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Basics of

Engineering Drawing

What is Engineering Drawing?


Engineers Language
It is engineering language used to communicate within the
engineering community to express their thoughts (designs) &
get the product produced.
Why drawings are required?
To create common communication platform across the whole
engineering community.
Also one picture is better than 1000 words, isnt it?

Part Drawings:
Detail drawings completely describe a single part with multiview
orthographic projections.
Should provide all the information necessary to economically
manufacture a high quality part.

Assembly Drawings:
Assembly drawings are used to show the position and functional
relationship of parts in an assembly, also via multiview orthographic
projections.
Generally they have no dimensions on them.
Parts are 'balloon' identified and referenced to either detail drawing
numbers or catalog numbers, via a Bill of Materials (BOM)

Drawing sheet sizes

An A0 sheet has an area of 1m2


The sides are in the proportion 1: 2

Drawing Border (or margin)


The drawing should have a border of about 10 mm
Space should be left for binding and hole-punching, if the drawing is to be
placed in a file

Title Block and Notes


Organization
e.g. IES
May include logo

Title (Job and Drawing)


Job Title (e.g. Portland Building)
Drawing Title (e.g. Ground Floor Plan)

Drawing Number
A reference which identifies the drawing within the job and organization

Revision Number
Only used if changes are made to the drawing after it has been initially published
Should increment with each revision (e.g. 1,2,3, or A,B,C, )
Details of each revision should be kept in Revision Table, in Notes area (see later)

Issue Number
Should be unique to each paper copy of the drawing that is made (may be written in by hand after printing)

An Issue Book should show details of who the particular drawing was issued to, and when it was issued

Scale
Express as ratio drawing unit : real world unit

Scales other than those above should only be used in exceptional circumstances (ensure that
sensible numbers are used, e.g. 1:2500, not 1:2384)
Check that the scale on the printed drawing is correct this is very important (measure it)
Different parts of the drawing may be to different scales state the main scale in the Title Block,
and other scales next to the relevant drawing part

Date

The date of the original drawing (later revisions will have their own date noted with the details of the
revision)

Drawn By
The name or initials of the (principal) person who created the drawing
For student assignments, this should normally be your Student ID Number (HEMIS Number)

Approval Signature
The original drawing should be checked and approved by a competent person
Later revisions have their own approval signatures (see Notes and Revisions Table)

Notes
A separate area, not part of the Title Block (see Location, later)
Include relevant notes, e.g.:
All dimensions in mm
All levels in meters
Do not scale off drawing if in doubt, ask
May also include a key to symbols used in the drawing
May include a Location Figure (a small drawing which shows the location of the main drawing
relative to a larger area)
Should also include a Revisions Table

Revisions Table
In Notes area
The table may be upside down (with column headings in the bottom row)

Location
Title Block should be in the bottom right-hand corner for easy searching of required drawing in a
collection of drawings
Notes should be vertically above, or horizontally to the left of the Title Block (Notes are not always
necessary)

Folding a Drawing
See extract from British Standard on the Engineering Communications unit web (BS 1192:Part
1:1984)
The BS shows how to fold a drawing to ensure that the Title Block is always visible
The folding method allows drawings to be placed in a ring binder file and opened for viewing without
removing the drawing from the file
All paper sizes from A3 to A0 are included

Title block examples

Line fonts:

100
20

Black = object line and hatching


Red = hidden line
Blue = center line
Magenta = phantom line or cutting plane
Green = Dimension
Cyan = Leader

Lettering:

Viewer

Angle of projections: First Angle

II

I
Object
Viewer

III

IV

Viewer

Angle of projections: Second Angle

II

Object
Viewer

III

IV

Viewer

Angle of projections: Third Angle

II

Viewer
Object

III

IV

Viewer

Angle of projections: Forth Angle

II

Viewer
Object

III

IV

TOP

FRONT

RIGHT SIDE

Angle of projections convention:

Third Angle

First Angle

Engineering drawing views


A view of an object (actual or imagined) as it would be seen by an observer who looks at the object
either in a chosen direction or from a selected point of view. Pictorial sketches often are more
readily made and more clearly understood than are front, top, and side views of an object.
In making a pictorial drawing, the viewing direction that
shows the object and its details to the best advantage is
chosen. The resultant drawing is Orthographic.
Orthographic Views are two-dimensional views of objects
where the viewpoint of the object is at right angles to (or
looking directly at) surfaces. They are used in technical and
engineering drawings for accuracy.
The most commonly used pictorial drawing for technical
information is called isometric drawings. Isometric drawings
were developed to approximate perspective, but are much
easier to draw. For a square box, all the sides are drawn as
vertical lines, or at 30 degrees to the horizontal. See Fig.1
In the Isometric pictorial, the direction of its axes and all
measurements along these axes are made with one scale
(Fig. 1). Oblique pictorial drawings, while not true
orthographic views, offer a convenient method for drawing
circles and other curves in their true shape (Fig. 2).

Fig.
1

Fig.
2

Orthographic views
ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS

You can also think of these views as


an object inside a box with its
surfaces "projecting" on to the sides
of the box. You can then unfold the
box to project the views on a flat
surface.
Because the views are only two
dimensional, more than one view is
needed to completely describe the
object. Usually two or three views is
enough (Front, Top and Side), but
often more are required.

Different types of drawing views


HALF VIEWS AND PARTIAL VIEWS :
Half Views and Partial views are used to simply
save space when half of, or portion of a view is not
needed or is redundant.
When objects are symmetrical and you are limited
in the amount of space on the drawing or in drafting
time, you may reduce an object image to only those
features needed for minimum representation or a
partial view. You may use partial views in
conjunction with sectioning.

Different types of drawing views


AUXILIARY VIEWS
Auxiliary Views are used to accurately
depict features on Inclined Surfaces. If
there is no feature on the inclined surface,
there is no need to create an auxiliary view.

Importance of choosing the Front View


Here are the orthographic projections for the 2
boxes. Notice that the one on the right takes
up much more space that the one on the left.
Notice also that the views are labeled by
location, and are not related to the part of the
object in the view.

Exploded Views

Views that pictorially represent how objects and assemblies fit


together are called exploded views. You may use any pictorial
method including isometric projection for exploded views with
isometric representation the most Common exploded views appear
primarily in design presentations, catalogs, sales literature and
assembly instructions.

An exploded view in isometric projection

Sectional views

Section views are used to get rid of the confusing


hidden lines.
To produce a sectional view, an imaginary plane,
called the cutting plane, cuts through the object and
the two halves are separated to expose the interior
construction. The direction of sight may be toward
the right or left half, while you disregard the portion of
the object nearest the observer. Use a cutting plane
line or viewing plane line to indicate the cutting plane
and the direction of sight. Sectional views may be
further classified as full, half, broken-out, revolved,
removed, offset, aligned sections, and partial
views.

Full and Half sections.


FULL SECTIONS
Full section views cut all the way
across the object.
Full Section Views can be placed
on the same page or on another
page.
The Cutting Plane and Arrows
always are displayed.
HALF SECTIONS
Half Section Views are used primarily on
symmetrically shaped objects (where
both halves are the same). They are a
great shortcut because you can depict
the inside and outside of the object all in
one view.
Half Section Views can be placed on the
same page or on another page.
If the view is displayed on another page,
the Cutting Plane and Arrows always are
displayed.

Brocken-out Section

When it is necessary to expose only a small


portion of the internal shape of an object but not
enough to warrant a full or half section, use a
broken-out section. Define a broken-out
section with a break line or a combination of a
break line and a centerline.

CONVENTIONAL BREAKS
Conventional Breaks are a way of depicting a very
long object without showing the entire length. It is
often used for objects like rods, tubing/piping or
wooden objects

Revolved Sections
Revolved sections are cross sections of an elongated
form or object rotated toward the plane of projection to
show its shape or contour. Drop a cutting plane
perpendicular to the axis of the object and revolve the
plane 90-degrees around a centerline and at a right
angle to the axis. Retain the true shape of the revolved
section regardless of the direction of the lines in the view.
Superimpose the revolved section over the view and
remove all original surface lines.

More examples

Removed Sections
A removed section is a section or partial section
not directly projected from the view containing
the cutting plane and not revolved or turned
from its normal orientation. A removed
section does not align with any other view, but,
sometimes appears on centerlines extended
from the section cuts. Use removed sections
to show small details and to facilitate
dimensioning.
This reason, they are often drawn in
enlarged scale. Label removed sections
alphabetically from left to right on the drawing
and corresponding to the letters at the end of
the cutting plane line. Precede the letters with
the abbreviation SECT or SECTION. To
avoid confusion, do not use the letters I, O,
and Q. When you draw the removed section
enlarged, indicate the larger scale beneath the
section title.

Removed section of an Allen wrench using:


A.
The cutting plane, and
B.

The aligned section method.

Aligned Sections

Aligned sections use an angled cutting plane


to pass through angled features. The plane
and feature are then imagined to be revolved
into the original plane and the section
projected from there.

Offset Sections
An offset section results when you bend the cutting plane to show
internal features that are not in a straight line. The offsets or bends
in the cutting plane never show in the sectional view. Cutting plane
lines in an offset section appear as thick, dashed lines.

Cross Hatch Symbols

Cast Iron (General Use)

White Metal (Zinc)

Sand

Steel

Magnesium, Aluminum

Titanium

Felt, Leather, & Fiber

Bronze, Brass, etc.

Concrete

Marble, Slate, Glass, etc.

Water, Liquids

Wood; Cross Grain


With Grain

Surface finish

Ra Value v/s conventional symbols:

Direction of lay:

Requirement for machining

The Symbol indicates the surface finish


requirements and shows a machining
allowance requirement of 3mm on all
surfaces.

Machining Allowance

Symbol for surface texture all


component surfaces

The Symbol indicates that all of the


component surfaces are to be machined...

Location of Surface Texture


Symbols

The shows typical locations for surface texture


symbols...

Surface roughness produced by common production


processes

Process
Flame Cutting
Snagging
Sawing
Planing, Shaping
Drilling
Chemical Milling
Elect. Discharge Mach.
Milling
Broaching
Reaming
Electron Beam
Laser
Electro-Chemical
Boring, Turning
Barrel Finishing
Electrolytic grinding
Roller Burnishing

50
25
12.5
(2000) (1000) (500)

6.3
(250)

3.2
(125)

1.6
(63)

0.8
(32)

0.4
(16)

0.2
(8)

0.1
(4)

0.05
(2)

0.025
(1)

0.012
(0.5)

Roughness Average
Micrometers m
(Micro inches in.)

Surface roughness produced by common production


processes

Process

50
25
12.5
(2000) (1000) (500)

6.3
(250)

3.2
(125)

1.6
(63)

0.8
(32)

0.4
(16)

0.2
(8)

0.1
(4)

0.05
(2)

0.025
(1)

0.012
(0.5)

Grinding
Honing
Electro-Polish
Polishing
Lapping
Superfinishing
Sand Casting
Hot Rolling
Forging
Perm Mold Casting
Investment Casting
Extruding
Cold Rolling, Drawing
Die Casting

Roughness Average
Micrometers m
(Micro inches in.)

Welding symbol

Coordinate Dimensioning and Tolerance

The collective process of modeling, defining and describing geometric


sizes and feature relationships, and providing all of the required technical
information necessary to produce and inspect the part is called
dimensioning and Tolerancing.
The current National Standard for dimensioning and Tolerancing in the
United States is ASME Y14.5M - 1994.

Drawing Notes

Notes should be concise and specific. They should use appropriate


technical language, and be complete and accurate in every detail. They
should be authored in such a way as to have only one possible
interpretation.
General Notes
DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.5M - 1994
REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES
ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R .06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED

Local Notes
4X

8.20

M10 X 1.25
82 CSK

10

1.5 X 45 CHAM

Arrowheads

Arrowheads are used as terminators on dimension lines. The points of


the arrowheads on leader lines and dimension lines must make contact
with the feature object line or extension lines which represent the feature
being dimensioned. The standard size ratio for all arrowheads on
mechanical drawings is 3:1 (length to width).
200

R 8.5

Of the four different arrowhead types that are authorized by the national
standard, ASME Y14.2M 1994, a filled arrowhead is the highest
preference.

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

Dimension Lines and Extension Lines

Extension lines overlap dimension lines (beyond the point


of the arrowheads) by a distance of roughly 2-3mm

1.75
There should be a
visible gap (~1.5 mm)
between the object lines
and the beginning of
each extension line.

1.06

Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline. Dimensions should not be placed within the part
boundaries unless greater clarity would result.

Placement of Linear Dimensions Order of Preference

2.562

Arrows in / dimension in

1.250

Arrows out / dimension in

.750

.500

Arrows in / dimension out

Arrows out / dimension out

When there is not enough room between the extension lines to accommodate either the dimension value or
the dimension lines they can be placed outside the extension lines as shown in the fourth example

Dimensioning

Types of Dimensioning:
Parallel Dimensioning:
Parallel dimensioning consists of
originating from one projection line.

several

dimensions

Superimposed Running Dimensions:


Superimposed running dimensioning simplifies parallel
dimensions in order to reduce the space used on a drawing.
The common origin for the dimension lines is indicated by a
small circle at the intersection of the first dimension and the
projection line. In general all other dimension lines are
broken.
The dimension note can appear above the dimension line or
in-line with the projection line.

Chain Dimensioning:
Chains of dimension should only be used if the function of the
object won't be affected by the accumulation of the
tolerances. (A tolerance is an indication of the accuracy the
product has to be made to. Tolerance will be covered later in
this chapter).

Combined Dimensions:
A combined dimension uses both chain and parallel
dimensioning.

Dimensioning by Co-ordinates:
Two sets of superimposed running dimensions running at
right angles can be used with any features which need their
centre points defined, such as holes.

Simplified dimensioning by co-ordinates:


It is also possible to simplify co-ordinate dimensions by using
a table to identify features and positions.

Fundamental rules of dimensioning

Each dimension shall have a tolerance, except for those dimensions specifically identified as reference,
maximum, minimum, or stock (commercial stock size). The tolerance may be applied directly to the
dimension (or indirectly in the case of basic dimensions), indicated by a general note, or located in a
supplementary block of the drawing format
Dimensioning and tolerance shall be complete so there is full understanding of the characteristics of each
feature. Neither scaling (measuring the size of a feature directly from an engineering drawing) nor
assumption of a distance or size is permitted
Each necessary dimension of an end product shall be shown. No more dimensions than those necessary
for complete definition shall be given. The use of reference dimensions on a drawing should be
minimized
Dimensions shall be selected and arranged to suit the function and mating relationship of a part and shall
not be subject to more than one interpretation
The drawing should define a part without specifying manufacturing methods
Dimensions should be arranged to provide required information for optimum readability. Dimensions
should be shown in true profile views and refer to visible outlines

Wires, cables, sheets, rods, and other materials manufactured to gage or code numbers
shall be specified by linear dimensions indicating the diameter or thickness. Gage or code
numbers may be shown in parentheses following the dimension

A 90o angle applies where center lines and lines depicting features are shown on a drawing
at right angles and no angle is specified

Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions are applicable at 20C (68F). compensation may
be made for measurements made at other temperatures

All dimensions and tolerances apply in a free state condition. This principle does not apply
to non-rigid parts

Reference Dimensions

Reference Dimension Symbol (X.XXX)

2.250
1.000

(.750)

.500

.500
1.250
.500

(.750)

Reference dimensions are used on drawings to


provide support information only.
They are values that have been derived from other
dimensions and therefore should not be used for
calculation, production or inspection of parts.
The use of reference dimensions on drawings
should be minimized.

Location of Dimensions

Shorter (intermediate) dimensions are placed closest to the outline of the part, followed by dimensions of
greater length. Dimensions nearest the object outline should be at least .375 inches (10 mm) away from the
object, and succeeding parallel dimension lines should be at least .250 inches (6 mm) apart.

.250 (6mm)
Minimum Spacing

4.375
1.438

1.250

1.000

.375 (10mm)
Minimum Spacing
1.875

1.062

.688

2.312

Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline

Basic Dimensioning Good Practice


4.375
1.438

1.250

1.000
1.875
1.062

.688
2.312
Extension lines should not cross dimension lines if avoidable

1.250

1.438

In-line dimensions can share


arrowheads with contiguous
dimensions

1.000
1.875
1.062

.688

2.312
4.375

BETTER

Diameter Dimensions Holes and cutouts

1.375

.625 THRU
.250

.62

1.375

.250
x .62 DP

Diameter Dimensions
Shafts and Holes

Whenever it is practical to do so, external diameters are


dimensioned in rectangular (or longitudinal) views. Cylindrical
holes, slotted holes, and cutouts that are irregular in shape would
normally be dimensioned in views where their true geometric
shape is shown.
.25 THRU

1.25
.75

2.00

Placement with Polar Coordinates


To dimension features on a round or axis symmetric component

18
3X
6X

.562

.188

18
3.50
.875

18

18

18

18

Radial Dimensions
To indicate the size of fillets, rounds, and radii

R.312
R14.25

R.750

R.312

R.562

Angular Dimensions
To indicate the size of angular details appearing as either
angular or linear dimensions.
92
92

Length of Chord

35

90
or

103

Length of Arc

2
x
45
2 x 45

or
2 x 2 CHAM

Chamfers

or

63

50

63
95

Alternate

Times and By Symbol: X


8X

.250 THRU

.12 X 45
CHAMFER

.375
CSK .562 X 82

The X symbol can also be used to


indicate the word by. For instance,
when a slot that has a given width by
a specified length, or a chamfer that
has equal sides (.12 X .12).
When used to imply the word by, a
space must precede and follow the X
symbol.
If the same feature is repeated on
the drawing (such as 8 holes of the
same diameter and in a specified
pattern), the number of times the
instruction applies is called out using
the symbol X.

Drilled Holes
Normally specified by
diameter and depth (or
THRU note used).

45

12.5

14 THRU

25

90

50

12.5

12

2x 12 THRU

32

Specify reaming if
accuracy/finish
is
important.

25

90

12

ASME/ANSI Hole Depth Symbol

Depth or Deep Symbol*

Features such as blind holes


and counterbores, must have a
depth called out to fully
describe their geometry.

EXAMPLE
.625
.375
.625

OR

.375

* This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed.

ASME/ANSI Countersink Symbol


Countersink Symbol*

EXAMPLE

The symbol denotes a requirement


for countersunk holes used to recess
flathead screws. The height of the
symbol is equal to the letter height
on the drawing, and the included
angle is drawn at 90. Note that this
symbol is not used in the ISO
(international) standard.

.375
.562 X 90

* This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed.

ASME/ANSI Counter bore Symbol

Counterbore Symbol*

This symbol denotes counterbored


holes used to recess machine screw
heads.

EXAMPLE
.312
.375
.562

.312
.562

.375

OR
* This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed.

Counter bores and Countersinks ISO Standard

12.5

Socket Cap Head or


Machine screws

2x
8.8 THRU
14 C BORE x 8.2 DP

50
32

25

90

12.5

Flat Head

12

2x
8.8 THRU
15 C SUNK X 90

50
32

25

90

12

Screw Threads
M 16 x 2

ISO specify metric only:

M 16 x 2 - 4h - 5H
ISO metric
designation

Nominal
Diameter
(mm)

American Unified Threads:

Thread
Pitch(mm)

Class of fit
of mating thread (optional)
Class of fit
of this thread
(optional)

3/4 - 10 - UNC

3/4 - 10 - UNC - 2A
Nominal
Diameter
(inches)

Threads
per inch
Thread Series
UNC = Unified Coarse
UNF = Unified Fine

Note: Use standard screw sizes only

Thread Type (optional)


A=External
B=Internal
Class of fit (optional)

Threads and Screw Fastening


Always a 'Clearance Hole' (typically screw major Dia. + 10%)
in at least one component in a screw fastened joint.

Example
Assembly

Base

'A'

'A'

3 - M12
Hex. Screws
Lid

Section 'A'-'A'

Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.)

Base
Detail

'A'

'A'

3 Holes
10.3x 25 DP
M12x1.75 x 15 DP MIN
EQ SP on 120 PD

Section 'A'-'A'

Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.)


Lid
Detail

'A'

'A'

3Holes
12.7THRU
EQSPon 120PD

Section 'A'-'A'

Dimensioning strategy:

Break up into simple shapes

Dimension each simple shape (size)

Dimension position of each shape (location)

Check for redundant dimensions

Do in rough form first

Plan for positioning of dimensions on final drawing

Size one feature

Size all features

Locate one feature

Locate all features

Dos & Donts of dimensioning:

Dos & Donts of


dimens ioning

Tolerances

important to interchangeability and provision for


replacement parts

It is impossible to make parts to an exact size. The tolerance, or


accuracy required, will depend on the function of the part and the
particular feature being dimensioned. Therefore, the range of
permissible size, or tolerance, must be specified for all dimensions on a
drawing, by the designer/draftsperson.
Nominal Size: is the size used for general identification, not the exact
size.
Actual Size: is the measured dimension. A shaft of nominal diameter
10 mm may be measured to be an actual size of 9.975 mm.
General Tolerances:
In ISO metric, general tolerances are specified in a note, usually in the
title block, typically of the form: "General tolerances .25 unless
otherwise stated".
In English Units , the decimal place indicates the general tolerance
given in the title block notes, typically:
Fractions = 1/16, .XX = .01, .XXX = .005, .XXXX = 0.0005,
Note: Fractions and this type of general Tolerancing is not permissible

Specific Tolerances
Specific Tolerances indicate a special situation that cannot be covered by the
general tolerance.
Specific tolerances are placed on the drawing with the dimension and have
traditionally been expressed in a number of ways:
+0.05
40 - 0.03
Bilateral Tolerance

40.01 +0.04

40.05
39.97

Unilateral Tolerance

Limit Dimensions

Limits are the maximum and minimum sizes permitted by the


the tolerance. All of the above methods show that the dimension
has:

a Lower Limit = 39.97 mm

an Upper Limit = 40.05 mm

a Tolerance = 0.08 mm
Manufacturing must ensure that the dimensions are kept within
the limits specified. Design must not over specify as tolerances
have an exponential affect on cost.

Assembly Drawing
Assembly Drawings: The assembly /sub-assembly drawings are drawings of discrete
sub-systems showing in some detail how the component items fit together. Typical
assembly drawings include gearbox drawings, roller drawings, guard system
drawings.
Typical assembly drawing contains the following;
At least three orthographic views with sections as needed to clearly show all of
the details and their relative positions.
Overall and detail dimensions
The weight/mass of the assembly/sub-assembly will be noted.
A parts list identifying all of the component details with quantities and materials
and supply details.
A list of reference drawings and notes identifying the relevant codes and
specifications and testing requirements.
Include a note explaining the required assembly operation and give the
dimensions for the alignment or location of the pieces.
An assembly drawing should not be overloaded with detail.
Include reference letters and numbers representing the different parts. These part
numbers usually enclosed by circles with a leader pointing to the piece.

Assembly Drawing
A unit assembly (subassembly) is a drawing of a related group of parts and used to
show the assembly of complicated machinery for which it would be practically
impossible to show all the features on one drawing. To illustrate; headstock, tailstock,
and gearbox unit assemblies should be included in the drawing of a lathe.
An outline assembly is used to describe the exterior shape of a machine or structure,
so it contains only the primary dimensions. If it is made for catalogs or illustrative
purposes, dimensions are often omitted. They are also called as installation drawings.
An assembly working drawing includes all the necessary information for producing a
machine or structure on one drawing. This requires providing adequate orthographic
views together with dimensions.
A diagram drawing is an assembly showing ,symbolically, installation of equipment and
often made in pictorial form.
The bill of material is a tabulated list placed either on the assembly drawing or on a
separate sheet. The list gives the part numbers, names, quantities, material and
sometimes stock sizes of raw material, detail drawing number, etc. The term "bill of
material" is usually used in structural and architectural drawing whereas the term "part
list" is used in machine-drawing practice.

Assembly Drawing

Assembly Drawing

Features of an Assembly Drawing


Dimensions
Detailed dimensions required for manufacture are excluded from assembly drawings. But overall dimensions
of the assembled object are usually indicated.
If the spatial relationship between parts if important for the product to function correctly then these should
also be indicated on the drawing. For example indicating the maximum and minimum clearance between
two parts.
Internal Parts
If there are internal assemblies, sectional views should be used.
Parts list
Each part is given a unique number, indicated on the drawing by a circle with the number in it and a leader
line pointing to the part. The leader line terminates in an arrow if the line touches the edge of the component,
or in a circle if the line terminates inside the part.
A table of parts should be added to the drawing to identify each part, an example of a parts list is shown
below:
The first three items; Item No., Description, and Quantity should be completed for every distinct part on your
drawing. (i.e. the number of duplicate parts are recorded in the quantity). The material is used for
components that are being made within the company. The Remarks column is useful for specifying a
manufacturers part number when using bought-in parts.
Item No.

Description

Qty

Material

Remarks

Exploded Drawing
An exploded view is a representative picture or diagram that shows the components of an object slightly
separated by distance, or suspended in surrounding space in the case of a three-dimensional exploded
diagram, as if there had been a small controlled explosion emanating from the middle of the object which
separated all of the parts of that object an equal distance away from their original locations.
Exploded diagrams are common in descriptive manuals showing parts placement, or parts contained in an
assembly or sub-assembly. Usually such diagrams have the part identification number and a label indicating
which part fills the particular position in the diagram. Many spreadsheet applications can automatically
create exploded diagrams, such as exploded pie charts.

Exploded Drawing

Drawing for sheet metal parts


Typical sheet metal parts contain one form view, flat view, Isometric view and other necessary views.
Form view: This view represents details in the bent or form condition
Flat view: This view represents details of blank development along with the necessary holes and cut
features
Isometric view: This view represents about 3D image of the sheet metal part

Isometric View
Formed View

Flat View

Drawing for forging parts


Forging
Forging is the working of metal by plastic deformation. It is distinguished from machining, the shaping of
metal by removing material, such as by drilling, sawing, milling, turning or grinding, and from casting,
wherein metal in its molten state is poured into a mold, whose form it retains on solidifying. The
processes of raising, sinking, rolling, swaging, drawing and upsetting are essentially forging operations
although they are not commonly so called because of the special techniques and tooling they require.
Forging results in metal that is stronger than cast or machined metal parts. This is because during forging
the metal's grain flow changes into the shape of the part, making it stronger. Some modern parts require
a specific grain flow to ensure the strength and reliability of the part.

Drawing for casting parts

Engineering Standards

Introduction to standards
Standards Organizations
Knowledge of some International Standards
Examples of Standards

Introduction to standards
What are standards?
Just like any other language, the grammar of this engineering language is defined
by various standards across globe. These standards talk about dimension styles,
tolerance, sheet sizes, etc. In short these standards define each & every thing
required to create any basic engineering drawing

History and Evolution of Standards


The industrial revolution in 19th century forced the world to create the standards for
drawing creation. Mainly it started with military application. Then it was adapted by
all other industries. Almost every nation has its own standards.

Usage of standards
These standards are used in all engineering streams, Mechanical, Civil, Chemical,
Automobile, electronics, etc

Types of standards
Drawing standards, welding standards, safety standards, construction standards,
etc

Standards Organizations
Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs)
All over the world there are number of organizations which are involved in
developing different standards.

ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers


ANSI: American National Standards Institute
BIS: Bureau of Indian Standards
BSI: British standards
DIN: Deutsches Institute for Norms
JIS: Japanese Industrial Standards

Scope of work

Creating standards
Standards publication
Training about standards
Assessment & certification
Product testing

Standards development process

Identifying the requirements


Creating a draft copy of the standard
Deliberation by authorized panel
Establishment of the standard
Promotion of the standards

Knowledge of some International Standards


ASTM: AMERICAN STANDARDS FOR TESTING
ASTM provides standard for ferrous-non-ferrous materials specification & material
testing. Used in US.

API: AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTION


Widely

followed

by

petrochemical

industry

&

Chemical

industry

ASME: AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS


ASME provides codes and standards for various mechanical elements. Pressure
vessel codes by ASME are used by all industrial nations.

AIAA:

AEROSPACE
INDUSTRIES
ASSOCIATION
OF
AMERICA
This standards service includes National Aerospace Standards (NAS) and metric
standards (NA Series)

BSI: BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


British standards provide standards for various machine elements, material
specification and testing, sealants and automotive components

Knowledge of some International Standards


DIN standards:
Standards by Germany widely followed across Europe Japan and America.

JIS: JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS


Provides standards and codes for almost all major engineering divisions.

ISO: INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION


BIS: BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
SAE: SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
Provides standards for Aerospace, Off-highway vehicles and automobile
components design.

Examples of Standards
GD&T Standards
Drawings and Terminology
Measurement standards
Tooling Standards
Welding standards
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Standards
Hydraulics Standards
Aerospace Standards
Manufacturing standards
Automobile Standards

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