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Overview of Power Systems

Overview of Power Systems

What is Power System

Historical Background

1882: Power station at Pearl Station


New York by Edison supplying
power to 59 consumers, 110 V DC,
Cable 1.5 km, lamp load.
1884: Motors were developed
1886: Limitations of DC become
apparent, higher losses and voltage
drops. William Stanley developed
first commercial ac system
1889: AC transmission line 4kV,
single phase, in north America
between Willamette falls to Portland
by Westinghouse.
1893: First three phase line in
Southern California, 12 km, 2.3 kV.

Historical Background

1922-1990: 165 kV -> 1200 kV


1920: Europe standardized 60 Hz and suspended insulators for
HV.
1954: HVDC transmission system by Swedish Power Board.
1972: Back-to-back connected HVDC station providing
asynchronous tie between power systems Quebec and New
Brunswick.

Interconnected Power System

We are witnessing enormous development in terms of voltage rating,


power ratings, components, architecture, planning, etc.
Modern power system are vast electrical networks inter-connecting
hundreds of rudimentary systems spread over a country giving rise
to national grid.
Advantages of interconnections:

Reduced reserve capacity


Reduced capital cost
Effective and economic use of available generation
Improved reliability, operational efficiency and energy security

Disadvantages

Fault propagation
Higher circuit breaker ratings
Proper management of dispatch of power

Major Concerns

Power Quality: Maintain the supply at desired frequency and voltage


level

Reliability: Minimization loss of load probability

Security: Robustness of system to remain in normal state even if some


contingencies take place.

Stability: Ability to maintain synchronism under disturbances and


maintain steady state post-disturbance operation

Economy: Minimize capital and operational (running and maintenance)


costs

Constraints

Equipment constraints: Equipments must operate within


specified limit

Related to voltage (Dielectric constraints)


Related to current (Thermal constraints)

System Constraints

Constraints due to stability


Constraints due to reliability
Constraints due to security

Contingencies

Contingencies

Power outages
Network outages

Power systems experience a wide variety of disturbances. It is impractical and


uneconomical to design the systems to be stable for every possible contingency.

Design contingencies

A permanent three phase or phase to ground fault on any generator or transmission


line with reclosing facility.
Loss of any element without fault.
Phase to ground fault on circuit breaker and cleared in normal time

Extreme contingencies

Loss of entire generation of generating station


Loss of all lines emanating from generating station
Sudden dropping of major load or major load center

System Constraints

Load Constraints or Equality Constraints (L or E)

Real and reactive power balance


Pi f (V , )
Qi g (V , )

Operating Constraints or Inequality Constraints (O or I)

Operating voltage limits, line loading limits, etc.


Vi min Vi Vi max
Q gmin Q g Q gmax
PL PLmax

Operating States and Control Strategies


Generation
rescheduling,
element
switching Restorative
controls

Restora
tive
E, I

Load
shedding,
controlled
system
Resynchronize
separtion

In
extremi
s
E, I

Generation
shifting or
increased
reserve

Normal
E, I
Preventive
controls
Restorative
controls

Alert
E, I

Emergency
controls

Emerge
ncy
E, I

Fault
clearing,
excitation
cotrol, phaseshifting
transformer,
generation
tripping or
run-back,
load

Control of Power System

Ref: P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Smart Grid

Using information to substantially improve performance (by


monitoring as well as control) and lower cost of electric service

Real-time pricing
Demand response
Distributed generation
Automated metering
Intermittent generation
Energy storage
Fault and failure anticipation
Sensors
Dynamic switching
Information flows

Drivers of Smart Grid


Performance

Reliability
Efficiency
Quality

Cost
Maintenance
Replacement
Energy

Climate Change
Renewables
Distributed
Generation
Electric Vehicles

Technology
Sensors
Power
Electronics

Communication
Smart meters

Advanced
computing
Business
analytics