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Psychology 205

Perception

Day 08

13 Feb 03

   
    Haptics, Posture, & Movement

Neuro­muscular Apparatus
detection thresholds, Golgi tendon and 
muscle spindle organ, & an illusion
Haptics 
Vestibular Apparatus
responses to:  linear acceleration
          angular acceleration
Balance
gravito­inertial force
endolymphs & density          2
heat, alcohol, and  H2O
Contributions of & to Vision 
gaze­stability
motion sickness
   
fissure of Rolando

front

back

right hemisphere, Sylvian


 reversed from Day 07  
fissure
sensory humunculus motor humunculus
weighted
  by cortical   weighted by cortical
area area
look for noncorrespondences

   
Neuro­muscular apparatus
knowing where you’re muscles are
                                         ­­­> Kinesthesis

1. Golgi tendon organs
on tendons of extrafusal muscles 
long muscles within muscle bundle
isotonic exercise   ­­>change in muscle length

2. muscle spindle organs
in intrafusal muscles 
short muscles within muscle bundle
isometric exercise ­­>change in resistance

a kinesthetic illusion
   
sensory organs about the state of muscles (feedback),
not the nerves signaling the muscles to twitch; afferent
(conducting inward), not efferent (conducting outward)

Extrafusal = “slow twitch” -->distance runners

Intrafusal = “fast twitch” --> sprinters, body


  builders  
   
   
   
Activity in: Intrafusal Extrafusal

muscle  Golgi
spindle tendon
       organ   organ 

1. muscles at rest   some s.n.a.


2. muscles lengthened lots some
3. muscles shortened s.n.a some
(isotonic)
4. muscles at rest length lots s.n.a.
but flexed (isometric)

                    s.n.a. = spontaneous neural activity 
   
 
Activity in: Intrafusal Extrafusal

muscle  Golgi
spindle tendon
       organ   organ 

2. muscles lengthened yes yes


4. muscles at rest length yes no
but flexed (isometric)
3. muscles shortened no yes
(isotonic)
curl in weightlifting
   
Analog in Cutaneous senses
Activity in:       Temperature receptors
warm cold

Hot yes yes


Warm yes no
Cold no yes

coding of a continuous dimension, often with two 
populations of receptors

   
illusions 

illusory felt positions

   
Arm position
with vibrated
tendon

vibration stimulates
both muscle tendon
and spindle organs
--> lengthened muscle

perceived
arm position

perceived lengthened muscle

   
Haptics = active touch (Day 07) + kinesthesis

touch sensations from hand 
(object schema)
and 
muscle sensations from hand & arm 
(body schema)

investigation of muscle sensations alone

   
perception of
shape by wielding

   
   
cross modality
matching

chance = 20%
Performance =
37%

= 60 trials

Information?:
Different inertial properties
    in different directions
Vestibular apparatus
6 degrees of freedom in movement
(the Galilean group)
linear acceleration
side­to­side:     utricle macula,
front­back: saccule otoliths
up­down: both
angular acceleration
rotations: semicircular canals
    ampulla, crista, cupola
vestibulo­ocular reflex (VOR)
doll reflex

visual direction, vestibulo­muscular adaptation, & 
  baseball players  
6 degrees
of freedom

   
3 semicircular
canals

   
0th derivative  spatial position

1st derivative velocity 
change in position

2nd derivativeacceleration 
change in velocity
change in the change of position

3rd derivative jerk
change in acceleration
change in the change of velocity
change in the change in the change
of position
   
inside utricle
and saccule

   
consider one
semicircular canal
in horizontal plane

   
   
dizziness after spins
   
Balance

against forces
of acceleration

   
Balance

even when not
necessary

   
endolymph     ~water, slightly salty

What is the cause of instability when blood alcohol is elevated?

1. part of the global effect of alcohol
2. direct effect of the specific gravity of alcohol (lighter than water)
heavy water ­  deuterium oxide    2
            H2O 
Gaze­stability systems

Vestibulo­Ocular Response (VOR) ­­ y axis rotation (yaw)
Doll Reflex       ­­ x axis rotation (pitch)
   
ocular reflexes and adaptation

visual direction, 
vestibulo­muscular adaptation, 
& baseball players

   
the role of vision in balance and vection 

perception of self­motion 
Gunnar Johansson
David Lee

sustained (slowly adapting) cells  ­ cortex
transient (rapidly adapting) cells ­ cortex & central core

   
Motion Sickness: Cause(s)?

NASA
no gravity, only inertial forces

1. dissociation of vision and normal vestibular 
activity
back of buses, children in cars

2. lack of control over visual/vestibular
experience                       environmental anchoring
sea sickness and the horizon
   
    Haptics, Posture, & Movement

Neuro­muscular Apparatus
detection thresholds, Golgi tendon and 
muscle spindle organ, & an illusion
Haptics
Vestibular Apparatus
responses to:  linear acceleration
     angular acceleration
Balance
gravito­inertial force
endolymphs & density        2
heat, alcohol, and  H2O
Contributions of & to Vision 
 
gaze­stability  
motion sickness