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TOPIC:

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT IN OIL AND GAS
EXPLOITATION
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Presentation By:
John K. Arthur
Theophilus Tawia

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
Introduction
What Is Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA)?
Potential Environmental Impacts From Oil And
Gas Exploration And Production
Conclusion
References

INTRODUCTION

Environmental impacts of the extraction of oil and gas


reserves at different times and in various places have
included:
air

pollution
water pollution
oil spills
socio-cultural impacts
ecological damage
accidents and fires.

The achievement of a synergy between environmental


protection and the economic benefits afforded by oil
and gas exploitation has posed a challenge in the past
and continues to do so now and into the future.

WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)?
EIA

is an information gathering
exercise carried out by the developer
and other bodies which enables a Local
Planning Authority to understand the
environmental effects of a development
before deciding whether or not it should
go ahead.
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POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM


OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND
PRODUCTION

Human, socio-economic and cultural


impacts

land-use patterns such as;


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

agriculture
Fishing
Logging
hunting

local population levels, as a result of immigration


(i.e labour force) and in-migration of a remote
population due to increased access and opportunities

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM


OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND
PRODUCTION (CONT.)

socio-economic systems due to new employment


opportunities, income differentials, inflation,
differences in per capita income, when different
members of local groups benefit unevenly from
induced changes

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM


OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND
PRODUCTION

Atmospheric impacts
flaring,

venting and purging gases


combustion processes such as diesel
engines and gas turbines
Particulates from other burning sources,
such as well testing.

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM


OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND
PRODUCTION (CONT.)

Aquatic Impact
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

drilling fluids, cuttings and well


treatment chemicals
Process, wash and drainage water
Sewerage, sanitary and domestic wastes
Spills and leakage

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM


OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND
PRODUCTION (CONT.)

Terrestrial impacts
i.
ii.
iii.

physical disturbance as a result of


construction;
contamination resulting from spillage
and leakage or
Solid waste disposal; and indirect
impact arising from opening access and
social change.
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POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM


OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND
PRODUCTION (CONT.)

Ecosystem Impact

Plant and animal communities may also


be directly affected by changes in their
environment through variations in water,
air and soil/sediment quality and
through disturbance by noise, extraneous
light and changes in vegetation cover.

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Exploration Activity
Seismic

Environmental Disturbance Factor

Air gun discharges

Chemical explosives

Vessel transit

Potential Effect

Displacement or loss of biota,


especially fish and wildlife.

Loss of fishing gear

Displacement of fishing
activities

Drilling

Discharge of toxic drilling fluids

Loss of habitat

Discharge of fines and solids from

Displacement or loss of biota

drilling

Tainting of fish and shell fish

Operational noise

Degradation of beaches

Vessel and aircraft traffic

Displacement of fishing

Loss of well control leading to gas and

activities

oil spills
Well suspension and

Debris

Disturbance of biota

abandonment

Vessel and aircraft traffic

Loss of fishing gear

Displacement of fishing 11
activities

CONCLUSION

Information is important for creating awareness. One


of the key conditions for managing the environment is
information, such as knowledge about the
environment and linkages between the environment
and human environment (Gresham, et al., 1997).
Participation is a function of information through
which people come to share a development vision,
make choices, and manage activities (World Bank,
1996b).
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REFERENCES
Claire Pettit (2006): "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)",
London: The Institute of Environmental Management and
Assessment.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (2009), London:
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).
Industry & Environment Unit, Centre for Science & Environment
(2006): "Introduction to Environment Impact Assessment."
Ron Bisset (1996): "Environmental Impact Assessment: Issues,
Trends and Practice"; United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP).

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THANK YOU

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