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-materials and components (something that can be used) tha

Natural resources
found within the environment.

Ubiquitous resources
- resources can be found everywhere such as sunlight
and air
Inexhaustible resources
- will not run out in foreseeable future
- Examples are: solar radiation, geothermal energy, and

- obtained from the biosphere (living and organic

material), such as forests, animals, birds, and fish and the
materials that can be obtained from them.
- fossils such as coal and petroleum are also included in
this category because they are formed from decayed
organic matter.
Abiotic resources
- those that come from non-living, non-organic
Examples: land, water, air, heavy metals such as gold, iron

Renewability of Natural Resources

1. Renewable
- can be replenished naturally
- Examples: sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously
available and their
quantity is not noticeably affected by human
- considered renewable only so long as the rate of
exceeds that of the rate of consumption.
2. Non renewable their
rate of consumption exceeds the rate of
- examples: fossil fuels and mineral deposits are in this
category because their rate of formation is extremely
slow (potentially millions of years), which means they
are considered non-renewable from a human use

Renewable Energy Resources

1. Solar energy
and converted by photovoltaic cells known as solar c

2. Hydroelectric power - The kinetic energy in the falling and flowing of water i
streams is used to produce electricity

3. Energy from heat stored in water

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
1. Warm surface water is pumped through a heat exchanger and used to
evaporate liquid ammonia.
2. The ammonia gas (working fluid) is used to drive turbines that generate
electric current
3. The used gas in converted back to liquid ammonia by cold water from the
deeper part of the ocean

OTEC facilities

Advantages of OTEC facilities

1. minimal environmental impacts - no greenhouse gas emissions
2. Produces desalinated water for industrial, agricultural, and residential uses
3. Provides air-conditioning for buildings
4. The cold, deep seawater used in the OTEC process is also rich in nutrients,
and it can be used to culture both marine organisms and plant life
1. Still not highly efficient
2. Localized only in the tropics

4. Wind energy
Wind - simply air in motion
- caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the sun.
- the Earth's surface is made of very different types of land and water,
it absorbs the sun's heat at different rates.

The Daily Wind Cycle

Sea BreezeA coastal breeze blowing
from sea to land caused by the
temperature difference when the land
surface is warmer than the sea surface.
The sea breeze usually occurs during
the day.
Land BreezeA coastal breeze flowing
from land to sea caused by the
temperature difference when the sea
surface is warmer than the adjacent
land. The land breeze usually occurs at

Wind - simply air in motion

- caused by earths rotation
-the equator is hotter than the north
and south poles

Coriolis force
-force created by the rotation of the Earth
- it deflects air to the right (east) in the
Northern Hemisphere
- the effect is the northeast trade wind
- at the lower hemisphere, the effect is
called the southwest trade wind

Wind power- energy created and stored using the kinetic energy that comes
naturally from the wind
- the process of capturing that wind energy and converting it to
electrical power that can be used in households across the nation.
- wind power is captured using a wind electric turbine

Wind Turbines
- With an average of 14 34 miles per hour, a small turbine can generate
10-1000kilowatt of electricity
- approximately 2.5% of electric consumption is generated by wind power
-Competitive price - the overall cost per unit of energy produced is similar
to the cost for new coal and natural gas installations
- the fastest growing source of renewable energy today
The worlds largest turbine which is in operation as of 2011 has an output of
340 MW (built by Siemens Power Generation).

Advantages of wind power

- produces no greenhouse gas emissions
-represents a renewable source of energy, which decreases dependence
on foreign fossil fuels
- may cover a large area of land
- an increase of bird and wildlife mortality is observed closed to these windmills
- noise pollution
- uneven and unpredicted wind supply

- renewable energy from plants and animals
- an organic plant material that can be burned directly as fuel or converted
to gaseous or liquid biofuels through chemical processes such as distillation,
pyrolysis, and esterifications
- a renewable energy source because we can always grow more trees and
crops, and waste will always exist.
- examples of biomass fuels are wood, crops, manure, and some garbage.
- when burned, the chemical energy in
biomass is released as heat
- to produce steam for making
electricity, or to provide heat
to industries and homes

Harnessing energy from biomass by conversion technologies such as

1. Thermal conversion - burning, combustion, or pyrolysis
2. Chemical conversion - transesterification
3. Biochemical conversion - fermentation and composting

- wood waste or garbage can be burned to produce steam for making electricity,
or to provide heat to industries and homes
- the rapid oxidation of the feedstock producing energy. The energy is used to
heat a boiler. High pressured steam is is produced to rotate a turbine which
powers a generator.
- Exothermic reaction: Organic material + O2 CO2 + H2O + heat

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated

temperatures without the participation of oxygen producing organic
gases and oils.

Anaerobic digestion is a biological decomposition process where bacteria are

used in controlled anaerobic conditions to break down biodegradable organic

The key by-product of anaerobic digestion is methane gas which is produced by

the bacteria decomposing the organic waste and can be captured and utilised
as a biogas.

Aerobic composting
- similar to anaerobic digestion with
the key difference being the presence
of oxygen
- the presence of oxygen means than
different bacteria are employed
- aerobic composting produces gases
which can be captured and utilised for
- raw organic materials (such as crop
residues, animal wastes, food garbage,
some municipal wastes and some
industrial wastes) enhance their suitability
as fertilizers after composting.

- a biological process in which enzymes produced by microorganisms catalyze
chemical reactions
- these microorganisms digest sugars to produce the energy and chemicals
they need for survival while giving off by-products such as carbon dioxide,
organic acids, hydrogen, ethanol, and other products, which are then collected
and utilized for energy production

Biofuels - include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass,
liquid fuels, and biogases
Examples: biomass wood, paper, sawdust, etc
liquid fuels bioethanol derived from fermentation
- biodiesel derived from transesterification of fats
biogases - methane derived from anaerobic decomposition of biomass
Bioethanol - the most widely used alternative automotive fuel in the world,
- but pure ethanol (or bioethanol) can not be used for spark-ignition
engines due to its low vapour pressure and high latent heat of
vaporization which make cold start problematic
- blends used to increase functionality of bioethanol
E5G to E26G (5-26% ethanol, 95-74% gasoline)
E85G (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline)
E15D (15% ethanol, 85% diesel)
E95D (95% ethanol, 5% water, with ignition improver)
- worldwide, most bioethanol is produced from sugar cane, molasses
and corn, but other starchy materials such as wheat, barley and rye are
also suitable
- a feedstock of around 3 tons of grains is needed for the production of
1 ton of ethanol.

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or fossil diesel, which is used

to ignite diesel engines
Transesterification - the process of converting a fatty acid to biodiesel

*11% of worlds energy was biofuel in 1984

*15% by the 1st decade of the 21st century

Non-renewable Energy Resources

1. coal, petroleum, and natural gas
2. Geothermal resources
3. Nuclear power
Coal - Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is
composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- formed from decayed plants, pressed between fossilized by the
combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years.
- around 100 years of coal remaining worldwide.
Coalification - geological process of forming materials of high
carbon content from decayed organic materials followed by a
gradual transformation into coal by action of moderate
temperature (about 500 K) and high pressure in a geochemical

Peat - the precursor of coal. It is formed by the action of bacteria on plant debris.
Coke carbonized coal
- the carbon content is increased by changing the hydrocarbons to carbon
and removing the moisture content of coal.
- CnH2n+2 + O2 C + H2O

Tar - a brown or black liquid of extremely high viscosity.

- a by-product when coal is carbonized to make coke or gasified to make coal
- a mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
and heterocyclic compounds, about 200 substances in all.

1. Lignite

Types of Coal

- The softest and the lowest in rank of the

four types of coal.
-Yellow to dark brown or rarely black.
- Contains about 25%-35% carbon (on a
dry, ash-free basis) and has a calorific
value near 17 megajoules per kilogram
(7,000 BTU per pound).

2. Subbituminous

-Intermediate in rank between lignite and

bituminous coal.
-Dark brown to black coal.
-It contains 42%-52% carbon (on a dry,
ash-free basis) and has calorific values
ranging from about 19 to 26
megajoules per kilogram (about 8,200
to 11,200 BTU per pound). It is
characterized by greater compaction

3. Bituminous
-Most abundant form of coal.
subbituminous coal and anthracite.
-The carbon content of around 60%80%.
-Calorific values of 24 to 35
megajoules per kg (10,500-15,000
per pound)
-The most highly metamorphosed
and highest in rank of coal.
-It contains fixed carbon of about 86%98% on a dry, ash-free basis.
megajoules per kilogram
-Anthracite is the least plentiful form
of coal.

Petroleum - a yellow-to-black liquid with a pungent odor made up

of a mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic materials
that are found beneath the surface of the earth.
- also called crude oil
- a fossilized liquid
- The main component is the hydrocarbon family
paraffins, aromatics, naphtenes, alkenes,
dienes and alkynes
Ex: methane, CH4
Propane, C3H8
Butane, C4H10
Octane, C8H18

Components of petroleum are separated in oil refineries

Coal and petroleum are used as a fuel to generate electricity

by combustion
- It is burned in a furnace to convert water to steam. The energy
of the steam is used to to spin turbines which turn generators
that create electricity.
Combustion: C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) + heat
CnH2n+2 CO2 + H2 O + heat

- Disadvantages of Coal and Petroleum as Power Sources:

1. The by products of combustion are: sulfur dioxide,
carbon dioxide and nitroxide.
- NO2 and SO2 contribute to acid rain
- CO2 is a greenhouse gas
2. Non-renewable source of energy

Natural Gas
fuel of the future
found deep underground, or extracted through driven wells.
formed beneath the earths surface by the decomposition of
organic matter
85-90% methane, with varying amounts of ethane,
propane, butane, and other hydrocarbon compounds.
In its natural state, the gas is colorless, odorless, and lighter
than air.
Natural gas is formed along with oil fields and coal beds
It can also be obtained from coal through coal gasification.
Natural gas is often referred to as the cleanest alternative
burning fossil fuel. It can be used in the form of compressed
natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

Is more environment friendly than oil or coal. For same amount
of heat, natural gas emit 30% less carbon dioxide than burning
oil and 45% less carbon dioxide than burning coal.
Due to clean burning process, doesnt produce ashes after
energy release.
Is cheap (less expensive than gasoline) therefore, very cost
Can be safely stored and burned.
Is highly volatile (highly flammable) and can be dangerous.
Is colorless, odorless and tasteless.
The most common cause of carbon monoxide deaths.
Constructing and managing such pipelines cost a lot.
nonrenewable energy resource. Its availability is finite. Critics
also point that their extraction leaves out large craters within
the earth.

The Malampaya Project: The Philippine Natural Gas Source

one of the largest and most significant industrial endeavors in
Philippine history.
the project is spearheaded by the Philippine Department of
Energy (DOE) developed and operated by Shell Philippines
Exploration B.V. (SPEX)
to extract natural gas and condensate from the sea floor.
>>sub-sea facilities, a shallow water production platform, an
underwater pipeline, a catenary-anchored leg mooring buoy, and
an onshore processing gas plant.
In 1989, a small gas reservoir called Camago was discovered.
In 1992, SPEX discovered the Malampaya gas field, and was later
found to be connected to the Camago structure.
In 1998, former President Fidel V. Ramos signed the declaration of
commerciality of the venture.
In October 2001, the Malampaya Deep Water Gas-to-Power
Project was inaugurated in a special ceremony at the onshore gas

Environmental Concerns

How to control the use of the natural resources

How to rehabilitate the area after operations

How to provide a proper and formal mechanism for sustainable


Maintain health and safety of the environment and people

Nuclear reactions
- reactions involving the nuclei of atoms
- these reactions occur with a simultaneous release of heat and radiations
- nuclear reactions maybe naturally occuring or induced
Types of radiations

Types of Nuclear Reactions

1. Nuclear fusion two or more small nuclei fuse together to form a bigger nucleus
accompanied by a release of massive heat and radiation

2. Nuclear fission - a nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits spontaneously

or on impact with another particle, with the release of energy

Nuclear power
- an energy which is produced with the use of a controlled nuclear reaction

Nuclear power plant a thermal energy source in which heat is generated from
nuclear reactors
- as of Jan. 2013, there is a total of 439 nuclear power
reactors world wide.

Advantages of Nuclear Power

- Environmental friendly because no CO2 and other greenhouse gases produced
- More economical more energy is produced from a lesser amount o fuel
- price of fuel is competitive with other fuel sources
- Fuel source (Uranium) is still very abundant and inexhaustible
- Fuel source is radioactive
Uranium radiation may cause cancer
- Fuel source is a heavy metal
Ingestion of uranium metal may cause kidney failure
- Proper disposal of fuel wastes should be observed
- Possibility of power plant meltdown
- Security measures may be very expensive