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MASS AND ENERGY

ANALYSIS OF CONTROL
VOLUMES

Pradeep Sahoo
Room No: 135
Dept of Mech. and Ind. Engineering
IIT Roorkee

CONSERVATION OF MASS
Conservation of mass: Mass, like energy, is a
conserved property, and it cannot be created or
destroyed during a process.
Closed systems: The mass of the system remain
constant during a process.
Control volumes: Mass can cross the
boundaries, and so we must keep track of the
amount of mass entering and leaving the control
volume.

Mass is conserved even during chemical reactions.

Conservation of Mass Principle


The conservation of mass principle for a control
volume: The net mass transfer to or from a control volume
during a time interval t is equal to the net change (increase or
decrease) in the total mass within the control volume during t.

General conservation of mass in


rate form
Conservation of mass principle
for an ordinary bathtub.

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes


During a steady-flow process, the total amount of mass
contained within a control volume does not change with
time (mCV = constant).
For steady-flow processes, we are
interested in the amount of mass
flowing per unit time, that is, the
mass flow rate.
Multiple inlets and exits

Single stream

Conservation of mass principle for a two-inlet


one-outlet steady-flow system.

Special Case: Incompressible Flow


The conservation of mass relations can be simplified
even further when the fluid is incompressible, which is
usually the case for liquids.
Steady, incompressible
Steady, incompressible
(single stream)

flow

There is no such thing as a conservation of volume


principle. However, for steady flow of liquids, the
volume flow rates, as well as the mass flow rates, remain
constant since liquids are essentially incompressible
substances.
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During a steady-flow process, volume flow rates are


not necessarily conserved although mass flow rates are.

FLOW WORK AND THE ENERGY OF A


FLOWING FLUID
Flow work, or flow energy: The work (or energy)
required to push the mass into or out of the control
volume. This work is necessary for maintaining a
continuous flow through a control volume.

Schematic for flow work.

Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Where h = u + Pv

The flow energy is automatically taken care of by


enthalpy. In fact, this is the main reason for
defining the property enthalpy.

The total energy consists of three parts for a nonflowing fluid and four parts for a flowing fluid.
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Energy Transport by Mass

When the kinetic and potential energies of a fluid


stream are negligible
When the properties of the mass at each inlet or exit
change with time as well as over the cross section

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ENERGY ANALYSIS OF STEADY-FLOW


SYSTEMS

Under steady-flow conditions, the mass


and energy contents of a control volume
remain constant.
Many engineering systems such
as power plants operate under
steady conditions.
Under steady-flow conditions,
the fluid properties at an inlet
or exit remain constant (do not
change with time).
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Mass and Energy balances for a steady-flow process

Mass balance
Energy balance

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Energy balance relations with sign conventions


(i.e., heat input and work output are positive)

when kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible


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Nozzles and Diffusers


Nozzles and diffusers are
shaped so that they cause
large changes in fluid
velocities and thus kinetic
energies.
Energy balance for a nozzle
or diffuser:

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Example: Steam at 0.4 MPa, 300oC, enters an adiabatic


nozzle with a low velocity and leaves at 0.2 MPa with a
quality of 90%. Find the exit velocity, in m/s.
Conservation of mass: For one entrance, one exit, the
conservation of mass becomes

in

m out

m 1 m 2 m

Conservation of energy:

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Neglecting the inlet kinetic energy, the exit velocity is

V2 2(h1 h2 )

At 0.2 MPa hf = 504.7 kJ/kg and hfg = 2201.6 kJ/kg.


Superheated

kJ
T1 300 C h1 3067.1
kg

P1 0.4 MPa
o

Saturated Mix.

P2 0.2 MPa h2

x2 0.90

h2 = h f + x2 h fg
= 504.7 + (0.90)(2201.6) = 2486.1

kJ
kg

r
kJ 1000 m 2 / s 2
V2 2(3067.1 2486.1)
kg kJ / kg
1078.0

m
s

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Turbines and Compressors

Energy balance for the compressor in this figure:

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Example: High pressure air at 1300 K flows into


an aircraft gas turbine and undergoes a steady-state,
steady-flow, adiabatic process to the turbine exit at
660 K. Calculate the work done per unit mass of air
flowing through the turbine. when
(a) Temperature-dependent data are used.
(b) Cp,ave at the average temperature is used.
(c) Cp at 300 K is used.
Solution:
Conservation of energy:

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According to the sketched control volume, mass and work


cross the control surface. Neglecting kinetic and potential
energies and noting the process is adiabatic, we have

0 m 1h1 W out m 2 h2
W out m (h1 h2 )
The work done by the air per unit mass flow is

wout

W out

h1 h2
m
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(a) Using the air tables, Table A-17


at T1 = 1300 K,

h1 = 1395.97 kJ/kg

at T2 = 660 K,

h2 = 670.47 kJ/kg

w = h1-h2 = 725.5 kJ/kg


(b) Using Table A-2(c) at Tave = 980 K, Cp, ave = 1.138 kJ/kgK
w = h1 h2 = Cp(T1-T2) = 1.138(1300-660) = 728.3 kJ/kg
(c) Using Table A-2(a) at T = 300 K, Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K
w = h1 h2 = Cp(T1-T2) = 1.005(1300-660) = 643.2 kJ/kg

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Turbine drives the electric generator In steam, gas, or


hydroelectric power plants.
As the fluid passes through the turbine, work is done
against the blades, which are attached to the shaft. As a
result, the shaft rotates, and the turbine produces work.
Compressors, as well as pumps and fans, are
devices used to increase the pressure of a fluid. Work is
supplied to these devices from an external source
through a rotating shaft.
A fan increases the pressure of a gas slightly and is
mainly used to mobilize a gas.
A compressor is capable of compressing the gas to
very high pressures.
Pumps work very much like compressors except that
they handle liquids instead of gases.
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Example: Nitrogen gas is compressed in a


steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic process
from 0.1 MPa, 25C. During the compression
process the temperature becomes 125C. If
the mass flow rate is 0.2 kg/s, determine the
work done on the nitrogen, in kW.

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Throttling valves
Throttling valves are any kind of
flow-restricting devices that cause a
significant pressure drop in the fluid.
What is the difference between a
turbine and a throttling valve?
The pressure drop in the fluid in
throttling is often accompanied by a
large drop in temperature instead of
Energy balance
work production, and for that reason
throttling devices are commonly used
in refrigeration and air-conditioning
applications.
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The temperature of an ideal gas does not change during a


throttling (h = constant) process since h = h(T).

During a throttling process, the enthalpy of a fluid remains


constant. But internal and flow energies may be converted
to each other.
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Example: One way to determine the quality of


saturated steam is to throttle the steam to a low enough
pressure that it exists as a superheated vapor. Saturated
steam at 0.4 MPa is throttled to 0.1 MPa, 100 oC.
Determine the quality of the steam at 0.4 MPa.
Solution: 0 m
1 (h1 0 0) 0 m 2 (h2 0 0)

m 1h1 m 2 h2
h1 h2

T2 100o C

kJ
h2 2675.8
kg
P2 0.1 MPa

kJ
h1 h2 2675.8
kg
h f x1h fg @ P 0.4 MPa
1

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Mixing chambers
In engineering applications, the section where the mixing process
takes place is commonly referred to as a mixing chamber.

The T-elbow of an ordinary shower serves as the mixing


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chamber for the hot- and the cold-water streams.

60C

140 kPa

10C

43C

Energy balance for the adiabatic mixing chamber in the figure is:

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Example: Steam at 0.2 MPa, 300C,


enters a mixing chamber and is mixed
with cold water at 20C, 0.2 MPa, to
produce 20 kg/s of saturated liquid
water at 0.2 MPa.

What are the

required steam and cold water flow


rates?

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Heat exchangers
Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid
streams exchange heat without mixing. Heat exchangers
are widely used in various industries, and they come in
various designs.

A heat exchanger can be as simple as two concentric pipes.


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Mass and energy balances for the adiabatic


heat exchanger in the figure is:

Continuity

Energy balance

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Example:

Air is heated in a heat

exchanger by hot water. The water enters


the heat exchanger at 45C and experiences
a 20C drop in temperature.

As the air

passes through the heat exchanger, its


temperature

is

increased

by

25C.

Determine the ratio of mass flow rate of the


air to mass flow rate of the water.
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ENERGY ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY-FLOW


PROCESSES
Many processes of interest, however, involve changes
within the control volume with time. Such processes
are called unsteady-flow, or transient-flow,
processes.
Most unsteady-flow processes can be represented
reasonably well by the uniform-flow process.
Uniform-flow process: The fluid flow at any inlet
or exit is uniform and steady, and thus the fluid
properties do not change with time or position over
the cross section of an inlet or exit. If they do, they are
averaged and treated as constants for the entire
process.
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Charging of a rigid tank


from a supply line is an
unsteady-flow process since
it involves changes within
the control volume.

The shape and size of a


control volume may change
during an unsteady-flow
process.
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Mass balance

Energy balance

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The energy equation of a uniform-flow system


reduces to that of a closed system when all the
inlets and exits are closed.
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Summary
Conservation of mass
Mass and volume flow rates
Mass balance for a steady-flow process
Mass balance for incompressible flow

Flow work and the energy of a flowing fluid


Energy transport by mass

Energy analysis of steady-flow systems


Some steady-flow engineering devices
Nozzles and Diffusers
Turbines and Compressors
Throttling valves
Mixing chambers and Heat exchangers

Energy analysis of unsteady-flow processes


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Example: Consider a water cooled condenser of a


large refrigeration system in which R-134a is the
refrigerant. The refrigerant enters the condenser at 1.0
MPa and 600C, at the rate of 0.2 kg/s and exits as a
liquid at 0.95 MPa, and 350C. Cooling water enters the
condenser at 100C and leaves at 200C. Determine the
cooling water flow rate.

hw,i = 42.0 kJ/kg


hw,e = 84.0 kJ/kg
hr,i = 441.5 kJ/kg
hr.,e = 249.0

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Example 2: Consider a simple power shown below.


The pump work is 4 kJ/kg. Determine the following:
(a) Heat transfer in line
between boiler and
turbine

2 MPa, 3000C

1.9 MPa, 2900C

(b) Turbine work


(c)

Heat transfer
condenser

in

(d) Heat transfer in the


boiler

15 kPa,
wP = 4 kJ/kg

14 kPa,450C

x = 90%

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Example 3: The refrigerator shown below uses R-1434a as


the working fluid. The refrigerant flow rate is 0.1 kg/s and the
power input to the compressor is 5.0 kW. Determine the
following:
(a) The quality of vapour
at the evaporator
inlet,
(b) The rate heat transfer
in the evaporator, and
(c)

800 kPa,500C

Wcomp = 5 kW

300C, x =0.0

The rate of heat


transfer
from
the
compressor.
h1 = 378.2,

h2 = 435.1

h4 = h3 = 241.8, h(f,4) = 167.4


H(fg,4) = 215.6

100 kPa, -200C

-250C
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