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# Course Content

## WCDMA & HSPA fundamentals

Coverage dimensioning
Coverage & capacity planning/improvement
NSN radio network solution & CE dimensioning

## Nokia Siemens Networks

RN31542EN20GLA0

Module Objectives

## At the end of the module you will be able to:

Calculate free space loss
Understand basic concepts related to Node B and UE performance

## Nokia Siemens Networks

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Propagation mechanisms
Basics: deciBel (dB)
Reflections
Diffractions
Scattering

Propagation Slope & Different Environments

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Power

P
dB 10 log
P0
Voltages

[ Plin. ] 10

E
dB 20 log

E0

Plin.~ Elin.

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P ( dB )

[ Elin. ] 10

/2

10

E ( dB )

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## deciBel (dB) Conversion

Calculations in dB (deciBel)
Logarithmic scale

## Always with respect to a reference

dBW
dBm
dBi
dBd
dBmV/m

=
=
=
=
=

dB above Watt
dB above mWatt
dB above isotropic
dB above dipole
dB above mV/m

=
=
=
=
=
=

factor 2
factor 5
factor 10
factor 1/2
factor 1/5
factor 1/10

Rule-of-thumb:

+3dB
+7 dB
+10 dB
-3dB
-7 dB
-10 dB

## UMTS Power Range

-50 dBm = 10 nW
-30 dBm = 1 mW
-20 dBm = 10 mW
-10 dBm = 100 mW
-7 dBm = 200 mW
-3 dBm = 500 mW

0 dBm = 1 mW
+3 dBm = 2 mW
+7 dBm = 5 mW
+10 dBm = 10 mW
+13 dBm = 20 mW
+20 dBm = 100mW
+30 dBm = 1 W
+40 dBm = 10W
+50 dBm = 100W

min. UE Power: -50 dBm*
max. UE Power: 21 dBm / 24 dBm (UE Power Class 4 / 3)*
max. Node B Power/cell typically: 40 - 46 dBm
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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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* 3GPP TS 25.101

Linear

Multipath Effects

In field strength

Reciprocal
UL & DL channel same (if in same frequency)

Dispersive

Amplitude

## In time (echo, multipath propagation)

In spectrum (wideband channel)

## Nokia Siemens Networks

(Orthogonality)

: orthogonality factor
Time Dispersion / Multipath propagation
Loss of Orthogonality in DL Transmission
(Channelisation Codes only orthogonal
when synchronised)

direct path

## location dependent (Multi-path effect)

value = [0..1]; typically:

echoes

## - 0.4 - 0.9 (Macro Cells)

> 0.9 (Micro & Pico Cells)

Delay time

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## Propagation Mechanisms (1/2)

Free-space propagation
Signal strength decreases exponentially with distance

Reflection
Specular reflection
amplitude A
phase f
polarisation

-f

a*A (a < 1)
material dependant phase shift

specular reflection

Diffuse reflection
amplitude A
phase f
polarisation

a *A (a < 1)
random phase

random

diffuse reflection

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Absorption

## Heavy amplitude attenuation

Material dependant phase shifts
Depolarisation

Diffraction

Wedge - model
Knife edge
Multiple knife edges

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A - 5..30 dB

Propagation mechanisms
Delay Time dispersion

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## Multipath propagation: Delay Time dispersion

Multipath: Different radio paths have different properties
Distance Delay/Time
Direction Angle

1.

Multipath
propagation

2.

## Multipath delays due to multipath propagation

1 s 300 m path difference

## WCDMA: RAKE Receiver to combine multipath components

Components with delay separation > 1 chip (0.26 s = 78 m) can
be separated & combined
Standardized delay profiles in 3GPP specs:
TU3 typical urban at 3 km/h (pedestrians)
TU50 typical urban at 50 km/h (cars)
HT100hilly terrain (road vehicles, 100 km/h)
RA250
rural area (highways, up to 250 km/h)

P
1.
2.

Channel
impulse
response
3. 4.
t

## Multipath delays due to multipath propagation

1 s 300 m path difference
1 chip 260.4 ns 78 m ( RAKE Receiver/Matched Filter)

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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Typical values

Environment

Macrocellular, urban

0.5-3

Macrocellular, suburban

0.5

Macrocellular, rural

0.1-0.2

Macrocellular, HT

3-10

Microcellular

< 0.1

Indoor

0.01...0.1

Remember:
Loss of DL Synchronisation / Orthogonality Factor
1 chip 260.4 ns 78 m

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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Angular spread arises due to multipath, both from local scatterers near the mobile & near the base
station and remote scatterers
Angular spread is a function of base station location, distance & environment
Angular Spread has an effect mainly on the performance of diversity reception & adaptive
antennas
Macrocell Antenna

## < 360 degrees in indoor environment

function of BS location, distance & environment
has an effect mainly on the performance of
typical no sectorisation in Micro- & Pico Cells

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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Macrocellular Environment
= Macrocell Coverage Area

Microcell Antenna
Microcellular Environment
= Microcell Coverage Area

Doppler Effect: with a moving transmitter or receiver, the frequency observed by the receiver will
change
Rise if the distance on the radio path is decreasing
Fall if the distance in the radio path is increasing

The difference between the highest and the lowest frequency shift is called Doppler spread

v
v
fd
c

## v: Speed of receiver (m/s)

c: Speed of light (3*10^8 m/s)
f: Frequency (Hz)

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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the total pathloss ( signal
moves in the cell coverage area
to two categories based on the
phenomena causing it:
obstacles

Power

Fast

+20 dB

Slow

mean
value

multipath propagation
- 20 dB
Doppler
delay

2 sec

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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4 sec

6 sec time

Measurement campaigns have shown that Slow Fading follows Gaussian distribution
Received signal strength in dB scale (e.g. dBm, dBW)

## Gaussian distribution is described by mean value m, standard deviation

68% of values are within m
95% of values are within m 2

## Gaussian distribution used in planning margin calculations

Compensation of Slow Fading in UMTS
Rel. 99 & HSUPA: by Fast Power Control & SHO

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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Different signal paths interfere and affect the received signal
Rice Fading the dominant (usually LOS) path exist

## Compensation of Fast Fading in UMTS

Rel. 99 & HSUPA: by Fast Power Control
Rayleigh Fading no dominant path exist

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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It can be theretically shown that fast fading follows Rayleigh Distribution when there is
no single dominant multipath component
Applicable to fast fading in obstructed paths
Valid for signal level in linear scale (e.g. mW, W)

level (dB)
+10
0
-10
-20
-30

920 MHz
v = 20 km/h
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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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5m

Fast fading follows Rician distribution when there is a dominant multipath component,
for example line-of-sight component combined with in-direct components
Sliding transition between Gaussian and Rayleigh
Rice-factor K = r/A: direct / indirect signal energy
K=0
Rayleigh
K >>1
Gaussian

K=0
(Rayleigh)
K=1
K=5

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Propagation mechanisms
Propagation Slope & Different Environments
Free Space Loss
Propagation slope

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## Free Space Loss

Free space loss proportional to 1/d2
Simplified case: isotropic antenna
Which part of total radiated power is found within surface A?
Power density S = P/A = P / 4 d2

## Received power within surface A : P = P/A * A

Received power reduces with square of distance
Surface A = 4 * d2
d
assume surface
A= 1m2

A
d

A = 4*A

2d
4d

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A = 16*A

## Received power with antenna gain

Power density at the receiving end

Ps
S
Gs
2
4 d

Aeff
GR
4

Pr Aeff S

Pr
Ar
Gr

Ps
As
Gs
d

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## Nokia Siemens Networks

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Pr
G s Gr

Ps
4 d

Propagation slope
The received power equation can be formulated as

Pr Ps Gs Gr C d

Where
C is a constant
is the slope factor

Propagation Models:
Statistical Path Loss

C
4

4 for plane, smooth, perfectly conducting terrain
3-3.4 for irregular terrain

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Thank You !

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