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Automobile

Tyres

Contents
Tyre-functions & Properties.
Tyre-Types
Types of carcass(Tread)
Comparison of radial & bias-ply tyres
Tyre materials & Considerations in
tread design
Tyre designation & Factors affecting
tyre life
Tyre trouble shooting & Tyre
manufacturing

Tyre and its functions


Tyre is a rubber member which
gives
the
cushion
to
the
automobile. It consists of outer
cover i.e. tyre proper and tube
inside.
The tyre-tube assembly is mounted
over the wheel rim and air inside
the tube carries entire load and
provides cushion.

Tyre cross-section

Functions of tyre
To support the vehicle load.
To provide cushion against
the shocks.
To transmit driving and
braking forces to the road.
To provide cornering power
for smooth steering.

Properties of tyres
Non-skidding
Uniform wear
Load-carrying
Cushioning
Power consumption
Tyre noise
Balancing

Types of tyres
Conventional tubed tyre.
Tubeless tyre.

Tubed tyre

Tubeless tyre

Advantages of tubeless tyres


Lesser unsprung weight.
Better cooling.
Lesser rolling resistance.
Comfortable ride.
Slower leakage of air.
Simpler assembly.
Improved safety.

Types of carcass(Tread)
Cross ply (or) bias ply type.
Radial ply type.
Belted bias ply type.

Cross ply (or) bias ply type.

Cross ply (or) bias ply type.

Radial ply type

Radial ply type.

Belted bias ply type

Comparison of radial and biasply tyres

Advantages of radial ply tyres: The side walls can be bend readily ,its
shock absorbing capacity is 25% more
than bias ply or cross ply.
The breaker strips of radial tyres act
independently of the wall plies unlike in
cross ply where there is no breaker
strip.
Lower rolling resistance and hysteresis
loss leads to less fuel consumption.

Longer tread life because of less heat


build in tyre.
Breaking efficiency on wet roads is
better because of greater sidewall
flexibility and tread stiffness.
Smaller
slip
angles
and
higher
cornering power which results in
Better steering characteristics.
While taking turns it has less
tendency to distort and lift off the
road from one side.
Larger resistance to punctures ,cuts
and impacts in the tread area.

Tyre materials
For carcass: At the time of second world war, staple
cotton was the tyre carcass material
and it was replaced with rayon.
Then nylon was introduced which is
stronger, more elastic and cooler
running than rayon.
Then terylene was introduced.

For cords of stabilizer belts: Rayon ,Terylene ,glass fibre or steel.


Rubber : Rubber used in tyres is blend of
natural and synthetic rubbers to
which various chemicals are added
to obtain desired properties like
wear resistance ,reduced hysteresis,
less internal friction.

Considerations in tread design


Grip
Noise
wear

Tyre designation

Factors affecting tyre life


Inflation
Vehicle maintenance
Manner of driving
Miscellaneous factors

Tyre trouble shooting


Side wear of tyres
One side wear of tyres
Centre wear of tyre tread
Uneven tyre wear
Uniform rapid wear
Rapid wear with feathered edges on
the tread
Tread cracking
Tread or ply separation
Loss of tyre pressure
Radial tyre lead
Radial tyre waddle

Tyre manufacturing

Thank you