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ANATOMY OF THE MENTAL

AND NEUROBEHAVIOR
DISORDER

Learning Objectives
1. Describe the structures involved in psychiatric and
neurobehavioral disorders
2. Describe and diagram the basic morphology of the
structures comprising the limbic system
3. Describe and diagram the input-output
relationships of limbic nuclei
4. Characterize the functions of limbic brain
structures and their underlying mechanisms (where
known)
5. Develop an understanding of the structural and
functional bases for clinical and behavioral
disorders associated with dysfunctions of the limbic
system

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2.
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Structures Involved in
Psychiatric and
Neurobehavioral
Disorder
Hippocampal formation
Amygdala
Orbitofrontal cortex
Cingulate gyrus
Hypothalamus
Mammilary bodies
Anterior thalamic nucleus
Medial dorsal thalamis nucleus
Ventral striatum
Frontal lobe
Rhinencephalon
Mesencephalon

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2.
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Substantia Nigra
Ventral tegmental area (VTA)
Formatio reticularis

Limbic system

INTRODUCTION
Associati
on
cortex
Primary
sensory
cortex

Primary
motor
cortex

Sensory
system

Lower
Motor
neuron

The human brain is the organ that is the


basis of what persons sense, do, feel, and
think; or put in more formal terms, our
sensory, behavioral, affective, and cognitive
experiences and attributes. It is the organ
that perceives and affects the environment
and integrates past and present.
By processing external stimuli into neuronal
impulses, sensory systems create an
internal representation of the external
world. A separate map is formed for each
sensory modality.
Motor systems enable persons to
manipulate their environment and to
influence others' behavior through
communication.
In the brain, sensory input, representing the
external world, is integrated with internal
drivers, memories, and emotional stimuli in
association units, which in turn drive the
actions of motor units.
Although psychiatry is primarily concerned
with the brain's association function, an
appreciation of the sensory and motor
systems' information processing is essential
for sorting logical thought from the
distortions introduced by psychopathology.

OVERVIEW OF THE
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
OF THE BRAIN

McLeans schema of the evolutionary development of a three-layered


triune brain. Note the location of the limbic system in the middle tier
Brain Circuitry and Signaling in Psychiatry

Areas of the human cerebral cortex defined by Brodmann in his 1909 publication

The six layers of the neocortex, from the pial surface above layer 1 to the
white matter below layer 6.

Diagram of the structure of the cerebral cortex. A: Golgi neuronal stain. B: Nissl
cellular stain. C: Weigart myelin stain. D: Neuronal connections. Roman and Arabic
numerals indicate the layers of the isocortex (neocortex); 4, external line of
Baillarger (line of Gennari in the occipital lobe); 5b, internal line of Baillarger.

Spatial relationships between basal ganglia, thalamus, and


internal capsule as viewed from the left side.

OVERVIEW OF THE
LIMBIC SYSTEM

LIMBIC SYSTEM
is a system that concerns with specific
motivated or goal-oriented behaviors,
directly aimed at the maintenance of
homeostasis and at the survival of the
individual and of the species
(Nieuwenhuys, 1996)
Functions:

Maintenance of homeostasis
Motivated and goal-oriented behaviors
Survival of the individual
Survival of the species
Learning and memory

Stuctures of the Limbic


System
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Septal area
Hippocampal formation
Cingulate gyrus

The limbic structures. The right hemisphere, as viewed from the medial aspect.
The regions and cell groups indicated in red are usually included in the term
limbic system.

The hippocampal formation, fornix, mammillary nucleus, and the


amygdala. Left: Viewed obliquely from behind. Right: Viewed from
above.

Schematic illustration of the location of the limbic system


between the diencephalon and the neocortical hemispheres

Schematic illustration of the concentric main components of the limbic sytem.

Schematic drawing of the major anatomical structures of the limbic system.


Note: The cingulated and parahippocampal gyri form the limbic lobe, a rim
of tissue located along the junction of the diencephalons and the cerebral
hemispheres. n, nucleus.

Schematic illustration (left oblique view) of the position of the hippocampal


formation within the left hemisphere

Le Grande Lobe Limbique as adapted from Brocas original


1878 drawing of an otters brain. Brocas callosal gyrus is now
termed the cingulate gyrus.
Ref: Clinical Neuroanatomy.pdf

Ref: Clinical Neuroanatomy.pdf

Ref: Clinical Neuroanatomy.pdf

Schematic showing some of the major limbic structures


and pathways.

Information flow to and


from the limbic system
The limbic system receives
inputs from sensory systems,
including the cerebral cortex,
and monoamine neuronal
groups of the brainstem
reticular formation.
Primary outputs of the limbic
system are directed to the
hypothalamus. This
arrangement allows the limbic
system to alter the activity of
the hypothalamus in response
to sensory input.
Because the hypothalamus
provides the integrating
mechanism for different forms
of emotional behaviors as well
as for other visceral and
autonomic responses, the
limbic system serves as a key
modulating region of these
processes by virtue of its inputs
into the hypothalamus.

HIPPOCAMPAL
FORMATION

Structures constitute the


Hippocampal Formation
1. Subiculum
2. Dentate gyrus
3. Hippocampus proper

Hippocampal
formation in relation
to other limbic
structures.
A, amygdala;
AC, anterior
commissure; AN,
anterior nucleus of
the thalamus;
B-F, basofrontal
region;
CC, corpus callosum
(b, body; g, genu; s,
splenium);
CG, cingulate gyrus;
E-RC, entorhinal
cortex;
F, fornix;
Fm, fimbria;
HF, hippocampal
formation;
IG, indusium
griseum;

Diagram illustrates the histological appearance of the cell


layers within the hippocampus and loci of the hippocampal
fields, dentate gyrus, and subicular cortex. CA1-CA4 denote
the four sectors of the hippocampus

Semischematic diagram illustrates: (1) inputs from the entorhinal


region, which include the perforant and alvear pathways; (2)
internal circuitry, which includes the connections of the mossy
fibers and Schaffer collaterals; and (3) efferent projections of the
hippocampal formation through the fimbria-fornix system of

Major projection targets of the hippocampal formation. The primary output


is through the fornix to diencephalon (i.e., medial hypothalamus,
mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nucleus) via the postcommissural
fornix and to the septal area via the precommissural fornix. Other
connections shown include efferent fibers that synapse in entorhinal

Papez
HIPPOCAMPAL
FIBERS
circuit

project to the MAMMILLARY BODIES, which, in


turn, project through the MAMMILLOTHALAMIC TRACT to the ANTERIOR
NUCLEUS. The anterior thalamic nucleus then projects to the
CINGULATE GYRUS, and the axons of the cingulate gyrus then project

OFC, orbitofrontal cortex


FAC, Frontal association
cortex
PMC, premotor cortex
AAC,auditory association
cortex
SAC,somatosensory
association cortex
SPL , superior parietal lobule
IPL, inferior parietal lobule
TAC, temporal association
cortex,
VAC, visual association
cortex

BFC, basal frontal cortex


OFC, orbitofrontal cortex
FAC, Frontal association
cortex
PMC, premotor cortex
CG, cingulate gyrus
CC, corpus callosum
PAC, parietal association
cortex
SAC,somatosensory
association cortex
TAC, temporal association
cortex,
VAC, visual association
cortex
A, amygdala
H, hippocampus
E, entorhinal cortex

HIPPOCAMPAL
AFFERENTS

LgF, longitudinal
fissure
PCS, precentral
sulcus
CS, central sulcus
LF, lateral fissure
STS, superior
temporal sulcus
MTS, middle
HIPPOCAMPAL temporal sulcus
EFFERENTS ITS, inferior temporal
sulcus
CoS, collateral sulcus

HYPOTHALAMUS

A. The approximate boundaries


of the anterior, middle, and
posterior divisions of the
Hypothalamus
B. The medial and lateral zones
of the hypothalamus(shaded).
Hypothalamic cells adjacent to
the third ventricle is
paraventricular zone.

Abbreviations:
A, amygdala;
AC,
anterior commissure;
AcN,
accumbens nucleus;
CN,
caudate nucleus;
CP,
cerebral peduncles;
Fc,
columns of the fornix;
Fcrus, crus of fornix;
Inf,
infundibulum;
MB,
mammillary body;
OC,
optic chiasm;
ON,
optic nerve;
OT,
optic tract;
P, putamen;
Pit,
pituitary gland;
S, septal nuclei;
SN,
substantia nigra;
SubT,
subthalamus;

HYPOTHALAMICPITUITARY
CONNECTIONS.

The posterior portion of the


pituitary (neurohypophysis) is
innervated by hypothalamic
neurons that transport the
hypothalamic hormones (oxytocin
and vasopressin) down their axons
to be released into capillary beds
of the posterior pituitary from
where they enter the general
circulation. By contrast, the
capillary beds of the anterior
pituitary (adenohypophysis)
are supplied with hypothalamic
hormones (either releasing or
inhibitory factors) via a blood
portal system from capillary beds
in the hypothalamus itself. Once
released into the
adenohypophysis, these
hypothalamic hormones then
stimulate pituitary cells to
synthesize and secrete their own

SEPTAL AREA

Topographically organized projections from the


hippocampal formation to the septal area (left side) and
topographically arranged efferent projections from the
diagonal band of Broca to the hippocampal formation
(right side).

Diagram illustrates other projections from the septal


area to the medial hypothalamus, mammillary
bodies, medial thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and
anterior cingulate gyrus.

AMYGDALA

the organization of the nuclei of the amygdala

The major efferent projections of the amygdala. One principal output


includes the stria terminalis, which projects to the bed nucleus of the
stria terminalis and to the rostro-caudal extent of the medial
hypothalamus. Fibers from the bed nucleus also supply similar regions
of the hypothalamus. Another important output to the hypothalamus
and midbrain PAG uses the ventral amygdalofugal pathway. Other fibers

The amygdala. Frontal section through the left hemisphere . Some of the
amygdaloid nuclei are marked. The amygdala and the cerebral cortex of the
temporal lobe are closely connected.

Afferent connections of the amygdala

Efferent connections of the


amygdala

The amygdala and conditioned fear. The neural substrate of the responses elicited by a
conditioned stimulus (sound) associated with an electric foot shock. The connections of the
amygdala with the sensory association areas are necessary for discriminative aspects of
stimulus analysis, while connections with the hippocampus mediate contextual conditioning.

Main connections of the cingulate gyrus. The cingulate gyrus has


connections with cortical association areas and with limbic structures and may
act as a mediator between them.