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WHOLE LANGUAGE

INTRODUCTION

Book/Chapter Title: Approaches and Methods


in Language Teaching (2nd ed.)/Multiple
Intelligences
Author: Jack C. Richards and Theodore S.
Rodgers
Place and date of Publication: United
Kingdom, 2001
Publisher: The Press Syndicate of the
University of Cambridge

THEORY OF LANGUAGE

Was created in the 1980s by the group of


educators in U.S.
Is not a teaching method but an approach
Language is a vehicle for human
communication

THEORY OF LEARNING

Whole language approach emphasized on the


authenticity

OBJECTIVES

Teacher collaborate with students to create


knowledge and understanding in their mutual
social context
Focuses on learners experience, needs,
interest, and aspiration

TEACHER & LEARNERS ROLES

Teacher is a facilitator and an active


participants in the learning community
rather than expert passing on knowledge.

Learners are collaborators and evaluators

ROLES OF MATERIALS

Students own learning experiences & Other


real world materials are used as recources
for learning

ACTIVITY TYPES

Individual and small group reading and


writing
Writing portofolios
Writing conferences
Student-made books
Story writing

DISCUSSION

Learners are supposed to make their own text


which is related to their experiences, needs,
interests, and aspirations. This kind of approach
makes learners easier to understand what they are
going to learn.

But, since the authenticity of the materials is


important, teacher has to be very creative.

Just relying on the use of authentic materials is


not enough.

DISCUSSIONS

Overall, the whole language is not a teaching method, but


an approach to learning that sees language as a whole
entity. There are some advantages of the whole language
approach, such as: 1) it focuses on experiences and
activities that are relevant to learners lives and needs; 2)
it uses authentic materials; 3) it can be used to facilitate
the development of all aspects of a second language. But,
there are also some critics who see it as a rejection of a
whole ESL approach in language teaching and one that
seeks to apply native-language principle to ESL. According
to them, whole language proposals are seen as anti-direct
teaching, anti-skills, and anti-materials, assuming that
authentic texts are sufficient in second language learning
and that skill development will follow without special
attention (Aaron, 1991).

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

Multiple Intelligences (MI) is an approach of which characterize


human intelligences. MI is based on the work of Howard Gardner of
the Harvard Graduate School of Education (Gardner, 1993).
Gardner argues that all humans have different types of
intelligences but people differ in the strengths and combination of
intelligences. Gardner divides eight native intelligences, which
are:
Linguistic, the ability to use language in special and creative ways.
Logical/mathematical, the ability to think rationally.
Spatial, the ability to form mental models of the world.
Musical, the ability to sense music.
Bodily/kinesthetic, the ability to control of one's bodily motion
and capacity to handle objects skillfully.
Interpersonal, the ability to cooperate with others.
Intrapersonal, the ability to understand oneself.
Naturalist, the ability to understanding natural surroundings.

THEORY OF LANGUAGE
The Innatism theory underly the Multiple
intelligence approach. It is explained how
learning in different areas is fasilitated by
innate individual differences. People with
high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a
facility with words and languages.Language
is held to be integrated with music, bodily
activity, interpersonal relationship, and so
on. Language is not seen as limited to s
linguistics perspectives but encompasses all
aspects of communication.

THEORY OF LEARNING

Language learning is based on students


intelligences. Armstrong (2009) suggested
that MI possesses potential to be used in the
teaching and learning of languages, as it
provides multiple routes to learning. Richards
and Rodgers (2001) affirmed that the MI
Theory enhances the teaching and learning of
ESL by providing teachers with a variety of
teaching strategies and approaches. MIs
instruction motivates learners by spurring
multiple ways of ascribing meaning to
vocabulary being acquired.

OBJECTIVES
MI pedagogy focuses on the language class
as the setting for a series of educational
support system aimed at making the
language learners desginer of their learning
experiences.

ACTIVITY TYPES

There are eight self-access activity corners,


each corner built arounf one of the eight
intellegences. Students work alone or in
pairs on intellegences focus on their own
choosing.

LEARNERS ROLES

Learners are encouraged to see their goals


and are expected to take an MI inventory to
develop their own MI profiles based on the
inventory.

TEACHERS ROLES

Facilitate the students to improve second


language abilities also cobtributor to overall
development of studentsintellegences.

ROLES OF MATERIALS
realia, printed words, sound, motion, color.

DISCUSSION

Students will be able to demonstrate and share their


strengths. Building strengths gives a student the motivation
to be a "specialist." This can in turn lead to increased selfesteem.
Characterizing learners personal MI profiles may enhance
language learning process, on the other hand, can be
facilitated through the use of language learning strategies,
particularly if the strategies have been developed by
teachers who have knowledge about individuals learning
styles.
Teachers will provide opportunities for authentic learning
based on students' needs, interests and talents. The multiple
intelligence classroom acts like the "real" world: the author
and the illustrator of a book are equally valuable creators.
Students become more active, involved learners.

WEAKNESSES

Language learning and use are closely related


to Linguistic Intelligence. However, MI
believes that language is more than only
linguistic. Language has aspects such as rhythm,
tone, volume and pitch that are related to
music. And other intelligences would enhance
the linguistic intelligence development.
The lack of theory related to language
learning.
In language learning, the teacher have to design
by themselves because there is no guidance in
designing a lesson plan or syllabus applying MI.

Students works alone or in pairs based on the


same intelligences.
Teachers have to analyze the students
intelligences well.
Teachers need to consider the possible
application of MI theory in individual
teaching situations.
Teachers also improve multiple intelligences,
not only improve language learning.

CONCLUSIONS

This chapter explains MI in general, the eight


intelligences. There's only limited
explanation on language learning through MI
approach. Applying this approach in the
classroom needs a further research on how
teacher differentiate students' intelligences
in teaching English as a foreign language.