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Agenda

this presentation
is probably too
long, select from:

z
z What

is the Purpose of an Oil Refinery?


z What Goes In/Out of the Refinery
z How Do You Get from Crude Oil to
Products?
Separations
Chemical Reactions

cont...

Agenda - Cont.
z

Do
Products?

Get

Crude

to

Separations
Chemical Reactions
Major Equipment
Minimizing Pollution

z What

do The Chemical Engineers Do?

Overview
IS TO TRANSFORM RELATIVELY
HIGH VALUE PRODUCTS AS
ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND A

Overview - Cont.
price
quality crudes constantly
changing. The price and specifications of the
products is constantly changing. Government
regulations add additional constraints. There is
not much differential between the price of crude
and products.
d

d t

HOW DO I KEEP IN BUSINESS?

How Do I Keep In Business ?


need design
revamp
plant
the
latest technology to be more efficient
z I need to make the plant more flexible and
responsive
z I need to operate (control) the plant in the most
efficient manner possible
z I need to keep the equipment running all the time
z

I NEED CHEMICAL ENGINEERS!

OK, But...
WHAT GOES ON IN AN OIL
REFINERY?

THE REFINERY
Very

Natura
lGas

Separation
s

RX

Polyethylene

Butane RX
(C
C10))
(C55 -- C
(C5 - C1010)

Naphtha
(Aspi

(B

(7 UP Bottles)

asolin
G
Organic
OrganicChemicals (Aspirin,eHair
X
Organic
Chemicals
(Aspirin,
Chemicals
Spray)
R
elmet, Astro
)
XX

RX

More Polymers

Kerosene &
Kerosene &
Gas Oils (C10+)

(Football
H Turf,

Nylon

Asphalt

RX = Chemical Reactions

Jet
Fuel
iesel Fuels
D
Home

Cok
(Carbon
e Material Similar to
Coal)

Purifications remove sulfur and heavy


metals

Gas
Stove
ad Bags)
Fue
arb
arbeque
l
Grills)

Propane &

Separations
and
Pur
ficatio
ns

Well

Crud
e

Co
versions

Oil

Ethylene

(Gl

Simplified

Petroleum
and
Petrochemi
cal
Flowchart

RX

Road
s

Pot
Holes

Heating Oil,
Lubricating
Oil, Wax
Fuel
Steel Making
Graphite
Fibers
(Tennis
Racquets)

What Is Crud Oil?


Oil a
mixture thousands
of organic chemicals found underground. It
is the result of organic matter decaying over
thousands of years; hence the name fossil
fuel
z Crude oil is found all over the world and
varies tremendously in its density,
aromatics, sulfur, and metals content
z

Major Refinery Products


z LPG

(Propane/Butane)
z GASOLINE (hundreds of blends)
z JET FUELS
z DIESEL FUELS
z HEATING OILS
z GREASES
z ASPHALTS
z COKE (not the kind you drink )

Gasoline Specifications
Gasoline must meet many criteria
change withlocation. Some
the time of yearwhich
and geographic
critical specifications are:
z Vapor Pressure
z Octane
Aromatics / Benzene Content
z Sulfur Content
Gasolines are always a blend of a number of streams
in the refinery
z

Other Specifications
refinery
must
specifications such as:
z Cetane number
z Density
Pour Point
Flash Point
Viscosity
z

z
z

other

So, How Do You Make Good


Stuff Out Of That Gooey
Crude?

So, How Do You Make Good


Stuff Out Of That Gooey
Crude?

So, How Do You Make Good


Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude?
REACTIONS
&
SEPARATIO
NS

So, How Do You Make Good


Stuff Out Of That Gooey
z Separate crude into Crude?
fractions
Convert low octane components to higher octane
components
z Convert the very heavy stuff to heavy oils
z Convert heavy oils to gasoline,diesel,jet fuel
z Remove sulfur/nitrogen through reaction
z Blend intermediate streams together to meet
product specifications
z

SEPARATIONS

SEPARATIONS C
z HUGE

CRUDE
AC O A O
FRACTIONATION
DISTILLATION COLUMNS

ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION
VACUUM DISTILLATION
z TYPICAL

SIZE: 1
z 750 DEGREES F

,000 ARRELS/DAY

OTHER SEPARATIONS
z
z DISTILLATION
z ABSORPTION
z ADSORPTION
z SETTLING

(WATER/OIL)

REACTIONS

REACTIONS
Almost all the reactions in the refinery use
special catalysts
increase
rate
selectivity of the reaction. This improves
reduces
efficiency
byproducts.

Reacti ns to M k Higher Octane


ISOMERIZATION
C-C-C-C-C-C --> C C
nC6
C-C-C-C
iC6
REFORMING
-C
nC7
C
C-CH3
C
C toluene
C

Reactio s To Make Higher Octane


ALKYLATION
C
C
C=C-C + C-C-C --> C-C-C-C-C
C
isoh ta e (2,2,dmp)
propylene isobutane

Reactions To Convert Heavy Oils


HYDROCRACKING
H2 + heavy oil --> gasoline + diesel
550 F
300 F 450 F
use boiling point to describe oils

CAT CRACKING
heavy oil --> gasoline + propylene, butane,
other light ends
550 F
300 F

Reactions To Convert Resid


barrel the
Resid the
of
material that is left in the bottom of the
crude/vacuum
towers
COKING
resid + heat --> coke + heavy oil
> 900 F
550 F
solid

Reactions To Remove Sulfur


HYDRODESULFURIZATION
2 R-SH + H2 --> 2 R + 2 H2S
mercaptan
hydrocarbon
SULFUR RECOVERY
convert H2S to elemental sulfur:
2 H2S + 2 O2 --> SO2 + S + 2 H2O
2 H2S + SO2 --> 3S + 2 H2O

MAJOR REFINERY EQUIPMENT


, Separators,
Tanks
z Pumps & Compressors
z Furnaces
z Heat Exchangers
z Instruments (measure flow, temperature,
pressure, composition)
z Control Systems
z

MINIMIZING POLLUTION
Furnaces
z Waste Material Goes To The Flare Stack
z Avoid Spills & Accidental Releases
z Special Treatment of Sewer Water
z Lots of Paper Work!
z

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE


BAD STUFF
UFF IN THE CRUDE?
z

Sulfur
converted to elemental sulfur
in high sulfur fuel oil
in coke

Heavy Metals (nickel, vanadium)


in high sulfur fuel oil and coke

Nitrogen (organic nitrogen)


most is converted to ammonia and neutralized
in high sulfur fuel oil and coke

WHAT ROLE DO
ENGINEERS
REFINERY?
PLAY
IN THE
REFINERY?

What Role Do Chemical Engineers Play?


z Operations

Engineer
z Maintenance Engineer
z Control Systems Engineer
z Design Engineer
z Health/Safety/Environmental

Engineer
z Planning / Scheduling Engineer
z
Engineer
z Plant Manager

Other Ways Chemical Engineers


Support
The R
Refining
S
Th
fi i IIndustry
d
&
Engineers
z Technical Sales Engineers
z Engineering & Construction Engineers
z Governmental Regulators (EPA)
z University Professors
z

Other Engineering Disciplines In


The
Th Refinery
R fi
z Mechanical

Engineers - design &


maintenance of compressors, vessels
z Electrical Engineers - electrical,
instrumentation, controls
z Computer Scientists - main plant
control &
information systems

Where to get more i

rmation

training
z List books, articles, electronic sources
z Consulting services, other sources
z

Summary
are
complicated
processing plants that use reactions and
separations to
crude
into
gasoline and other valuable products
z Chemical engineers play an important role
in keeping these plants running safely and
efficiently
z