/TRLEX)
• Coolant concentration is
determined by either:
– Titration
• Advantage – Quick and easy to read • Titration
titration value and make calculate – Buffer ‘B’ (1000ppm) = 5mls
• Disadvantage – Heavily influenced by – Triazine (1000ppm) = 3mls
biocide and Buffer ‘B’
– C1 (1%) = 1mls
– M3/5000NCL (1%) =0.8mls
– Polymer
• Advantage – Not affected as much by • Polymer
biocide and buffer ‘B’ – C1 (1%) = 0.6
• Disadvantage – Water soluable part of – M3/5000NCL = 0.3
the Cupper lubricant affects readings
– Buffer ‘B’ (1000) = 0.1
Note: – Triazine (1000) = 0.1
• The preferred test method for TRLEX is
titration and for WBLF polymer

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(3a) Coolant concentration
Cause Line issues Solution

High concentration •High applied cost •Correct concentration


•Possible that the cup lube is washed off
creating scoring

Low concentration •Can scoring –lack of boundary lubricant •Correct concentration


•Build-up on the tooling-lack of detergency
•Corrosion-Lack of corrosion inhibitor
•Out of round cans-due to tooling build-up
•Out of spec sidewall-due to excessive tooling
wear/build-up

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(4) Tramp control
• Tramp contamination (hydraulic oil)
– Some tramp is normal ( >0.8%) and does help to remove Aluminium
– Too much tramp can cause their own problems (>2.0%)
– Maintaining an acceptable tramp is a balance between fixing the hydraulic leaks and a
maintaining a reasonable captive coolant system
– The bodymaker seal pack is usually the main cause of leaks
– Changing the seal pack will not be successful if the ‘ram’ is scored, or worn at the limits of its
travel
– Seal pack air vent needs to be working- they reduce leaks and help troubleshoot bad leaks
– Redraw carriage push rod seals are next in priority, again bushes and push rods need to be in
good condition
– Exterior bodymaker leaks from the HP system are easily seen
– Following the individual bodymaker hydraulic oil consumption does help
– Trench reclaim will capture the hydraulic leaks and increase tramp
– Polymer could be used but as a last option

CMB/Sept 2000
Standun and CMB
bodymaker hydraulic oil control

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(4a) Tramp
Cause Line issues Solution
High tramp in the coolant caused by •Can cleaning issues •Identify the problem bodymakers and
leaks from the bodymakers •Sludge build up fix them
•Pro-active control over the •Tooling polishing and high usage •If serious stop trench reclaim
bodymaker hydraulic oil •Oval cans and scratching •Ensure skimmer and coalescer are
consumption is the best answer •‘Sugarscoops’ working efficiently
•Large coolant settling tanks help
•Stripping and rollback problems
•Additional trench recovery system
benefit from an additional coalescer

Low tramp in the coolant- Lack of •Mechanical contact wear possible •Allow tramp to increase
mechanical protection •Slow long stroke bodymakers more •Reduce, or switch off skimmers and
prone colescers
•Punch and ring damage will follow

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker Coolant
(5) Cup and post lubricant

• Very desirable in the coolant system


– Additional good can making material
– Provides additional hydrodynamic lubrication to protect against mechanical contact of punch
and rings
– Provides additional emulsifiers to the coolant
– Helps keep tooling interface clean

• Easy to measure by refractive index


– Poor systems 0-0.3% (Coolant not captive and probable low cup film weight)
– Good system 0.6-1%
– Ideal systems 1-2%

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(6) Bacteria issues
• Lubricants are blended from molecules that bacteria derive foodstuffs
• Bacteria destroys the emulsifiers, fatty acids and corrosive inhibitors in the coolant
• They reduces the system pH by emitting organic acids as part of their active metabolism
• Causes stickiness resulting in can scoring, T/O and stripping problems
• Causes problems in determining concentration
• Causes frequent coolant filter changes
• Attacks the tooling
– Reducing system pH
– Localised drop in pH
– Destroys the corrosion inhibitor in the coolant
• Health issues
– Most human pathogens are only active at pH 7.45
– Breaks in the skin allow bacteria access. The excretion of metabolic acids triggers
histamines which then causes itching and redness

CMB/Sept 2000
Bio-organisms

Algae

Mold

Fungi

Bacteria

CMB/Sept 2000
HMB vs. Dip slide cultures

• HMB test for the metabolic activity of the bacteria –


method is Bio-chemical
• Measurement is by the bacteria enzyme being produced
• Measurement therefore tells us how active the bacteria is
• The HMB measurement tells us how much ‘eating’ and degradation of
the coolant is taking place by the bacteria
• Advantage is an immediate result
• Dip slides, or cultures- method is growth
• Measurement is by using a nutrient and incubation
• Number of colonies gives an estimation of concentration, or number of
bacteria in the system
• The two methods do not necessarily always correlate

CMB/Sept 2000
Controlling Microbial build up

• Be pro-active by monitoring biocide usage

• Cupper and coolant system measurement


– pH measurement
– Coolant biocide measurement
– Bio-cultures/ HMB
• Audit potential problem equipment
– Trenches and can conveyors are prone to grow bacteria
– Keeping control of the trenches and conveyors actual reduces biocide
usage
• Bacteria correction program
– Find the source of the problem and fix it by cleaning and sterilising
CMB/Sept 2000
(7) Harmful hardness ions
from water
• Calcium and Magnesium.
• Starts to form sludge above 50 ppm (aluminium soaps)
• Acceptable limit usually at 120 ppm
• If softener is exchanging large amounts of sodium ions the system can run up to
200 ppm
• Captive system produce higher ppm readings
• High coolant temperatures and summer periods produce an increase in ppm
level
• Silica (10ppm) form abrasive build up
• Chloride and Sulphate corrosive to steel and carbide
• Acceptable is 30-50ppm
• Requires close monitoring 50-100ppm
• Potential problems >100ppm

CMB/Sept 2000
Controlling hard water
ions in the coolant system
• Maintain the water softener
• Check outgoing water quality (< 50ppm)
• Check regeneration cycle and salt usage
• Exchange of sodium ions adds extra detergency to the coolant
• Monitor FE cleandown water
• High usage of wash down water
• Maintenance days are prone to give problems
• Trench recovery systems require more attention
• Captive coolant systems will result in higher levels of hard water salts
• Watch summer water table and for water supply changes

• High coolant temperatures evaporate and concentrate the salts


• High coolant temperatures can mean 10-20% more water input to the coolant system
• Summer months may need another 10-20% more water

CMB/Sept 2000
(8) Sources of aluminium fines
in the coolant system
• Coil substrate generated during the rolling process
– Amount of aluminium debris can differ from each Coil suppliers
– Coil slitters do generate high amounts of aluminium debris
– Range of micron aluminium debris can range from as low as 0.1µ and up to 30µ

• Cup manufacturing
– Poor lubrication or worn tooling will generate more debris

• Bodymaker redraw re-forming


– Poor cup quality, worn tooling and lack of cup lubricant

• Ironing operation
– Poor coolant control and worn tooling

CMB/Sept 2000
Controlling the build up
of Aluminium fines
• Adequate filtration
– Filtration is a trade-off between cost and filtration
– A higher performance filter media will improve situation
– Mechanical condition of filter (leaking, or poor controlled CV valves)
• Floatation and removal of the tramp
– Does help reduce the level of aluminium fines
• Trench recovery systems (closed systems) require more attention
• Worn tooling generates more aluminium debris
• Poor, or inadequate lubrication in the cupper
• Poor, of inadequate lubrication in the bodymaker
• TRLEX will hold more aluminium due to its alkalinity and amine
• Centrifuge can help
• Polymer will remove aluminium with the tramp

CMB/Sept 2000
(9) Coolant temperature

Cause Line issues Solution


Low coolant •Short cans (too short to trim) Adjust temperature to
temperature •Tear-offs-(due to lack of wetting) specification
Usually below 38°C •Can scoring
•Poor stripping
•Tooling build-up
•Out of round cans
•Poor trimming

High coolant •Long cans Adjust temperature to


temperature specification
Usually above 48°C

CMB/Sept 2000
(10) Bodymaker coolant flow rate

• High flow rates > 100 litres/min


– Cup infeed flutter
– Can flutter at the discharge
– Short can length and trimmer jams

• Low flow rates < 50 litres/min


– Heat build up
– Long cans
– Build-up on tooling
• Can scoring
• Tear-offs
• Out of round cans

• General recommendation is 65-75 litres/min

CMB/Sept 2000
(11) Foam causes and prevention

• Product choice • Toolpack spacer design


– Modern synthetic lubes cause problems – Alperton type restrict the flow and
– Usually there is low foam version available agitate the coolant
• Soft water • Product input rate
– Soft water provides more detergency by the – Fresh product input brings more detergency to
exchange of sodium ions. The harder the area the system
water the more sodium ions
• Foam traps
– If foaming problems are bad some hard water
– Liquid levels above outlets
could be added
– Bodymaker outlet pipes too small, or that go
• Bodymaker coolant flow uphill
– High flow are the major cause of foam • Defoamer additions
– Griswold valves are recommended – Best place to add the defoamer is where the
• Coolant supply pressure foam is being generated
– High pressures agitate the coolant • Dirt loading
– Pumps that leak coolant also draw in air that – Tramp dirt and aluminium all help to
creates foam suppress foam

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(7) Out of round cans
• Coolant Parameters out of specification
– Temperature too low (44°C nominal)
– Tramp oil too high
• Over 3% may result in problems
• High speed bodymaker are more sensitive to high tramp
– Low concentration of bodymaker coolant
– Coolant low flow, or restricted
• Build up on punch, or rings
– Check cup lubricant is sufficient
– Check aluminium debris on cups
• Bodymaker misalignment
– Punch to toolpack
– Redraw sleeve alignment/pressure or overtravel
– Cup locator/infeed

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(8) Bleedthrough
• Most bleedthrough problems are generated in the cupper, or at the
bodymaker redraw
– Worn or badly matched cupper tooling
– Bodymaker redraw sleeve or redraw ring condition
• Coil substrate and lubrication are also factors
• Following the generally troubleshooting rules will identify the source
– Grain orientation
– Cup ID
– Bodymaker ID and orientation
• Washer etching helps marginally
• Lubrication
– Check for low cup weight
– High coolant pH
– Sludge build up in cupper/bodymaker tooling
– Dirt loading high
– Dry coils (poor postlube coverage)
CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(10) Excessive bodymaker tool wear
• Lubricant
– Cupper lubricant low film weight/concentration
– Coolant parameters
• Concentration
• Ph and bacteria
• Tramp %
• Cupper %
• Excessive organic build-up on rings
– Water quality and coolant sludge
– Test aluminium/dirt levels
– Check filter cycles and filter media
• Chemical corrosion of tool surface
– Check pH and bio activity

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(11) Poor stripping (rollback)
• Oxide, or sludge build up on punch
• Score or wear on the punch
• Punch too smooth (>6µ finish recommended)
• Crosshatching is recommended (1200 grit is normal)
• Worn of poor stripper alignment
• Air strip too low (10psi bleed air recommended)
• Coil substrate
• Lowering the coolant flow may help
• Low (or high) cup film weights
• Coolant parameters out of specification
– Temperature low, or fluctuation
– High tramp
– pH of coolant
• Too high and the coolant is too stable
• Too low and coolant becomes unstable (lack of detergency)

CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(12) Sludge build-up in the coolant system

• High water hardness


– Minimum incoming water hardness <50ppm
– Minimum coolant hardness <120ppm
• Excessive dirt/fines, or rolling oil on coil surface
• Coolant parameters
– High tramp oil
– Low concentration
– Bacteria/fungal activity
– Low pH (lack of detergency)
• Insufficient coolant supply to bodymakers
• Bodymaker dirt load
CMB/Sept 2000
Bodymaker
(13) Can scoring
• Poor coil strip • Coolant parameters
– Heavy oxide deposits – Low pH/bacteria activity (lack of
– detergency)
Aluminium fines/ slivers,
– Low concentration
– Dirt (smut)
– Low coolant flow
– Rolled in laminations
– High tramp
• Poor cup quality – Temperature out of specification
– Earring • Worn, or ‘build up’ on bodymaker
– Wrinkles tooling
– Scored cups – Internal scratch
• Cupper lubricant parameters • Redraw sleeve and punch
– Low pH (bacteria activity) – External scratch
• Redraw/ironing rings and stripper
– Low film weight fingers

CMB/Sept 2000