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Course Content

WCDMA & HSPA fundamentals


Radio network planning fundamentals
Radio network planning process
Coverage dimensioning
Radio Interface Capacity dimensioning
Coverage & capacity planning/improvement
NSN radio network solution & CE dimensioning
Planning tasks

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Module Objectives

At the end of the module you will be able to:


Understand basic radio propagation mechanisms
Understand fading phenomena
Calculate free space loss
Understand basic concepts related to Node B and UE performance

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Radio network planning fundamentals


Propagation mechanisms
Basics: deciBel (dB)
Radio channel
Reflections
Diffractions
Scattering

Multipath & Fading


Propagation Slope & Different Environments

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deciBel (dB) Definition


Power

P
dB 10 log
P0
Voltages

[ Plin. ] 10

E
dB 20 log

E0

Plin.~ Elin.

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P ( dB )

[ Elin. ] 10

/2

10

E ( dB )

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deciBel (dB) Conversion


Calculations in dB (deciBel)
Logarithmic scale

Always with respect to a reference

dBW
dBm
dBi
dBd
dBmV/m

=
=
=
=
=

dB above Watt
dB above mWatt
dB above isotropic
dB above dipole
dB above mV/m

=
=
=
=
=
=

factor 2
factor 5
factor 10
factor 1/2
factor 1/5
factor 1/10

Rule-of-thumb:

+3dB
+7 dB
+10 dB
-3dB
-7 dB
-10 dB

UMTS Power Range


-50 dBm = 10 nW
-30 dBm = 1 mW
-20 dBm = 10 mW
-10 dBm = 100 mW
-7 dBm = 200 mW
-3 dBm = 500 mW

0 dBm = 1 mW
+3 dBm = 2 mW
+7 dBm = 5 mW
+10 dBm = 10 mW
+13 dBm = 20 mW
+20 dBm = 100mW
+30 dBm = 1 W
+40 dBm = 10W
+50 dBm = 100W

UMTS Power Link Budget:


min. UE Power: -50 dBm*
max. UE Power: 21 dBm / 24 dBm (UE Power Class 4 / 3)*
max. Node B Power/cell typically: 40 - 46 dBm
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* 3GPP TS 25.101

Radio Channel Main Characteristics


Linear

Multipath Effects

In field strength

Reciprocal
UL & DL channel same (if in same frequency)

Dispersive

Amplitude

In time (echo, multipath propagation)


In spectrum (wideband channel)

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(Orthogonality)

: orthogonality factor
Time Dispersion / Multipath propagation
Loss of Orthogonality in DL Transmission
(Channelisation Codes only orthogonal
when synchronised)

direct path

location dependent (Multi-path effect)


value = [0..1]; typically:

echoes

- 0.4 - 0.9 (Macro Cells)


> 0.9 (Micro & Pico Cells)

Delay time

RAKE Receiver

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Propagation Mechanisms (1/2)


Free-space propagation
Signal strength decreases exponentially with distance

Reflection
Specular reflection
amplitude A
phase f
polarisation

-f

a*A (a < 1)
material dependant phase shift

specular reflection

Diffuse reflection
amplitude A
phase f
polarisation

a *A (a < 1)
random phase

random

diffuse reflection

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Propagation Mechanisms (2/2)


Absorption

Heavy amplitude attenuation


Material dependant phase shifts
Depolarisation

Diffraction

Wedge - model
Knife edge
Multiple knife edges

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A - 5..30 dB

Radio network planning fundamentals


Propagation mechanisms
Multipath & Fading
Delay Time dispersion
Angle Angular Spread
Frequency Doppler Spread
Fading Slow & Fast

Propagation Slope & Different Environments

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Multipath propagation: Delay Time dispersion


Multipath: Different radio paths have different properties
Distance Delay/Time
Direction Angle
Direction & Receiver/Transmitter Movement Frequency

1.

Multipath
propagation

2.

Multipath delays due to multipath propagation


1 s 300 m path difference

WCDMA: RAKE Receiver to combine multipath components


Components with delay separation > 1 chip (0.26 s = 78 m) can
be separated & combined
Standardized delay profiles in 3GPP specs:
TU3 typical urban at 3 km/h (pedestrians)
TU50 typical urban at 50 km/h (cars)
HT100hilly terrain (road vehicles, 100 km/h)
RA250
rural area (highways, up to 250 km/h)

P
1.
2.

Channel
impulse
response
3. 4.
t

Multipath delays due to multipath propagation


1 s 300 m path difference
1 chip 260.4 ns 78 m ( RAKE Receiver/Matched Filter)

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Delay Spread
Typical values

Environment

Delay Spread (s)

Macrocellular, urban

0.5-3

Macrocellular, suburban

0.5

Macrocellular, rural

0.1-0.2

Macrocellular, HT

3-10

Microcellular

< 0.1

Indoor

0.01...0.1

Remember:
Loss of DL Synchronisation / Orthogonality Factor
1 chip 260.4 ns 78 m

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Angle Angular Spread


Angular spread arises due to multipath, both from local scatterers near the mobile & near the base
station and remote scatterers
Angular spread is a function of base station location, distance & environment
Angular Spread has an effect mainly on the performance of diversity reception & adaptive
antennas
Macrocell Antenna

5 - 10 degrees in macrocellular environment

>> 10 degrees in microcellular environment

< 360 degrees in indoor environment

Angular spread:
function of BS location, distance & environment
has an effect mainly on the performance of
diversity reception & adaptive antenna
typical no sectorisation in Micro- & Pico Cells

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Macrocellular Environment
= Macrocell Coverage Area

Microcell Antenna
Microcellular Environment
= Microcell Coverage Area

Frequency Doppler Spread


Doppler Effect: with a moving transmitter or receiver, the frequency observed by the receiver will
change
Rise if the distance on the radio path is decreasing
Fall if the distance in the radio path is increasing

The difference between the highest and the lowest frequency shift is called Doppler spread

v
v
fd
c

v: Speed of receiver (m/s)


c: Speed of light (3*10^8 m/s)
f: Frequency (Hz)

frec = fsource (1-2)/1; = v/c

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Fading
Fading describes the variation of
the total pathloss ( signal
level) when receiver/transmitter
moves in the cell coverage area
Fading is commonly categorised
to two categories based on the
phenomena causing it:
Slow fading: Caused by
shadowing due to
obstacles

Power

Fast
Fading

+20 dB

Slow
fading*

mean
value

Fast fading: Caused by


multipath propagation
- 20 dB
Time-selective fading: Short delay +
Doppler
Frequency-selective fading: Long
delay

2 sec

Space-selective fading: Large angle

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* or Lognormal Fading

4 sec

6 sec time

Slow Fading Gaussian Distribution


Measurement campaigns have shown that Slow Fading follows Gaussian distribution
Received signal strength in dB scale (e.g. dBm, dBW)

Gaussian distribution is described by mean value m, standard deviation


68% of values are within m
95% of values are within m 2

Gaussian distribution used in planning margin calculations


Compensation of Slow Fading in UMTS
Rel. 99 & HSUPA: by Fast Power Control & SHO
HSDPA: by Fast Link Adaptation

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Fast Fading
Different signal paths interfere and affect the received signal
Rice Fading the dominant (usually LOS) path exist

Compensation of Fast Fading in UMTS


Rel. 99 & HSUPA: by Fast Power Control
HSDPA: by Fast Link Adaptation
Rayleigh Fading no dominant path exist

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Fast Fading Rayleigh Distribution


It can be theretically shown that fast fading follows Rayleigh Distribution when there is
no single dominant multipath component
Applicable to fast fading in obstructed paths
Valid for signal level in linear scale (e.g. mW, W)

level (dB)
+10
0
-10
-20
-30

920 MHz
v = 20 km/h
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5m

Fast Fading Rician Distribution


Fast fading follows Rician distribution when there is a dominant multipath component,
for example line-of-sight component combined with in-direct components
Sliding transition between Gaussian and Rayleigh
Rice-factor K = r/A: direct / indirect signal energy
K=0
Rayleigh
K >>1
Gaussian

K=0
(Rayleigh)
K=1
K=5

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Radio network planning fundamentals


Propagation mechanisms
Multipath & Fading
Propagation Slope & Different Environments
Free Space Loss
Received power with antenna gain
Propagation slope

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Free Space Loss


Free space loss proportional to 1/d2
Simplified case: isotropic antenna
Which part of total radiated power is found within surface A?
Power density S = P/A = P / 4 d2

Received power within surface A : P = P/A * A


Received power reduces with square of distance
Surface A = 4 * d2
d
assume surface
A= 1m2

A
d

A = 4*A

2d
4d

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A = 16*A

Received power with antenna gain


Power density at the receiving end

Ps
S
Gs
2
4 d

Effective receiver antenna area

Aeff
GR
4

Received power

Pr Aeff S

Pr
Ar
Gr

Ps
As
Gs
d

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Pr
G s Gr

Ps
4 d

Propagation slope
The received power equation can be formulated as

Pr Ps Gs Gr C d

Where
C is a constant
is the slope factor

Propagation Models:
Statistical Path Loss


C
4

2 for free space


4 for plane, smooth, perfectly conducting terrain
3-3.4 for irregular terrain

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Thank You !

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