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Presented by

M. V. Sc. ( Obstetrics and Gynaecology )
Anand Veterinary College, Anand, Gujarat
E-Mail: drpatel1114@gmail.com
• Congenital causes of infertility are often inherited.
They include developmental abnormalities of the
ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
Some are lethal, a few have a morphological
significance and others a functional significance.

• Common morphological conditions include ovarian

(gonadal) hypoplasia and aplasia, anomalies of the
tubular genitalia, hermaphroditism, freemartinism,
arrested development of the Mullerian ducts (White
heifer disease) and double cervix.
 Bovine gonadal hypoplasia is not easy to diagnose and in
cases of bilateral ovarian hypoplasia heifers do not
develop secondary sexual characteristics. They are
anoestrus and infertile. Where the condition is unilateral,
normal sexual organs and oestrous activity may be
observed.Such animals are fertile, although less so than

 The condition is potentiated by an autosomal recessive

gene with incomplete penetrance, and therefore the
incidence of gonadal hypoplasia can be reduced by using
only animals (both male and female) with normally
developed sexual organs as breeding stock.
• Hermaphrodites have internal genitalia resembles both
sexes and external genitalia of intermediate type that may
tend toward male or female depending on structural

• Free martins are heifers calves born as co-twins to bull

calves are sterile, on account of an abnormal sexual

• White heifer disease due to arrested development of

mullerian duct in which uterus and vagina are incomplete
developed. And ovary and vulva are normal.
 This factor includes conditions like cystic ovarian
degeneration, ovarian insufficiency with estrus,
early embryonic death, prolonged gestation.

 Cystic ovaries contain one or more persistent fluid-filled

cavities larger than a ripe follicle. Ovarian cysts can be
classified as follicular and luteal.
 Their effects also vary according to their number and
degree of luteinisation. Many unluteinised follicles tend to
lead to nymphomania with frequent, irregular heats,
whereas a cow with a few extensively luteinised cysts may
become anoestrous.
 brucellosis,Campylobacteriosis , Trichomoniasis ,
Salmonellosis, Non-specific bacterial infections
likeStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
pyocyanea, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Proteus mirabilis,
Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Proteus vulgaris,
Klebsiella spp.
 Listeria monocytogenes may also cause abortion in cattle.
When the organism infects a pregnant cow, it invades the
foetal nervous system and forms necrotic foci on the liver,
lungs and spleen (Watson, 1979), killing the foetus
 Several viral diseases, including infectious bovine
rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine virus
diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), pare-
influenza-3, infectious (contagious) bovine
epididymitis and vaginitis complex (Epivag),
transmissible fibropapilloma and epizootic bovine
abortion have been associated with cattle
infertility (Florent, 1963; Gledhill, 1968;
McKercher, 1969).
 Mycoplasmas are infective agents distinct
from both bacteria and viruses. Several
species of Mycoplasma cause disease in
cattle. They have been associated with
infertility, but their exact aetiological role is
difficult to ascertain because they are
present in the tracts of healthy animals.
 Underfeeding or starvation has been shown
to delay sexual maturity in heifers and to
inhibits estrous cycle in bovines in all ages.
 Overfeeding has been considered by many

practicing veterinarians to be cause of

infertility in cattle particularly in beef cattle.
 Asdell, and Wiltbanks observed that
overfatty animals have small overies and
estrus may fails to occur.
 Deficiencies of vitamins likes A,B,D,E,and C
causing infertility in bovines.
 Such minerals like calcium, phosphorus, and
other trace minerals like manganese, cobalt,
copper, iron, iodine, selenium, zinc also affect
the fertility in large ruminants.
 Miscellaneous nutritives, reproductive
problems especially infertility, may be
associated with the consumption of excess
estrogens from plants especially lush growing
 Reproductive health programs for both
dairy and beef herds are practical and
essential for successful herd management.
 record must be maintained..
 young breeding stock properly reared by

providing nutritious and balancing ration

and proper parasite control and vaccination.
 Sanitation and hygienic practices
 Detection of estrus
 Correct or proper time of artificial
 Highly fertile active bulls with strong sex

drive and free of infectious venereal

 All cow in herd, not already safely pregnant

should be examined at each regular

monthly, or more frequent , visit of