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Howard

Gardner:
The Theory of
A presentation Multiple
by Julia Hart
Intelligences

Agenda
Biographical Information
Historical Context
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
The Intelligences
Application to ECE
Classroom Applications

Biography
Howard Gardner is an educational and developmental psychologist.
Gardner completed his undergraduate studies at Harvard, graduate
studies at The London School of Economics, and doctoral studies at
Harvard.
Has been on the faculty at Harvard University since 1986.
Was co-director at Harvards Project Zero from 1972-2000, he is still
involved with the organization. Project Zero studies arts education.
Became famous in 1983 with the publication of Frames of Mind:
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Prior to Frames, Gardner published several other books: on brain
injury, developmental theorists, and the arts.
Author of over 30 books, on a wide range of topics in education and
psychology.

Historical Context
Merriam-Webster defines intelligence as the ability to learn or understand
things or to deal with new or difficult situations
Alfred Binet is the father of the modern intelligence test. He and Theodore
Simon crafted the Benet-Simon scale in the early 1900s. The test was
brought to the US and IQ testing gained popularity during WWI, used to
test immigrants and military recruits.
General Factor (g)- coined by Charles Spearman in 1904. g describes an
individuals underlying intellectual ability, which is used to explain the
correlation between scores on subtests.
Cattell and Horn theorized that there were actually 2 general factors: fluid
intelligence (Gf) and crystalized intelligence (Gc).
Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory expanded on the idea of Gf and Gc to
include additional cognitive factors including: Gv: visual processing, Gsm:
Short-term memory, Glr: long-term storage and retrieval, Gq: quantitative
knowledge
G theory is still the predominate theory of intelligence. It is the basis for
most modern intelligence tests, including the most popular Wechsler tests.

The Theory of Multiple


Intelligences
Gardner wrote that his research on brain injury led to his
theory of M.I. The idea that different parts of the brain
relate to different cognitive functions was the first step to
developing his theory.
According to Gardner, a person can be skilled in one,
several, or none of these intelligences. Unlike g theory,
which supposes that people are generally equally skilled in
problem solving abilities across domains, Gardners MI
theory proposes that a person may demonstrate strong
aptitude in one Intelligence but may not have similar
aptitude in other intelligences.
The intelligences are: Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical,
Musical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal,
Intrapersonal, and Naturalist

Criteria for Identification of an


Intelligence

It should be seen in relative isolation in prodigies, autistic savants, stroke victims or other
exceptional populations. In other words, certain individuals should demonstrate particularly high
or low levels of a particular capacity in contrast to other capacities.
It should have a distinct neural representationthat is, its neural structure and functioning
should be distinguishable from that of other major human faculties
It should have a distinct developmental trajectory. That is, different intelligences should
develop at different rates and along paths which are distinctive.
It should have some basis in evolutionary biology. In other words, an intelligence ought to
have a previous instantiation in primate or other species and putative survival value.

It should be susceptible to capture in symbol systems, of the sort used in formal or informal
education.

It should be supported by evidence from psychometric tests of intelligence

It should be distinguishable from other intelligences through experimental psychological tasks.


It should demonstrate a core, information-processing system. That is, there should be
identifiable mental processes that handle information related to each intelligence.
(Gardner 1983; Kornhaber, Fierros, & Veneema, 2004)

Linguistic Intelligence
Core Operations

Linguistic intelligence is characterized by the


ability to analyze and create products with
words such as speeches, books, and poetry.

Isolation by brain
damage

Brocas Area, Aphasia

Savants or prodigies

T.S. Elliot, William Cullen Bryant

Evolutionary History

Communication present in other species,


humans have the unique ability for spoken
language.

Distinctive Development

Relatively consistent development across


cultures and languages. Even deaf children will
develop their own form of sign language if not
taught

Potential Occupations

Poet, journalist, writer, lawyer

Logical-Mathematical
Intelligence
Core Operations

Logical-Mathematical intelligence is characterized


by ability in the areas of making proofs, solving
abstract problems, and performing calculations

Isolation by brain
damage

linguistic areas in the frontotemporal lobes are


more important for logical deduction, the
visuospatial areas in bilateral parietofrontal lobes
for numerical calculation

Savants or prodigies

Albert Einstein, Blaise Pascal

Evolutionary History

Problem solving is seen across humans and our


evolutionary ancestors.

Distinctive
Development

Seen in Piagets developmental stages.

Potential Occupations

Scientist, engineer, accountant, mathematician

Musical Intelligence
Core Operations

Musical intelligence involves An ability to produce,


remember, and make meaning of different patterns of
sound (Davis et al., 2012, p. 6).

Isolation by brain
damage

Musical perception and production are generally


considered to be located in the right hemisphere.
Amusia can follow brain damage.

Savants or
prodigies

Yehudi Menuhin, Mozart, Chopin, Yo-Yo Ma, Michael


Jackson

Evolutionary
History

Birdsongs, songs and sound patterns seen in other


species. Evidence of musical instruments form the
Stone Age shows that music had a purpose
throughout human history.

Distinctive
Development

Infants can match the pitch, volume, and melodies of


their mothers songs. Children typically begin to sing
and produce melodies in a standard trajectory.

Potential
Occupations

Musician, music teacher, composer, DJ

Spatial Intelligence
Core Operations

Gardner (1983) wrote, central to spatial intelligence


are the capacities to perceive the visual world
accurately, to perform transformations and
modifications upon ones initial perceptions, and to
be able to re-create aspects of ones visual
experience (p. 173).

Isolation by brain
damage

Posterior regions of the right cerebral cortex: may


lose ability to recognize faces, find ones way, or
identify details.

Savants or
prodigies

Pablo Picasso, Bobby Fischer

Evolutionary
History

Being able to navigate ones environment serves a


distinct evolutionary purpose.

Distinctive
Development

Studied by Piaget.

Potential
Occupations

Painter, sculptor, map-maker, architect, chess player,


engineer

Bodily-Kinesthetic
Intelligence
Core Operations
Gardner (1983) wrote that those with high bodilykinesthetic intelligence have the ability to use ones
body in highly differentiated and skilled ways, for
expressive as well as goal directed purposes (p. 206).
Isolation by brain
damage

Can be damaged by stroke or in those with apraxia

Savants or
prodigies

Babe Ruth, Tiger Woods, Nadia Comaneci, Jet Li

Evolutionary
History

Body movements necessary for survival, use of tools


provided a distinctive advantage.

Distinctive
Development

Human children develop motor skills on a predictable


trajectory.

Potential
Occupations

Athlete, skilled craftsman, actor, coach

Interpersonal Intelligence
Core Operations

Gardner (1983) wrote, the core capacity here is the


ability to notice and make distinctions among other
individuals and, in particular, among their moods,
temperaments, motivations, and intentions (p. 239).

Isolation by
brain damage

Frontal lobe damage

Savants or
prodigies

Gandhi, Bill Clinton, Anne Sullivan


Gardner also wrote of those with psychopathic
personalities as exceptional individuals with this
strength

Evolutionary
History

Connection to others was advantageous for survival.

Distinctive
Development

Prolonged childhood in humans gives children time to


form attachments and learn social customs.

Potential
Occupations

Politicians, teachers, religious leaders, therapists

Intrapersonal Intelligence
Core
Operations

At the center of intrapersonal intelligence is ones ability to


understand and access ones inner life: affects and
emotions.

Isolation by
Alzheimer's patients
brain damage
Savants or
prodigies

John Paul Sartre, Frederick Douglas,

Evolutionary
History

Evolutionary evidence for an intrapersonal faculty is more


difficult to come by, but we might speculate that the
capacity to transcend the satisfaction of instinctual drives
is
relevant. This potential becomes increasingly important in
a species not perennially involved in the struggle for
survival

Distinctive
Development

Stages of understanding of self as separate from parents


and others.

Potential
Occupations

Those with great skill in this area include authors who write
introspectively about feelings, patients and therapists, who

Naturalist Intelligence
Core
Operations

Gardner (2006) described those with this intelligence,


persons with a high degree of naturalist intelligence are
keenly aware of how to distinguish diverse plants,
animals, mountains, or cloud configurations in their
ecological niche (p. 19).

Isolation by
brain damage

Individuals maintain ability to identify natural objects but


not man-made objects.

Savants or
prodigies

Charles Darwin, John Muir, John James Audubon

Evolutionary
History

Understanding of predators, safe plants to eat

Distinctive
Development
Potential
Occupations

Biologist, arborist, landscaper, park ranger

Intelligences in the Early Years


Gardner and his colleagues worked on Project Spectrum,
which had two purposes: to identify how early an
individuals intelligence profile can be determined and to
provide parents and teachers with information about
individual childrens areas of competence.
Gardner wrote that the goal of early education is to expose
children to a wide-range of activities within the domains, so
that they can begin to develop their own particular
strengths, as well as acquire skills generally expected of all
young children.
Follow-up studies from Project Spectrum found that children
who showed strengths in one intelligence on the initial
Spectrum assessment would continue to show strength in
that area in later testing.

Classroom Applications
Naturalist

Go outside, observe plants and animals

Musical

Use songs to teach concepts, musical cues, music classes,


play instruments, mood music

Linguistic

Word games, rhymes, making books, writing stories

Spatial

Use maps and charts, color cues, visual schedules,


drawing or painting, build models/representations of
learning

BodilyKinesthetic

Hands-on activities, acting out concepts, field trips,


manipulatives

Logical
Mathematical

Puzzles, games, experiment, categorize

Interpersonal

Working in groups, with partners, games, peer teaching

Intrapersonal

Working alone, private space for learning, journaling,


independent study, choice time

References

Davis, K., Christodoulou, J., Seider, S., & Gardner, H. E. (2012). The theory of multiple
intelligences. Retrieved
fromhttp://howardgardner01.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/443-davis-christodoulouseider-mi-article.pdf. Also published in Sternburg, R. J. & Kaufman, S. B. (Eds.). (2012).
The Cambridge handbook on intelligence. Available from
http://ebooks.cambridge.org/ebook.jsf?bid=CBO9780511977244
Flanagan, D. P. & Harrison, P. L. (Eds.). (2005). Contemporary intellectual assessment:
Theories, tests, and issues. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY:
Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York, NY: Basic Books
Gardner, H. E. (2012). MI after twenty years. Retrieved from
http://howardgardner01.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/mi-after-twenty-years2.pdf
Gardner, H. E. (2014). Curriculum vitae. Retrieved from
http://howardgardner01.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/cv-long-october-2014.pdf
Intelligence [Def. 1]. (n.d.).Merriam-Webster Online.In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved
from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/intelligence.
Kaufman, A. S. (2009). IQ testing 101. New York, NY: Spring Publishing Company.