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ANALYSIS OF CONTROL

VOLUMES

Pradeep Sahoo

Room No: 135

Dept of Mech. and Ind. Engineering

IIT Roorkee

CONSERVATION OF MASS

Conservation of mass: Mass, like energy, is a

conserved property, and it cannot be created or

destroyed during a process.

Closed systems: The mass of the system remain

constant during a process.

Control volumes: Mass can cross the

boundaries, and so we must keep track of the

amount of mass entering and leaving the control

volume.

The conservation of mass principle for a control

volume: The net mass transfer to or from a control volume

during a time interval t is equal to the net change (increase or

decrease) in the total mass within the control volume during t.

rate form

Conservation of mass principle

for an ordinary bathtub.

During a steady-flow process, the total amount of mass

contained within a control volume does not change with

time (mCV = constant).

For steady-flow processes, we are

interested in the amount of mass

flowing per unit time, that is, the

mass flow rate.

Multiple inlets and exits

Single stream

one-outlet steady-flow system.

The conservation of mass relations can be simplified

even further when the fluid is incompressible, which is

usually the case for liquids.

Steady, incompressible

Steady, incompressible

(single stream)

flow

principle. However, for steady flow of liquids, the

volume flow rates, as well as the mass flow rates, remain

constant since liquids are essentially incompressible

substances.

5

not necessarily conserved although mass flow rates are.

FLOWING FLUID

Flow work, or flow energy: The work (or energy)

required to push the mass into or out of the control

volume. This work is necessary for maintaining a

continuous flow through a control volume.

Where h = u + Pv

enthalpy. In fact, this is the main reason for

defining the property enthalpy.

The total energy consists of three parts for a nonflowing fluid and four parts for a flowing fluid.

9

stream are negligible

When the properties of the mass at each inlet or exit

change with time as well as over the cross section

10

SYSTEMS

and energy contents of a control volume

remain constant.

Many engineering systems such

as power plants operate under

steady conditions.

Under steady-flow conditions,

the fluid properties at an inlet

or exit remain constant (do not

change with time).

11

Mass balance

Energy balance

12

(i.e., heat input and work output are positive)

13

Nozzles and diffusers are

shaped so that they cause

large changes in fluid

velocities and thus kinetic

energies.

Energy balance for a nozzle

or diffuser:

14

nozzle with a low velocity and leaves at 0.2 MPa with a

quality of 90%. Find the exit velocity, in m/s.

Conservation of mass: For one entrance, one exit, the

conservation of mass becomes

in

m out

m 1 m 2 m

Conservation of energy:

15

V2 2(h1 h2 )

Superheated

kJ

T1 300 C h1 3067.1

kg

P1 0.4 MPa

o

Saturated Mix.

P2 0.2 MPa h2

x2 0.90

h2 = h f + x2 h fg

= 504.7 + (0.90)(2201.6) = 2486.1

kJ

kg

r

kJ 1000 m 2 / s 2

V2 2(3067.1 2486.1)

kg kJ / kg

1078.0

m

s

16

17

an aircraft gas turbine and undergoes a steady-state,

steady-flow, adiabatic process to the turbine exit at

660 K. Calculate the work done per unit mass of air

flowing through the turbine. when

(a) Temperature-dependent data are used.

(b) Cp,ave at the average temperature is used.

(c) Cp at 300 K is used.

Solution:

Conservation of energy:

18

cross the control surface. Neglecting kinetic and potential

energies and noting the process is adiabatic, we have

0 m 1h1 W out m 2 h2

W out m (h1 h2 )

The work done by the air per unit mass flow is

wout

W out

h1 h2

m

19

at T1 = 1300 K,

h1 = 1395.97 kJ/kg

at T2 = 660 K,

h2 = 670.47 kJ/kg

(b) Using Table A-2(c) at Tave = 980 K, Cp, ave = 1.138 kJ/kgK

w = h1 h2 = Cp(T1-T2) = 1.138(1300-660) = 728.3 kJ/kg

(c) Using Table A-2(a) at T = 300 K, Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K

w = h1 h2 = Cp(T1-T2) = 1.005(1300-660) = 643.2 kJ/kg

20

hydroelectric power plants.

As the fluid passes through the turbine, work is done

against the blades, which are attached to the shaft. As a

result, the shaft rotates, and the turbine produces work.

Compressors, as well as pumps and fans, are

devices used to increase the pressure of a fluid. Work is

supplied to these devices from an external source

through a rotating shaft.

A fan increases the pressure of a gas slightly and is

mainly used to mobilize a gas.

A compressor is capable of compressing the gas to

very high pressures.

Pumps work very much like compressors except that

they handle liquids instead of gases.

21

steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic process

from 0.1 MPa, 25C. During the compression

process the temperature becomes 125C. If

the mass flow rate is 0.2 kg/s, determine the

work done on the nitrogen, in kW.

22

Throttling valves

Throttling valves are any kind of

flow-restricting devices that cause a

significant pressure drop in the fluid.

What is the difference between a

turbine and a throttling valve?

The pressure drop in the fluid in

throttling is often accompanied by a

large drop in temperature instead of

Energy balance

work production, and for that reason

throttling devices are commonly used

in refrigeration and air-conditioning

applications.

23

throttling (h = constant) process since h = h(T).

constant. But internal and flow energies may be converted

to each other.

24

saturated steam is to throttle the steam to a low enough

pressure that it exists as a superheated vapor. Saturated

steam at 0.4 MPa is throttled to 0.1 MPa, 100 oC.

Determine the quality of the steam at 0.4 MPa.

Solution: 0 m

1 (h1 0 0) 0 m 2 (h2 0 0)

m 1h1 m 2 h2

h1 h2

T2 100o C

kJ

h2 2675.8

kg

P2 0.1 MPa

kJ

h1 h2 2675.8

kg

h f x1h fg @ P 0.4 MPa

1

25

Mixing chambers

In engineering applications, the section where the mixing process

takes place is commonly referred to as a mixing chamber.

26

chamber for the hot- and the cold-water streams.

60C

140 kPa

10C

43C

Energy balance for the adiabatic mixing chamber in the figure is:

27

enters a mixing chamber and is mixed

with cold water at 20C, 0.2 MPa, to

produce 20 kg/s of saturated liquid

water at 0.2 MPa.

rates?

28

Heat exchangers

Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid

streams exchange heat without mixing. Heat exchangers

are widely used in various industries, and they come in

various designs.

29

heat exchanger in the figure is:

Continuity

Energy balance

30

Example:

the heat exchanger at 45C and experiences

a 20C drop in temperature.

As the air

temperature

is

increased

by

25C.

air to mass flow rate of the water.

31

PROCESSES

Many processes of interest, however, involve changes

within the control volume with time. Such processes

are called unsteady-flow, or transient-flow,

processes.

Most unsteady-flow processes can be represented

reasonably well by the uniform-flow process.

Uniform-flow process: The fluid flow at any inlet

or exit is uniform and steady, and thus the fluid

properties do not change with time or position over

the cross section of an inlet or exit. If they do, they are

averaged and treated as constants for the entire

process.

32

from a supply line is an

unsteady-flow process since

it involves changes within

the control volume.

control volume may change

during an unsteady-flow

process.

33

Mass balance

Energy balance

34

reduces to that of a closed system when all the

inlets and exits are closed.

35

Summary

Conservation of mass

Mass and volume flow rates

Mass balance for a steady-flow process

Mass balance for incompressible flow

Energy transport by mass

Some steady-flow engineering devices

Nozzles and Diffusers

Turbines and Compressors

Throttling valves

Mixing chambers and Heat exchangers

36

large refrigeration system in which R-134a is the

refrigerant. The refrigerant enters the condenser at 1.0

MPa and 600C, at the rate of 0.2 kg/s and exits as a

liquid at 0.95 MPa, and 350C. Cooling water enters the

condenser at 100C and leaves at 200C. Determine the

cooling water flow rate.

hw,e = 84.0 kJ/kg

hr,i = 441.5 kJ/kg

hr.,e = 249.0

37

The pump work is 4 kJ/kg. Determine the following:

(a) Heat transfer in line

between boiler and

turbine

2 MPa, 3000C

(c)

Heat transfer

condenser

in

boiler

15 kPa,

wP = 4 kJ/kg

14 kPa,450C

x = 90%

38

the working fluid. The refrigerant flow rate is 0.1 kg/s and the

power input to the compressor is 5.0 kW. Determine the

following:

(a) The quality of vapour

at the evaporator

inlet,

(b) The rate heat transfer

in the evaporator, and

(c)

800 kPa,500C

Wcomp = 5 kW

300C, x =0.0

transfer

from

the

compressor.

h1 = 378.2,

h2 = 435.1

H(fg,4) = 215.6

-250C

39

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