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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

The F distribution
Good for two or more groups

The F distribution
F is a ratio of two independent estimates of
the variance of the population
Consequently, it depends on the analysis
(separating into parts) of the variance in a
set of scores.
We have already analyzed the variance in a
set of scores when we did t tests

The analysis of variance


The numerator of the t test is the difference
between two means. Since the variance is
the average of the differences from a mean,
the difference between two means drawn
from the same set of scores is one estimate of
variance.
The denominator of the t test, although
expressed as a standard deviation, is also an
estimate of variance.

The F ratio
A ratio of two estimates of variance drawn
from the same set of scores is called an F
ratio.
F = larger estimate of variance
smaller estimate of variance

F = variance estimate 1 of 2
variance estimate 2 of 2

Why use ANOVA?

We sometimes have independent variables with


more than two groups:
Grape

Kool-Aid, Lemon Kool-Aid, and water


One marijuana cigarette, two, three, four
TQM in place for one month, two, three
Four styles of government

With more than two groups, multiple t tests


would be necessary.
Multiple t tests inflate the Type I error rate.

Logic of ANOVA
1. Find the total variance in a set of data.
2. Analyze the variance into

a.

The part due to the treatment (plus people)


b. The part due to people without treatment
(individual differences and error)

3. Form an F ratio of the two parts

The ANOVA summary table

To keep track of the ANOVA process, start with a


summary table:

Source
Between
Within
Total

SS

df

MS ( s2)

p Decision

Notation summary
N is the number of scores altogether.
n is the number of scores in a single group.
k is the number of groups.
g is a particular group.
The variance, s2 , is also symbolized MS,
which stands for Mean Square.

SS total

To get SStotal, simply group all of the scores


for all of the groups together and find the
SS as if there were only one group:
SStotal = X2 - (X)2 / N

Or SStotal = X2 (G2 / N)

SS within groups
SS within groups is due to individual differences and
error.
To compute SSwithin,calculate SS normally for each group
separately, and add them up.

SSwithin = X2 - (X)2/ n)
=SS1+SS2++SSk

= X2 - (X1)2 (X2)2

n1

(Xk)2

n2

+ +

nk

SS between groups
To get SSbetween, treat the sum of each group as a
score, and apply the be-bop version of the sum of
squares song:
2
SSB =
2

= (X1)2 (X2)2

n1

n2

(Xk)2 - (X)2

+ +

nk

Completing the one-way


ANOVA
Source
SS df MS ( s2)
F
Between k-1 SSB/dfB MSB/MSW
Within N-k SSW/dfW
Total N-1

To obtain p, either use the table to find the critical


value of F, or SPSS to find the probability of the
obtained value of F.

Making your decision


To decide whether the obtained F ratio is
significant, compare it to the table value
(the critical value). If the obtained F is equal to
Com or larger than the critical F, reject H .
e- B
0

yCha
Pop nce
:6
,284

Computed value:
Length of walk

Table value: Length of pier


.05 level

Fishy zone:
Reject H0

Decision rules for ANOVA

Find the critical values for F from the table. Use dfB for the
(between) column, and dfW for the (within) row in the table.

The first table has the critical value at the .05 level, and the
second table for the .01 level.
In the p column of the ANOVA summary table, enter <.01 if
the obtained F ratio is greater than the value in the second
table; <.05 if it is greater than the value in the first table but
less than the value in the second table; and n.s. (for not
significant) if it is less than the value in the first table.

More ANOVA items


For two group studies, t2 = F
Two-way factorial ANOVA

Main

effects: Combines two (or more) studies


Fully crossed factors: A x B
Interaction effect: The effect of one
independent variable depends on the level of
the other independent variable

Try this one


Here are the number of errors on an
analysis of variance problem for each of
nine students after drinking grape KoolAid, Frankenberry Punch, or water.
GKA FBP H2O
5
8
10
3
7
11
4
7
12

Effect size measures


Significant t and F ratios show that there is
a real effect of the treatment, a real
difference between the groups that cannot
be explained by chance.
Effect size measures show how big the
effect of the treatment is.
C.O.D. is one effect size measure:
C.O.D. = r2 = SSB /SSTotal = 2

Effect sizes in samples vs.


populations
2 is a sample estimate of the proportion of
the variance in the dependent variable that
is accounted for by the independent
variable.
For population estimates of effect size, use
a different statistic, 2

Computing 2

For the t test for independent samples,


2 =
t2 1
t2 + N 1

For the analysis of variance,


2 = SSB (k 1)MSW
SSTotal + MSW

Concluding details
ANOVA assumptions are the same as the
assumptions for the t-test for independent
samples.
Try to have each group/sample be the same
size, that is, have equal ns. However, the
ANOVA computations will work with
unequal sample sizes.

Reporting ANOVA in APA format

Report the mean and standard deviation for each sample/group in


a table, and refer to it in a sentence reporting the F ratio:
Table 1 contains the means and standard deviations for the IQs,
which were significantly different, F(3, 36) = 9.47, p < .05.

Table 1. Tested IQ.

Grape

Lemon Fberry

Water

126

128

133

109

SD

15.5

14.8

15

16