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BIOLOGY (FORM

6)
FIRST TERMS

Presentation about :chapter 2 :- structure cell and


organelles

( endoplasmic reticulum &


ribosome )

ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
Is the system of tightly packed and flattened
membrane-bound sacs forming tubes and sheets
within cytoplasm.The sacs is known as cristae, are
full of fluid.
Found in all nucleated cells (eukaryotic cells) and
is especially well developed in growing cells.
The ER membrane ,is single units membrane
,separates the internal compartment of the ER
from cytoplasm.The membrane is continuous
with the nuclear envelope while the perinuclear
space of the nucleus is continuous with the
internal space of the ER.

This is example picture of


endoplasmic reticulum

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

( Rough ER )
STRUCTURE OF THIS ORGANELLES : Membrane system consisting of flattened sacs called cristernae.
It has ribosome attached on its surfaces .
Cotinuous with nuclear membrane
FUNCTION :AS THE SITE OF SYNTHESIS PROTEIN.
The growing protein ( polipeptide molecules ) which consist of a
chain of amino acids , is bound to the ribosome at the surface of
rough ER until the synthesis protein. The receptor in the ER
membrane provides a channel through which the protein can pass
through into the ER .
In the cristernae , the protein may be modified by addtion of
carbohyrates or lipids ( ex. Glycoprotein or Glycolipids ).

ACT AS PACKAGING AND TRANSPORT PROTEIN


- The modified protein are transport and transferred to the Golgi
apparatus by small transport vesicles that bud off the ER
membrane and fuse with the membrane of Golgi apparatus to be
processed.
- From the Golgi apparatus , the transport vesicles containing the
modified protein move to the plasma membrane and are secreted
from the cell or these molecules may be passed on to other
organelles in the cells.
- The cristernal space of rough ER functions as an intracellular
transport system that facilitates the movement of substances from
one part of the cell to another.
- Rough ER also manifactures more membranes for the cells.

Polipeptide chain formed is passes into the cristernae


( lumen rough ER)

The syntesis , packaging and transport


of secretory protein by Rough ER

SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM ( SER )
STRUCTURE OF THIS ORGANELLES : Is tubular rather than flat
Does not have attached of ribosomes
May extend separately from outer membrane of the nucleus or
extend from rough ER.
FUNCTION :SYNTHESIS AND TRANSPORT OF LIPIDS INCLUDING OILS AND
PHOSPOLIPIDS.
- For instance , in the intestines, smooth ER synthesis lipids from fatty
acids and glycerol absorbed from the small intestines and passes them
on to the Golgi apparatus for export.

SYNTHESIS OF STEROID ( HORMONES)


- Corticosteroid made in the adrenal cortex , and sex hormones
testosterone and oestrogen made in testis and ovaries.
METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES.
- Smooth ER in the liver cells produce enzymes to helps regulate the
amount of sugar released from liver cells into bloodstream . For ex.
Glucagon and Insulin
SERVES AS A MAJOR DETOXIFICATION SITE.
- The enzymes located along smooth ER in the liver cells helps to break
down toxic chemical and covert that chemical into water-soluble
product that can be excreted.

THE DENSITY AND FUNCTION OF


SPECIFIC CELLS
ORGANELLES

FOUND

FUNCTIONS

ROUGH
ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (RER )

THE CELLS OF
SALIVARY GLAND
AND PANCREAS.

SYNTHESIS AND
EXCRETE PROTEINS
(EX. ENZYME )

SMOOTH
ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (SER )

TESTIS,OVARIES,
IN THE ADRENAL
CORTEX ,
MUSCLE CELLS
(SACROPLASMIC
RETICULUM),LIVER
CELLS , IN THE
SMALL INTESTINE

SITE OF SYNTHESIS
LIPID , HORMONES
(TESTOSTERONE ,
CARTICOSTEROID
,TESTOSTERONE
,OESTROGEN ,
INSULIN AND
GLUCAGON ) AND
ALSO MAJOR SITE OF
DETOXIFICATION.

RIBOSOMES

STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANELLES

Tiny , spherical organelles ,about 20 nm in diameter.


Consist two subunits ; the large subunit and the small subunit.
Made up by ribosomal ( rRNA ) and protein. Ribosomal subunits are
synthesised in the nucleolus and move through nuclear pores into
cytoplasm.
Consist of three RNA strands and 75 different proteins and together
these molecules to form a complex three-dimensional structure.
Two types of ribosomes :a)

b)

Bound ribosomes ( attached on membrane s rough ER and nuclear


envelope )
Free ribosomes suspended in the cytosol.

FUNCTION OF THIS ORGANELLES


SITE OF SYNTHESIS PROTEIN.
During protein synthesis , ribosomes move along the messenger RNA
( mRNA ) molecules which carries the genetic instructions form the
nucleus . The transfer RNA ( tRNA ) molecules brings the required
amino acids to the ribosomes and the growing polipeptide chains.
Acts as binding sites of polipeptide chains through precisely positioned
relative to each other.
The protein synthesised by a free ribosomes are released into the
cytoplasm where act as enzymes or structural proteins for growth
within the cells.
The protein synthesised by ribosomes attached to the rough ER move
into cristernae of the reticulum and transferred to the Golgi apparatus.
Finally, the proteins are synthesis from the cell in form of enzymes or
hormones.
Some of these proteins remain in the cells as lysosomes.

structure of ribosome

Two basic types of ribosomes :a) 70S ribosomes ( prokaryotic


cell, mitochondria &
chloroplast )
b) 80S ribosomes ( in cytoplasm
of eukaryotic cells )

Thats all from our


presentation
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attention