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McCabeThielePartTwo

Today we will discuss:


1) McCabe-Thiele graphical construction
2) Determination of N and XB
3) Minimum number of stages N
4) Minimum reflux
5) Example
6) Subcooled Reflux
7) Multiple Feeds
8) Side stream products
9) Open steam
10) Non-ideal distillation: Murphree efficiency

ConstructionLinesforMcCabeThieleMethod
y
Equilibrium
curve

qline

yN

RectifyingSection:
L
D
y

x
Operatingline
V
V D
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

q
z
y
x F
q 1
q 1

StrippingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=(VB+1)/VB

yB
45line

L
B
x xB
V
V

Distillation
xD

x=zF

xB

0<q<1

q=0

q<0

V*

Overheadvapor

q>1

q=1
L

L*

L+V

Rectifyingsectionstages

x=y

q
x=zF

Feed

LL
F

Totalcondenser

Strippingsectionstages

1
2
f
N

Refluxdrum
Distillate

Reflux
FeedStage
Boilup

Partialreboiler
Bottoms

ConstructionfortheMcCabeThieleMethod
1.

2.

equilibrium
curve

equilibrium
curve
45line

Step1:Plotequilibriumcurveand45degreeline.
Step2:Plotgivencompositions(F,B,andD)
Step3:DrawqlinefromLFandVF
Step4:DetermineRminfromintersectionofthe
rectifyingsectionOLandtheequilibriumcurve.
Step5:DetermineRfromR/Rmin
Step6:DrawOLforRectifyingsection
Step7:DrawOLforStrippingsection

45line
xB

x=zF

xD

3.

xB

x=zF

xD

equilibrium
curve

equilibrium
curve

equilibrium
curve

equilibrium
curve

7.

5.and6.

4.

xB

x=zF
Rmin/(Rmin+1)

xD

xB

x=zF
R/(R+1)

xD

xB

x=zF

xD

FeedLocationfortheMcCabeThieleMethod
Equilibrium
curve

Equilibrium
curve

1
y

2
3

yN

yB

yN

4
5

yB
6

xB

x=zF

Feedstagelocatedonetraytoolow.

xD

xB

x=zF

xD

Feedstagelocatedonetraytoohigh.

OptimumFeedLocationforMcCabeThiele
Equilibrium
curve
1
y

yN

4
yB
xB

x=zF

xD

Optimumfeedstagelocation.

DeterminationofNandxBforMcCabeThiele
Equilibrium
curve

Construction:

Step1:Plotequilibriumcurveand45degreeline.
Step2:Plotgivencompositions(F,B,andD)
Step3:DrawqlinefromLFandVF
Step4:DetermineRminfromintersectionofthe
RectifyingsectionOLandtheequilibriumcurve.
Step5:DetermineRfromR/Rmin
Step6:DrawOLforRectifyingsection
Step7:DrawOLforStrippingsection

1
y

yN

Solution:

4
yB
xB

x=zF

xD

Step1:FromxDlocatex1andy1drawingahorizontalline
totheequilibriumconditionforstage1.
Step2:Findy2drawingaverticallinetotherectifyingOL
locatethemassbalanceconditionbetweenx1andy2.
Step3:Fromy2drawahorizontallinetotheequilibrium
conditionforstage2tolocatex2.
Step4:Returntostep2andcyclethroughsteps2and3until
xi<zF.DrawsubsequentverticallinestothestrippingsectionOL.
Step5:Endafterpredeterminednumberofstages,orwhenx iis
lessthanxB.

MinimumNumberofStagesforMcCabeThiele
Equilibrium
curve
1
y

yN

4
yB
xB
Byreturningalltheexitingvaporas
refluxandalltheexitingliquidas
boiluptheoperatinglineshaveslopeof
one.

x=zF

xD
Althoughthisistheminimumnumber
ofstages,noproductisproduced(note
thefeedmustthen
gotozero).

MinimumRefluxforMcCabeThiele
Equilibrium
curve

yN

yB
xB
Byreturningnoexitingvaporasreflux
andnoexitingliquidasboilupthe
operatinglineintersectionisasfarto
theleftasequilibriumallows.

x=zF

xD
Althoughthisistheminimumamount
ofreflux,ittakesinfinitestages(note
thepinchpointbetweentheoperating
linesandequilibrium).

MinimumRefluxforNonidealMcCabeThiele
Equilibrium
curve
y

yN

yB
xB

x=zF

xD

Althoughthisistheminimumamount
ofreflux,ittakesinfinitestages(note
thepinchpointbetweentheoperating
linesandequilibrium).

Example:DeterminationofNandxBforMcCabeThiele
Given:

100Kmol/hrofafeedof60%benzeneand40%heptaneistobeseparatedbydistillation.Thedistillateistobe90%benzeneand
Thebottoms10%benzene.Thefeedentersthecolumnas30mol%vapor.UseR1.5timestheminimum.Assumeaconstantrelative
Volatilityofof4andthatthepressureisconstantthroughoutthecolumnat1atm.

Construction:

Step1:Plotequilibriumcurveand45degreeline.
Theequilibriumcurveisfoundusing:

1
0.9

0.8

Step2:Plotgivencompositions(F,B,andD)
Step3:DrawqlinefromLFandVF.Use

0.7
0.6

y 0.5
0.4

L L L LF L LF

0.7
F
F
F

tofindq.Thenplottheqlineusing:

0.3

q
z
y
x F 2.333x 2
q 1
q 1

0.2
0.1
0

x
1 x 1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Step4:DetermineRminfromintersectionofthe
rectifyingsectionOLandtheequilibriumcurve.
Thishappensataslopeofabout.25

0.25

Rmin
Rmin 0.333
Rmin 1

Example:DeterminationofNandxBforMcCabeThiele
Given:

100Kmol/hrofafeedof60%benzeneand40%heptaneistobeseparatedbydistillation.Thedistillateistobe90%benzeneand
Thebottoms10%benzene.Thefeedentersthecolumnas30mol%vapor.UseR3timestheminimum.Assumeaconstantrelative
Volatilityofof4andthatthepressureisconstantthroughoutthecolumnat1atm.

Construction:

Step5:FromRmin=0.333andR=3RminwehaveR=1
AndtheslopeofrectifyingsectionOLis0.5
Step6:Drawthelinewithslope0.5whichistherectifying
sectionOL.
Step7.Drawthestrippingsectionoperatinglinefromthe
Bottomscompositiontotheintersectionoftherectifyingsection
OLandtheqline.

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

Solution:

y 0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Step1:FromxDlocatex1andy1drawingahorizontalline
totheequilibriumconditionforstage1.
Step2:Findy2drawingaverticallinetotherectifyingOL
locatethemassbalanceconditionbetweenx1andy2.
Step3:Fromy2drawahorizontallinetotheequilibrium
conditionforstage2tolocatex2.
Step4:Returntostep2andcyclethroughsteps2and3until
xi<zF.
Results:
Feedatstagebetween2and3.
5stages(minimumstages=3.2)
xB=0.05%benzene

Example:DeterminationofNandxBforMcCabeThiele
Given:

100Kmol/hrofafeedof60%benzeneand40%heptaneistobeseparatedbydistillation.Thedistillateistobe90%benzeneand
Thebottoms10%benzene.Thefeedentersthecolumnas30mol%vapor.UseR3timestheminimum.Assumeaconstantrelative
Volatilityofof4andthatthepressureisconstantthroughoutthecolumnat1atm.

Minimumnumberofstagesisdeterminedbysteppingoff
betweentheequilibriumcurveandthe45degreeline.The
resultis3.2stages.

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

y 0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

McCabeThieleMethod:SubcooledReflux
DistillationColumn
(subcooledreflux)

Totalcondenser

Overheadvapor

Refluxdrum
Distillate

Reflux

Feed
Boilup
Partialreboiler
Bottoms

Iftheliquidrefluxiscolderthanthebubblepointtemperature,then
itwillcondensesomevaporinthetopstage.Thischangesthereflux
ratiototheinternalrefluxratio.

McCabeThieleMethod:SubcooledReflux
Theamountofextrarefluxthatisproduceddependson
theheatcapacityoftheliquid,andtheheatofvaporization
ofthevapor.

R' H

vap

Totalcondenser

Overheadvapor

L
P

RC Tsub
Feed

Boilup

Rint R R'
CPL Tsub
Rint R(1
)
H vap

Partialreboiler
Bottoms

P1
P2

L
Tm

Bubblepointline

Pcr

HV

Tb

Distillate

Reflux

Thetotalamountofreflux,calledtheinternalrefluxis
thesumoftherefluxratioandthevaporcondensedby
thesubcooledreflux:

Refluxdrum

dH C P dT V 1 T dP

X1(V)

XB

XD(L)
1

McCabeThieleMethod:PartialCondenser
DistillationColumn
(partialcondenser)

Partialcondenser

Overheadvapor

Vapor
Distillate

Reflux
Feed
Boilup
Partialreboiler
Bottoms

Iftheliquidrefluxisobtainedfromapartialcondenser,then
therefluxisproducedastheliquidinequilibriumwiththe
vapordistillateinthecondenser.

McCabeThieleMethod:PartialCondenser
Partialcondenser

Thevapordistillatecompositionthendetermines
theyDandstagesaresteppedofffromtheintersection
ofyDandtheequilibriumcurve.

Vapor
Distillate

Overheadvapor
Reflux
Feed
Boilup

yD

Partialreboiler
Bottoms

Equilibrium
curve
yN

qline
q
z
y
x F
q 1
q 1

45line
yB
xB

x=zF

McCabeThieleMethod:MultipleFeeds
DistillationColumn
(multiplefeeds)

Totalcondenser

Overheadvapor

Refluxdrum
Distillate

Reflux
Feed1
Feed2

Boilup
Partialreboiler
Bottoms

TheMcCabeThielemethodforcascadescanbeappliedtosystemswithmorethan
twosections.Here,weshowacascadewith2feeds:A3sectioncascade.

HowdoyoumaketheMcCabeThielegraphical
constructionforsuchacascade?

McCabeThieleMethod:MultipleFeeds
First,notethateachfeedstreamchangestheslope
oftheoperatinglinefromsectiontosection.
Thefeedstreamchangestheflowratesinthestages
aboveandbelowit.Consequently,itchangesthe
massbalancesandtheslopesoftheoperatinglines.

Feed1

Distillate

Reflux

Feed1

Feed2

Distillate

Reflux

Feed2
Boilup

Boilup
Bottoms

Bottoms

McCabeThieleMethod:MultipleFeeds
Totalcondenser

TheflowratesaboveFeed1areconstantduetoconstantmolar
overflow(CMO).Thefeedchangestheslopedependingonthe
feedcondition.Flowratesintheintermediatesectionareconstant,
butchangewhenFeed2isintroduced.

Overheadvapor

Feed1

Refluxdrum
Distillate

Reflux

Feed2
Boilup
Partialreboiler

y
Equilibrium
curve
yN

RectifyingSection:
OperatingLine
ConstantSlope(CMO)
Feed1introduced

Feed2introduced

yB

Intermediatesection:
OperatingLine
ConstantSlope(CMO)
StrippingSection:
OperatingLine
ConstantSlope(CMO)

xB

xD

Bottoms

McCabeThieleMethod:MultipleFeeds
Example:Feed1asaturatedvaporofcompositionzF1,
andFeed2asaturatedliquidofcompositionz F2
0<q<1

Saturatedvapor

q=0

q<0

V*

RectifyingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

Equilibrium
curve
yN

Intermediatesection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V

yB

Saturatedliquid

StrippingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=(VB+1)/VB
xB

x=zF2

x=zF1

xD

q>1

q=1
L

L*

L+V

x=y

q
x=zF

LL
F

McCabeThieleMethod:SideStream
Occasionallyacascadeisconfiguredsuchthatan
intermediatesidestreamofintermediatecomposition
isremovedfromthecolumn.
Howdoweanalyzethisconfiguration?
Usethemultiplemassbalanceenvelopesand
assumeaconstantmolaroverflowcondition.

Distillate

Reflux

Ls
Feed
Boilup

Ifweperformamaterialbalanceinthelightkey
aroundthestagesabovethesidestream
includingthecondenser:

Bottoms

Vn1y n1 Ln x n DxD
Whichwecanrearrangetofind:

yn1

Ln
D
xn
x
Vn1
Vn1 D

ForLandVconstantfrom
stagetostage,then:

L
D
x xD
V
V

Distillate

Reflux

Ls
Feed
Boilup

Operatinglineabovesidestream

Bottoms

McCabeThieleMethod:SideStream
Ifweperformamaterialbalanceinthelightkey
aroundthestagesabovethesidestream
includingthesidestreamandcondenser:

Whichwecanrearrangetofind:

yn 1

Ls
Feed

L x Dx D
Ln
xn s s
Vn1
Vn1

Boilup
Bottoms

ForLandVconstantfrom
stagetostage,then:

L x Dx
L'
x s
V
V

Thetwooperatinglinesintersectat:

xx

Distillate

Reflux

Vn 1yn 1 Ln xn Ls x s Dx D

Operatinglinebelowsidestream

McCabeThieleMethod:SideStream
y

SideStream:
Liquidwithdrawn

RectifyingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

Equilibrium
curve
yN
Saturatedliquidfeed

yB

Intermediatesection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V
StrippingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=(VB+1)/VB
Totalcondenser

xB

x=zF

x=xs

Distillation

xD

Overheadvapor
Rectifyingsectionstages

1
2

Refluxdrum
Distillate

Reflux

SideStreamxs

Feed

Strippingsectionstages

Boilup
Partialreboiler
Bottoms

McCabeThieleMethod:OpenSteam
Totalcondenser

Considerthecascadeshownontheleft:
Inthisexample,thereboilerisreplacedbya
sourceofhotsteamoraninertgas.Inthiscase,
thevaporenteringthebottomstageofthecolumn
hasnolightkeyandsoyBiszero,althoughxBis
nonzero.

Distillation
Overheadvapor
Rectifyingsectionstages

1
2

Feed

Strippingsectionstages

Reflux

Distillate

FeedStage

N
Steamorinerthotgas(y=0)
Bottoms

Doestheslopeoftherectifyingsectionoperatingline
increaseordecrease?

McCabeThieleMethod:OpenSteam
y

RectifyingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

Equilibrium
curve
yN
Saturatedliquidfeed

yB

StrippingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V

Totalcondenser

Distillation
Overheadvapor

xB

x=zF

xD

Rectifyingsectionstages

1
2

Feed

Strippingsectionstages

Refluxdrum
Reflux

Distillate

FeedStage

N
Steamorinerthotgas(y=0)
Bottoms

NonequilibriumMcCabeThiele:MurphreeEfficiency
Equilibrium
curve

Actualseparation
attained
E

B
Forthevaporefficiency:

EMV

yN

yB

TheMurphreePlateEfficiencygivestheratioof
theactualcompositiondifferencebetweentwo
sequentialplates,andthatpredictedby
equilibrium.

yn yn1 AB

yn* yn1 EB

Fortheliquidefficiency:
A

EML

B
xB

x=zF

xD

Componentdistributionobtainedless
thantheoreticallimitdescribedby
equilibrium

xn x n1 A' B'

xn* x n1 E' B'

McCabeThieleAlgebraicMethod
WehavealreadydevelopedtheMcCabeThieleGraphicalMethodforcascades.Thesame
equationsweusedfortheoperatinglines,qline,andequilibriumcurvecanbeusedtosolve
forthecompositionsineachstagealgebraically.

Equilibrium
curve

y
yN

RectifyingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

StrippingSection:
Operatingline
Slope=L/V=(VB+1)/VB

yB
45line

xB

x=zF

qline
xD

x
1 x 1

R
1
x
x
R 1
R 1 D

L
B
x xB
V
V

q
z
y
x F
q 1
q 1

McCabeThiele:MinimumReflux
Tocarryoutthealgebraicmethodweneedtodeterminetheslopesoftheoperatinglines
algebraically.Thiscanbedonefindingtheintersectionsbetweentheqlineandequilibrium
curve,andtheqlineandtherectifyingsectionoperatingline.

yD

x
1 x 1

q
z
y
x F
q 1
q 1

yB

q
z
x
y
x F
1 x 1
q 1
q 1

45line

xB

x=zF

xD

McCabeThiele:RectifyingSectionOperatingLine
Theslopeoftheoperatinglinefortherectifyingsectionwithminimumrefluxcanbedetermined
fromtheriseoverrun.Wecanthenalsofindtheminimumrefluxfromthisslope.

q
z
x
y
x F
1 x 1
q 1
q 1

y
yD

y D yq
Rmin

x D x q Rmin 1

yq

45line

Fromtheminimumreflux,andR/Rminwecan
determinetherefluxR.

yB

Wedeterminetheslopeoftherectifyingsection
operatinglinefrom:

slope
xB

xq

x=zF

xD

R
R 1

McCabeThiele:RectifyingSectionOperatingLine
Wecanfindtheintersectionoftheoperatinglineandtheqlinetodeterminethestripping
sectionoperatingline:

q
z
R
1
y
x F
x
xD
R 1
R 1
q 1
q 1

y
yD

slope
yQR

45line

R
R 1

Fromtheminimumreflux,andR/Rminwecan
determinetherefluxR.
Wedeterminetheslopeofthestrippingsection
operatinglinefrom:

yQR y B
slope
xQR x B

yB
xB

xQR

x=zF

xD

McCabeThiele:AlgebraicMethod
Equilibrium
curve

1.Intotalcondensery1=x0
2.x1isdeterminedfromtheequilibriumcurve:

1
y

y1

yN

x 1
1 x 1 1

3.y2isdeterminedfromoperatinglinefor
therectifyingsection:

y2

R
1
x1
x
R 1
R 1 D

4.Repeatsteps2and3untilxnislessthan
xQR(youareonapointoftheequilibrium
curvetotheleftoftheintersectionoftheOL
andtheqline).

4
yB
xB

xQR

x=zF

xD

5.y3isdeterminedfromoperatinglinefor
thestrippingsection:

y3

L
B
x2 xB
V
V

6.x3isdeterminedfromtheequilibriumcurve:

y3

x 3
1 x 3 1

7.Repeatsteps5and6untilxnislessthanxB

McCabeThieleAlgebraicMethod:Examples
Equilibrium
curve

xD=0.9,xB=0.1,zF=0.5,q=0.8
1.Alpha=4,R=Rmin
2.Alpha=4R=2Rmin
3.Alpha=4R=4Rmin
4.Alpha=4R=20Rmin
5.Alpha=1.1R=3Rmin

1
y

yN

4
yB
xB

xQR

x=zF

xD