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Name : Amol Prabhakar Garole

Guidance: Prof. Dr. A. B. More


Academic Year : 20142015
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing

Contents:
What is a Report ?
Why do we Write Reports ?
Types of Report.

Report
Writin
g

Characteristics of an Effective Report.


Process of Report Writing.
Report Structure.
Finishing of The Report.

Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


What is a Report ?
A report is a statement of the results of
an investigation or of any matter on which
definite information is required.
(Oxford English
Dictionary)

A report is a structured and formally written


presentation directed to interested readers in
response to some specific purpose, aim or
request. There are many varieties of reports, but
generally their function is to give an account of
something, to answer a question, or to offer a
solution to a problem.
Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Why do we Write Reports ?
To present the findings and results.
To keep records.
To tell about failures and successes.
To tell the progress of the project/research.

Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Types of Reports:
Sales Reports
Inspection Reports
Annual Reports
Progress Reports
Case study reports
Laboratory reports

Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:

Accuracy

Logic

Brevity

Mechanical Neatness

Coherence

Objectivity

Confidence

Qualification

Dignity

Straight Sentences

Emphasis

Thoroughness

Facility

Unity

Grammatical

Veracity

Correctness

Viewpoint

Honesty

Word Choice

Illustration

You-Point

Judgment

Zest

Knowledge

Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Accuracy:
Accurately checking the whole statement and how they are put
together.
Brevity:
Brevity is making the report short, readable and easy to
comprehend for the busy people.
Coherence:
Coherence is arranging of materials together. All sentences and
groups of paragraph must hold together through the use of
transitional devices.
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Confidence:
The write must be sure on what he is writing through using exact
words. Perhaps and Maybes must be avoided.
Dignity:
Dignity is Formality in respect to the used of words. Grammar must
check and use straightforward expressions
Emphasis:
Emphasis is making an idea stand out among the rest in the texts.
This can be achieved through the use of illustrations and transitional
devices to lead the readers to the important details.
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Facility:
Facility is making the report easy to read. Use short familiar words
and sentences.
Grammatical Correctness:
Grammatical Correctness is to use correct grammar by following
basic grammar rules. Checking sentences for its logical and
clearness. Statements must have a Sense
Honesty:
Honesty is acknowledging the use of other writer works/ideas and
not writing false statements.
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Illustration:
Illustration is the use of Graphs, visual, charts, diagrams and
photos. These are use to clarify or to support the text.
Judgment:
Judgment is Judiciously weighing of evidences used in the report.
Knowledge:
Knowledge is Collecting and interpretation data which also involved
formulation of conclusion.

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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Logic:
Logic is thinking straight. It is a process of putting things in their
proper places. E.g.: 1.Statements must not contradict each other.
2. Consistency of using words 3. Statements must move in
one direction 4. Statements must make sense 5. Judgments must not
be based on a few data.
Mechanical Neatness:
Mechanical Neatness is putting the report in perfect shape. Neatly
type and well margined. Proper use of headings and sub-headings
must be observed.

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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Objectivity:
Objectivity is writers assuming a detached, impartial point of view.
This is writing for uninterested readers. Avoid using I Me and
My
Qualification:
This refers to the background of the writer. Readers have to
consider the background of the writer for them to decide whether
the report is valid or not.
Straight Sentences :
Straight Sentences refers to the use of sentences in the report.
Sentences must contain the right idea what the writer wants to say.
Transitional devices are helpful for the readers to follow the thought
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Thoroughness:
Thoroughness is making the report complete as what you want it
from the beginning until you finish the report. Making checklist
Marking off each requirements as the report progresses checking the
checklist for revision
Unity:
This refers to the oneness of the details and facts in the report. They
must have a clear relevance to the point under discussion.
Veracity:
This refers to reporting the facts only. No shifting the issues.

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Characteristics of an Effective Report:
Viewpoint:
This refers to certain voice talking in the report. The viewpoint must
be consistent throughout the report.
Word Choice:
This refers to the proper use of words and expressions that the
readers understand. Avoid vague words and expressions.
You-Point:
Writing through understanding of the readers comprehension level,
experience and needs.
Zest:
Zest is The writer must enjoy what he is writing.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Process of Report Writing:

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Process of Report Writing:
Objective:
It defines the scope of your investigation.
Planning your report:
How much time do you have to write
the report?.
How can your work be divided up into
the various stages?
Set yourself deadlines for the various
stages.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Process of Report Writing:
Collecting information:
What is the information you need ?
Where do you find it ?
Survey
Organizations
Online: Google
Publications
How much information do you need ?

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Process of Report Writing:
Organizing information:
Discriminate between relevant and
irrelevant information.
Sort/organize information under main
ideas/details.
The computer program, Inspiration,
can help in organizing.

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Process of Report Writing:
The audience:

Often there are 3 different audiences:


The casual reader/big boss who wants the main message as
painlessly as possible.
The interested reader who wants more detail but doesnt want
to grapple with all the gory technical details.
The guru who wants the whole story.
Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Process of Report Writing:
The audience:
To address all 3 audiences effectively :
Include an abstract for the big boss.
A main body for the interested non-specialist.
A technical appendix for the guru.

Thus, a structure emerges !

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
A good report has the following
:
1. Title Page
2. Certificates
3. Acknowledgements
4. Table of Contents
5. List of Tables./Figs
6. Abstract/ Summary
7. Organizations Background.
8.

Introduction

9. Literature Survey
Research Methodology

10.

Research

Objectives
11.

Methodology

12.

Findings

13.

Limitations

14.

Conclusions

15. Recommendations
16. Bibliography
17.

Glossary

18.

Appendices

19.

References

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05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
1. Title Page:
Identifies the report with the following information:
Title
Author's name, position and qualifications
Authority for report
Place of origin
Date

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
2.

Certificate:
The work done is original and must be so certified by the
student in writing.
There must be a sealed and signed certificate from a
senior person in the company/ organization

on the

corporate letter head stating that the student has


successfully completed the project(s). This original letter
along with the signed declaration by the student must be
attached to the original copy of the dissertation and a
copy of the same attached to all copies of the dissertation.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
3.

Acknowledgement:
Acknowledgement must be short and included in the
beginning with a declaration that this is an original work of
the student.

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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
4. Table of Contents:
Shows the section titles and major headings.
Listed in order of appearance.
Indicates page locations.
Standard page numbering begins with the Introduction.
The Abstract or Executive Summary is usually page
numbered with lower case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv,
etc.)
In the Table of Contents, list only the starting page of
Research Methodology
each major

section.

05/11/15

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
5.

List of Tables/ Figs:

It is advisable to include a reference to all tables and


figures included in the report in an index format, at the
beginning of the report.

This facilitates the reader to quickly link and surf to all


pictographic representations.

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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
6.

Abstract/ Summary:

[about 1-2 pages] : This is a short overview of your


entire report. It should contain a very brief but concise
overview of your research purpose and objectives,
methods, major findings, and specific conclusions and
recommendations.
Remember the 2 rules:
Keep it short
State problem and solution
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
7.

Organizations Background:

[about 1-2 pages]

Page 1 of the report starts here!

Introduce
/history

the
of

the

Organization,
Organization,

including
its

background

purpose,

mission

statement (if any), competitive environment, etc.

In short familiarize the reader with the Organization and


its business.
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Research Methodology

05/11/15

Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
8.

Introduction:
[about 2 - 3 pages]:
(a) Background of the project; why study is being
conducted, for whom; includes a brief summary of the
initial client interview.
(b) Statement of the overall project objectives.

DO NOT DOWNLOAD INFORMATION FROM


ORGANIZATIONS BROCHURES OR THE INTERNET JUST TO
FILL UP PAGES.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
9.

Literature Survey:

[about 4 - 5 pages]:

Includes theory part of the project topic.

Remember research begins with Literature Survey and


does not end there.

Your research question springs from the literature survey.

Includes everything a person new to the subject needs to


know of your research work...definitions/ jargons/
current scenario/ rules of the game etc...

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
10.

Research Objectives:

[about 1 - 2 pages]:

Includes a list of specific research questions to be


answered.

You can put the Research Question in bullet form.


List the research questions in the order you plan to
discuss them in the results section.

Do not discuss or list any research questions you have


dropped or ended up not addressing.

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
11.

Methodology:

[about 4 - 5 pages]:

(a) Type of Research

(b) Method of Research

(c) Data collection method Describe your procedures


and

why you chose this particular method, and

why it was

the best option given your criteria.

(secondary/primary)
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
12.

Findings:

Put each research question on a SEPARATE page.

Do NOT discuss any research questions that you did


not end up addressing.

For each research question:

(a) Restate the research question (perhaps as the


section title).

(b) Identify questions in the questionnaire used to


answer the research question and briefly describe
the question format.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
12.

Findings:
(c) Report your findings and do not be overly technical in
discussing the statistical procedures.
Present your results in a manner your average readers can
easily understand !
Summarize your key points and refer to exhibits for
detailed findings.

Be sure to conclude with a summary paragraph that gives your


interpretation of findings and your best answer to the research
question based on the data. If your findings are mixed
or inconclusive, say so !
Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
13.

Limitations:
[ 2 pgs.]:
Include a brief discussion of the major project limitations.
Limitations

include

things

such

as

time

&

money

constraints, non-response issues like break offs, nonresponse to open-ended questions, problems with your
research design or questionnaire, cautions about sample
representativeness, etc.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
14.

Conclusions:
Summarize what has been discovered.
Repeat the question.
Give the answer.
Outlines the findings of the research.
Do not introduce new information in the conclusion.
Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various
courses of action..

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
15.

Recommendations:
They are the honest, justified opinions of the writer.
Force the report to be end rather than means
oriented.
Poor recommendations can overshadow an otherwise
effective report.
Dont compromise professional integrity to please
decision makers.
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
16.

Bibliography:

The bibliography lists all publications either cited or


referred to in preparing the report.

report

without

sufficient

bibliography

is

not

acceptable.

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
17.

Glossary (if included):


Take care to see that it is arranged alphabetically .
If definitions are taken from a source like the web
dictionary or from some published work, then it is
appropriate to say so in each case.

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
18.

Appendices:
Placed at end of a report if included.
Arranged in the order referred to in the report.
This is where the technical details go.
Be as technical as you like.
Document your analysis so it can be reproduced by
others.

Include the data set if feasible.


Appendices can include:

Raw data sheets

Diagrams or maps
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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Report Structure:
19.

References:
Always cite (i.e. give a reference) to other related work or
facts/opinions that you quote.
Never pass off the work of others as your own this is
Plagiarism and is a very big academic crime !

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Finishing of The Report:
1. Writing:
Structure alone is not enough for clarity you must also
write clear sentences.
Rules:
1. Write complete short sentences.
2. Avoid jargon and strive for simplicity.
3. Use one theme per paragraph.

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Finishing of The Report:
2. Sectioning:
Proper division of your work into sections and subsections
makes the structure clear and the document easy to follow.
Use styles in word/ sectioning commands in Latex
\begin{section}.\end{section}.

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Finishing of The Report:
3. Spelling and Grammar:

Check grammar and spelling on your final


draft!

Spelling

and

grammatical

errors

are

unforgivable so use a good dictionary and the


spell check provided on the p.c..

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Research Methodology

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Module 7: Report Writing


Finishing of The Report:
4. Finishing Touch:

Type

Paper

Dont use too many styles

High Quality

Avoid All Caps

20# Weight

Difficult to Read
Double Space
Number Placement
Bottom Center/Right
Corner

White/Off-White
8 x 11

Margins
Top & Sides - 1
Bottom - 1
Left & Right 1.25

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Module 7: Report Writing

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Research Methodology

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