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Chapter 18: Electrical Properties

How are electrical conductance and resistance
characterized?
What are the physical phenomena that distinguish
conductors, semiconductors, and insulators?
For metals, how is conductivity affected by
imperfections, T, and deformation?
For semiconductors, how is conductivity affected
by impurities (doping) and T?

Chapter 18 -

View of an Integrated Circuit

Scanning electron microscope images of an IC:
Al
Si
(doped)

(d)

(d)

(a)

45 m

0.5 mm

A dot map showing location of Si (a semiconductor):

-- Si shows up as light regions.

(b)

A dot map showing location of Al (a conductor):

-- Al shows up as light regions.

Fig. (d) from Fig. 18.27 (a), Callister 7e. (Fig. 18.27 is
courtesy Nick Gonzales, National Semiconductor Corp.,
West Jordan, UT.)

(c)

Fig. (a), (b), (c) from Fig. 18.0,

Callister 7e.
Chapter 18 -

Electrical Conduction
Ohm's Law:

V = I R

voltage drop (volts = J/C)

resistance (Ohms)
current (amps = C/s)
C = Coulomb
A

(cross
sect.
area)

e-

I
V
L

-- geometry-independent forms of Ohm's Law

-- Resistivity is a material property & is independent of sample
E: electric
field
intensity

Resistance:

V
I

L
A

L
L
R

A A

resistivity
(Ohm-m)
J: current density
conductivity

Chapter 18 -

Electrical Properties
Which will conduct more electricity?
D

2D

RA
VA

Analogous to flow of water in a pipe

So resistance depends on sample
geometry, etc.

Chapter 18 -

Definitions
Further definitions

J=

<= another way to state Ohms law

J current density

current
I

surface area A

like a flux

electric field potential = V/ or (V/ )

J = (V/ )
Electron flux

conductivity

Current carriers
electrons in most solids
ions can also carry (particularly in liquid solutions)
Chapter 18 -

Conductivity: Comparison
Room T values (Ohm-m)-1 = ( - m)-1
METALS
CERAMICS
conductors
-10
Silver
6.8 x 10 7
Soda-lime glass 10 -10-11
Copper
6.0 x 10 7
Concrete
10-9
Iron
1.0 x 10 7
Aluminum oxide <10-13

SEMICONDUCTORS
POLYMERS
Polystyrene
Silicon
4 x 10 -4
Polyethylene
Germanium 2 x 10 0
GaAs
10 -6
semiconductors

<10 -14
10 -15-10-17
insulators

Selected values from Tables 18.1, 18.3, and 18.4, Callister 7e.
Chapter 18 -

Example: Conductivity Problem

What is the minimum diameter (D) of the wire so that V < 1.5 V?

e-

Cu wire -

100m
I = 2.5A

100m

D 2
4
Solve to get

L
V
R

A
I

< 1.5V
2.5A

D > 1.87 mm
Chapter 18 -

Chapter 18 -

Band Structure

Valence band filled highest occupied energy levels

Conduction band empty lowest unoccupied energy levels

Conduction
band
valence band

Chapter 18 -

Conduction & Electron Transport

Metals (Conductors):
-- Thermal energy puts
many electrons into
a higher energy state.

Energy

Energy

empty
band

empty
band

GAP
partly
filled
valence
band
filled
band

filled states

energy states
are accessible
by thermal
fluctuations.

filled states

Energy States:

filled
valence
band
filled
band

Chapter 18 -

10

Semiconductors
Insulators:

Semiconductors:

-- Higher energy states not

-- Higher energy states separated
accessible due to gap (> 2 eV). by smaller gap (< 2 eV).
empty
band

filled states

GAP
filled
valence
band
filled
band

Energy
empty
band

GAP
filled states

Energy

filled
valence
band
filled
band
Chapter 18 -

11

Charge Carriers
Adapted from Fig. 18.6 (b), Callister 7e.

Two charge carrying mechanisms

Electron negative charge
Hole
equal & opposite
positive charge
Move at different speeds - drift
velocity
Higher temp. promotes more electrons into the conduction band

as T

Chapter 18 -

12

Metals: Resistivity vs T, Impurities

Imperfections increase resistivity

6
(10 -8 Ohm-m)

Resistivity,

-- grain boundaries
-- dislocations
-- impurity atoms
-- vacancies
5
4
3
2
1
0

.3
+3

These act to scatter

electrons so that they
take a less direct path.
t %N
a
2

Ni
i
%
N
t
a
%
at
16
.
2
2
1
.
+
+1
Cu
u
dC
e
Ni
m
r
%
o
t
f
a
de
2
1
.
+1
Cu
Cu

e
r
Pu

Cu

-200

-100

T (C)

Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 7e. (Fig. 18.8 adapted from J.O.
Linde, Ann. Physik 5, p. 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M.
Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company,
New York, 1970.)

Resistivity
increases with:
-- temperature
-- wt% impurity
-- %CW

= thermal
+ impurity
+ deformation
Chapter 18 -

13

Pure Semiconductors:
Conductivity vs T
Data for Pure Silicon:
-- increases with T
-- opposite to metals
electrical conductivity,
(Ohm-m) -1

10 4
10 2
10 1
10 0

10 -1
10 -2

pure
(undoped)

50 100

Energy
empty
band

GAP
filled states

10 3

undoped e

1000
T(K)

Adapted from Fig. 19.15, Callister 5e. (Fig. 19.15

adapted from G.L. Pearson and J. Bardeen, Phys. Rev.
75, p. 865, 1949.)

E gap / kT

electrons
filled
can cross
valence gap at
band
higher T
filled
band

material
Si
Ge
GaP
CdS

1.11
0.67
2.25
2.40

Selected values from Table

18.3, Callister 7e.

Chapter 18 -

14

Conduction in Terms of Electron and

Hole Migration
Concept of electrons and holes:
valence
electron

electron
hole
pair creation

Si atom

no applied
electric field

electron
hole
pair migration

+applied
electric field

applied
electric field

# holes/m 3

n e e p e h
# electrons/m3

Adapted from Fig. 18.11,

Callister 7e.

hole mobility

electron mobility
Chapter 18 -

15

Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Conduction

Intrinsic:
# electrons = # holes (n = p)
--case for pure Si

Extrinsic:
--n p
--occurs when impurities are added with a different
# valence electrons than the host (e.g., Si atoms)

p-type Extrinsic: (p >> n)

Phosphorus atom
4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

n e e

4+ 5+ 4+ 4+
4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

18.12(a) & 18.14(a),
Callister 7e.

no applied
electric field

Boron atom
hole
conduction
electron

4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

valence
electron

4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

Si atom

4+ 3+ 4+ 4+

no applied
electric field

p e h

Chapter 18 -

16

p-n Rectifying Junction

Allows flow of electrons in one direction only (e.g., useful
to convert alternating current to direct current.

Processing: diffuse P into one side of a B-doped crystal.

Adapted from Fig. 18.21,
Results:
p-type
n-type

+ + +
+ +

Callister 7e.

--No applied potential:

no net current flow.
--Forward bias: carrier
flow through p-type and
n-type regions; holes and
electrons recombine at
p-n junction; current flows.
--Reverse bias: carrier
flow away from p-n junction;
carrier conc. greatly reduced
at junction; little current flow.

p-type

+ - n-type
++- - + -

+ p-type
+ +
+ +

n-type

Chapter 18 -

17

Intrinsic Semiconductors
Pure material semiconductors: e.g., silicon &
germanium
Group IVA materials
Compound semiconductors
III-V compounds
Ex: GaAs & InSb

II-VI compounds
Ex: CdS & ZnTe

The wider the electronegativity difference between

the elements the wider the energy gap.

Chapter 18 -

18

0.0052at%B

10 3
10 2
10 1
10 0
10 -1

doped
0.0013at%B

pure
(undoped)

10 -2
50 100

1000
T(K)

Adapted from Fig. 19.15, Callister 5e. (Fig. 19.15

adapted from G.L. Pearson and J. Bardeen, Phys. Rev.
75, p. 865, 1949.)

1021/m3 of a n-type donor

impurity (such as P).
-- for T < 100 K: "freeze-out,
thermal energy insufficient to
excite electrons.
-- for 150 K < T < 450 K: "extrinsic"
-- for T >> 450 K: "intrinsic"
doped
undoped

3
2
1
0

intrinsic

10 4

-- extrinsic doping level:

extrinsic

electrical conductivity,
(Ohm-m) -1

lower the activation energy to

produce mobile electrons.

extrinsic conduction...

freeze-out

-- increases doping
-- reason: imperfection sites

Comparison: intrinsic vs

conduction electron
concentration (1021/m3)

Data for Doped Silicon:

18.17, Callister 7e.
(Fig. 18.17 from S.M.
Sze, Semiconductor
Devices, Physics, and
Technology, Bell
Telephone
Laboratories, Inc.,
1985.)

Chapter 18 -

19

Number of Charge Carriers

Intrinsic Conductivity
= n|e|e + p|e|e
for intrinsic semiconductor n = p

= n|e|(e + n)
Ex: GaAs

106 ( m)1
n

e e n
(1.6x1019 C)(0.85 0.45 m2 /V s)

For GaAs
For Si

n = 4.8 x 1024 m-3

n = 1.3 x 1016 m-3
Chapter 18 -

20

Fig. 18.23, Callister 7e.

Chapter 18 -

21

Transistor MOSFET
MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect
transistor)

Fig. 18.24,
Callister 7e.

Chapter 18 -

22

Integrated circuits - state of the art ca. 50 nm line

width
1 Mbyte cache on board
> 100,000,000 components on chip
chip formed layer by layer
Al is the wire
Chapter 18 -

23

Ferroelectric Ceramics
Ferroelectric Ceramics are dipolar below Curie TC = 120C
cooled below Tc in strong electric field - make material
with strong dipole moment
Fig. 18.35, Callister 7e.

Chapter 18 -

24

Piezoelectric Materials
Piezoelectricity application of pressure produces current

at
rest

compression
induces
voltage

applied voltage
induces
expansion
Adapted from Fig. 18.36,
Callister 7e.
Chapter 18 -

25

Summary
Electrical conductivity and resistivity are:
-- material parameters.
-- geometry independent.

Electrical resistance is:

-- a geometry and material dependent parameter.

Conductors, semiconductors, and insulators...

-- differ in accessibility of energy states for
conductance electrons.

For metals, conductivity is increased by

-- reducing deformation
-- reducing imperfections
-- decreasing temperature.

For pure semiconductors, conductivity is increased by

-- increasing temperature
-- doping (e.g., adding B to Si (p-type) or P to Si (n-type).
Chapter 18 -

26