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CH.

4 Full-wave and Threephase rectifiers


(Converting AC to DC)
4-1 Introduction

The average current in AC source is zero


in the full-wave rectifier, thus
avoiding
problems associated with nonzero
average
source currents, particularly in
transformers.
The output of the full-wave rectifier has
inherently less ripple than the half-wave
rectifier.
Uncontrolled and controlled single-phase and
three-phase full-wave converters used as

4-2 Single-phase full-wave rectifiers


Fig. 4-1 Bridge rectifier

The lower peak diode voltage make it more


suitable for high-voltage applications.

Fig. 4-2 center-tapped


transformer rectifier
With electrical isolation,
only one diode voltage drop
between the source and load,
suitable for low-voltage, highcurrent applications

Resistive load
Vm sin wt ,0 wt
v0 ( wt )

Vm sin wt , wt 2
1
Vo

Io Vo

Vm sin( wt )d ( wt ) 2 Vm

2 Vm

Irms Im

(R )

power absorbed by
the load resistor

PR I 2 rmsR

power factor Pf=1

R-L load Fig.4-3


v ( wt ) Vo
Vn cos( nwt )
0

n2,4
,
Vo 2 Vm

Vn

2Vm 1
1

n 1 n 1

Io Vo

In Vn

Zn

Vn
| R jnwL |

If L is relatively large, the load current is


L
>> dc.
R
essentially
(
)
Vo 2Vm

R
R forL >> R

Irms Io
Source harmonics are rich in the odd-numbered
harmonics.
Filters reducing the harmonics.
i( wt ) Io

R-L source load Fig.4-5

For continuous current operation, the only


modification to the analysis that was done for
R-L load is in the dc term of the Fourier
series .The dc component of current in this circuit
is.

2Vm
Vdc
Vo Vdc

Io

R
R
The sinusoidal terms in the Fourier
analysis are unchanged by the dc
source, provided that the current is
continuous.
Discontinuous current is analyzed like
section 3-5.

Capacitance

output filter:

Fig. 4-6

Assuming ideal
diodes

, one diode pair on


| Vm sin wt |

v 0 ( wt )

( wt ) /( wRc )
, diodes off
Vm sin e

the angle where the diodes become

reverse biased, which is the same as for


the half-wave rectifier and is

Tan 1 ( RC ) Tan 1 ( RC )

wt

Vm sin e ( ) /( RC ) Vm sin( )

(sin )e ( ) /( RC ) sin 0
= solved numerically for

variation(ripple)
Peak-to-peak

Vo Vm | Vm sin( ) | Vm(1 sin )


In practical circuits where RC
2

minimal output voltage occurs


at

v0 ( ) Vm e


( ) /( RC )
2 2

Vm e /( RC )

Vo Vm Vm e /( RC ) Vm 1 e /( RC )

Vm 1 1

RC

Vm
Vm

RC 2 fRC

wt

x x2 x3
e 1

...
1 2 3
w 2f
x

is half that of the half-wave rectifier.

Fig. 4-7 (a) Voltage doubler

Fig. 4-7 (b) Dual voltage rectifier


=full-wave rectifier(sw. open)+
voltage doubler(sw. closed)

L-C filtered output Fig.4-8

C holds the output voltage at a constant level, and


the L smoothes the current from rectifier and
reduces the peak current in diodes.

Continuous
Current

Vx Vo 2 Vm

I L I R Vo

2Vm

VL =0 , full-wave rectified

, Ic 0

(R )

iL
variation in
can be estimate from the first
Ac term (n=2) in the Fourier series.
The amplitude of the inductor current for n=2 is
The

I2

V2
V
4Vm / 3 2Vm
2

Z 2 2L
2L
3L

where

Vn

2Vm 1
1

, n2
n 1 n 1

For Continuous current,

I2 IL

2Vm 2Vm

3L
R

R
L
3

3L
1
R

Discontinuous current

,
When i L is positive
(

Vm sin wt Vo

at

wt )

Vo
sin

Vm
1

vL Vm sin wt Vo
1 wt
Vm sin wt Vo d ( wt )
iL ( wt )

L
1
Vm(cos cos wt ) Vo wt

L
for wt , ,
iL ( ) 0 , ?

Procedure for determining Vo


(1) Estimate a Value for Vo slightly below Vm, and
solve
?

(2) Solve

(3)
Solve

numerically,

i L ( ) 0 Vm(cos cos ) Vo ( )

1
I L i L ( wt )d ( wt )

1 1
Vm(cos cos wt ) Vo( wt ) d ( wt )

(4) Slove Vo= I L R


(5) Repeat step (1)~(4) until the computed Vo in
step(4)
equals the estimated Vo in step(1)
Output Voltage for discontinuous current is larger than
for continuous current.(see Fig4-8(d))

4-3 controlled full-wave rectifiers

Resistive load

Fig.4-10

1
Vo Vm sin( wt )d ( wt )

Vm

( 1 cos )

delay angle

Vo Vm
Io

(1 cos )

R R

I rms

The

Vm
2
(
sin
wt
)
d ( wt )
R

Vm 1 sin( 2 )

R 2 2
4

power delivered to the load P I 2 rmsR

The rms current in source is the same as the rms curr


the load.

R-L load : Fig.4-11

discontinuous current :

Vm
) /( )
io ( wt )
sin( t ) sin( )e ( t
for t
Z
Z R 2 ( L ) 2

tan 1 (

L
)
R

, L

For discontinuous current

Analysis of the controlled full-wave rectifier operating


in the discontinuous current mode is identical to that
of the controlled half-wave rectifier, except that the
period
for the output current is .

continuous current
wt

, i ( ) 0

sin( ) sin( )e ( ) /( )

sin( ) 1 e /( )
sin( - ) 0
( - ) 0

v0 ( wt ) Vo Vn cos(nwt n)
n 1

L
Tan ( )
R
for continuous current

1
Vo

-1

Vm sin wt d ( wt )

Vn an bn

n Tan -1 (

bn
)
an

2Vm
cos

an

2Vm cos(n 1) cos(n 1)


n 1
n 1

bn

2Vm sin( n 1) sin( n 1)


n 1
n 1

n 2,4,6,....

Fig 4-12

In Vn

Zn

Vn

Irms Io
2

| R jnwL |

n 2 ,4...

Io Vo

In
2

)2

R-L Source load Fig.4-14

SCRS may be turned on at any time that they


are forward biased, which is at an angle

The

sin 1 (Vdc Vm)

For

continuous current case, the average bridge output volta

Vo

2 Vm
cos

average load current is

Io

Vo Vdc
R

ac voltage terms are unchanged from the


controlled rectifier with an R-L load. The ac current
terms are determined from circuit.
Power absorbed by the dc voltage is

The

Pdc Io Vdc

Power absorbed by resistor in the load is

P I 2 rmsR Io 2 R if

L is l arg e

Controlled Single-phase converter operating as an inverter


seeing Fig 4-14. 4-15

For inverter operation, power is supplied by the dc


source, and power is absorbed by the bridge and
is transferred to the ac system.
Vdc and Vo must be negative

0 90
0

Vo 0

rectifier

operation

900 1800

Pbridge Pac IoVo

Vo 0

inverter operation

4-4 Three-phase rectifiers


Resistive load :

Fig 4-16

Diode ON Diode ON
Diode ON
A transition of the highest line-to-line voltage must
take place
360 0
/ 6every
60 0
.

Because of the six transitions that occur for


each period of the source voltage, the circuit is
called a six-pulse rectifier.
vo(t) 3
Diode

turn on in the sequence 1,2,3,4,5,6,1,..

ia i D1 i D 4
i i i
b D3 D6
ic i D 5 i D 2

Each diode conducts one-third of the time, resulting in

I D ,avg

1
I o ,avg
3

I D ,rms
I S ,rms

1
3

I o ,rms

2
I o ,rms
3

Apparent

power from the three-phase source is

S 3 VL L ,rms I S ,rms

v 0 ( t ) Vo

n
n 6 ,12 ,18..

cos( nw0 t )

3Vm ,L L
1 2 / 3
V0
Vm ,L L sin wtd ( wt )

/
3
/3

0.95Vm ,L L
Vn

6 Vm ,L L
( n 1 )
2

, n 6 , 12, 18, ...

Since the output voltage is periodic with period 1/6


of the ac supply voltage, the harmonics in the output
are of order 6k, k=1,2,3,
Adevantage output is inherently like a dc voltage, and
the high-frequency low-amplitude harmonics enable filters
to be effective.

For a dc load current (constant I0) --- Fig4.17

ia

2 3
1
1
1
1
I o (cos w0 t cos 5w0 t cos 7 w0 t cos 11w0 t cos 13w0 t ....

5
7
11
13

which consists of terms at fundamental frequency of


1, order
k=1,2,3,
the ac system and harmonics of
6k

Filters(Fig.4-18) are frequently necessary to prevent


harmonic currents to enter the ac system.
Resonant filters for 5th and 7th harmonics.
High-pass filters for higher order harmonics.

4-5 Controlled three-phase rectifiers

1 23
Vo
V
sin wtd ( wt )
3 m , L L
3
3Vm , L L
(
) cos

for output voltage remain of order 6k, but


amplitude are
functions of
Harmonics

. seeing Fig. 4-20

Twelve-pulse rectifiers using two six-pulse bridges

The purpose of the transformer connection is to

introduce phase

shift
between the source and bridge.
30 0
This results in inputs to two bridges which are
30 0
apart. The two bridge outputs are similar, but also shifted
by

30 0

The delay angles for the bridge are typically the same.

Vo Vo ,Y Vo ,

3Vm, L L

cos

3Vm , L L

cos

6Vm , L L

cos

peak output of the twelve-pulse converter occurs


midway between alternate peaks of the six-pulse converters.
Adding the voltages at that
gives
0 point for
The

Vo , peak 2Vm , L L cos(15) 1.932 Vm , L L

for 0

Since a transition between conducting SCRs every


30
, there are a total of 12 such transitions for each
period of the ac source. The output has harmonic
frequencies which are multiple of 12 times the source
fre. (12k k=1,2,)
2 3
1
1
1
1
I o (cos w0t cos 5 w0t cos 7 w0t cos 11w0t cos 13 w0t ....)

5
7
11
13
2 3
1
1
1
1
i (t )
I o (cos w0t cos 5 w0t - cos 7 w0t cos 11w0t cos 13 w0t ....)

5
7
11
13
4 3
1
1
iac (t ) iY (t ) i (t )
I o (cos w0t - cos 11w0t cos 13 w0t ...)

11
13
iac , harmonic order 12k 1 , k 1,2,...
iY (t )

Cancellation of harmonics 6(2n-1) 1 , n=1, 2, has resulted


from this transformer and converter configuration.

This principle can be expanded to arrangements of


higher pulse number by incorporating increased number of
six-pulse converters with transformers which have the
appropriate phase shifts.
The characteristic ac harmonics of a p-pulse converter
will
be
pk
1 , k=1,2,3
More expense for producing high-voltage transformers
with the appropriate phase shifts.

hree-phase converter operating as a inverter


seeing 4-22.

The

bridge output voltage Vo must be negative.

0 90

, Vo 0 - - Rectifier operation

90 180 , Vo 0 - - Inverter operation

4-6 DC power transmission


By using controlled twelve-pulse converter (generally).
Used for very long distances of transmission lines.
L 0
Advantages (3)
(1)Two
X
, voltage
lines
conductors
requireddrop
ratherinthan
three
(2) Transmission
XC
line
are
loss
( line current )
(4)
, towers
smaller.

(5 ) Power flow in a dc transmission line is


controllable
by adjustment of delay angles
at the terminals.
(6) Power flow can be modulated during
disturbances on
one of the ac system. System stability
increased.
(7) The two ac systems that are connected by
the dc line do not need to be in
synchronization.
Disadvantages costly ac-dc converter, filter, and control
system required at each end of the
line to interface with the ac system.

Fig.4-23 using six-pulse converter

rectifier
, 0 90
Vo1 , Vo 2

, 90 180 inverter
For current being ripple
free

Vo1 Vo 2
R
3Vm1, L L
Vo1
cos 1

3Vm 2, L L
Vo 2
cos 2

Io

Power supplied by the converter at terminal P11

Vis
o1 I o
Viso 2
Io
Power supplied by the converter at terminal P22

Fig.4-24 using twelve-pulse converter


(a bipolar scheme)

One of the lines is energized


and the other
Vdcat
is Venergized at . In emergency situations, one pole of
dc
the line can operate without the other pole, with current
returning through the ground path.

4-7 commutation effect of source inductance


X s(
Single-phase bridge rectifier: Fig.4-25

that the load current is constant Io.


Commutation interval starts at t=
(Source polarity changed)
Assume

1 t
Vm sin wtd ( wt ) I o

Ls
Vm

( 1 cos wt ) I o
Ls

i s ( wt )

+u
Commutation is completed at
t=

i( u ) I 0
=>

Vm
1 cos( u ) I 0
Ls

Commutation angle

2 I o Ls
2I o X S
1
u cos ( 1
) cos ( 1
)
Vm
Vm
1

X S Ls

Average load voltage is


Vm
1
V
sin
wt
d
(
wt
)

( 1 cos u )
m

2Vm
Io X s

(1
)

Vm

Vo

Source inductance lowers the average output voltage

of full-wave rectifier.

Three-phase rectifier Fig.4-26

During Commutation fromD


1 to D3
across La is

v La

, The voltage

v AB Vm ,L L

sin wt
2
2

Current in La
starts at I0 and decreases zero in
the
commutation interval

1 u Vm ,L L
i La ( u ) 0
sin wt d ( wt ) I 0

La
2
2La I 0
2X s I0
u cos 1 ( 1
) cos 1 ( 1
)
Vm ,L L
Vm ,L L

During the commutation interval fromD1 to D3


converter output voltage is

, the

v BC v AC
vo
2

v AB vBC vCA 0 ,

v AB v AC - vBC
.

vo v AC vL a vL c v AC v AB
.

v AC

v AC vBC v AC vBC

2
2

Average output Voltage Single-phase rectifier

Vo

3Vm ,L L

(1

X s I0
)
Vm ,L L

Source inductance lowers the average output voltage

of three-phase rectifiers.