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Lecture 2 Outline (Ch.

7)
I.

Overview of Cellular Respiration

II.

Redox Reactions

III. Steps of Respiration


IV. Cellular Respiration
A. Glycolysis
B. Coenzyme Junction
C. Citric Acid Cycle (aka Krebs/TCA cycle)
D. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
E. Chemiosmosis

V. Anaerobic respiration
VI. Respiration using other biomolecules

Cellular Respiration

Overall purpose:
convert fuels to
energy
animals AND plants
complementary to
photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration:
(Exergonic)

catabolizes sugars to CO2


requires O2
at mitochondrion

Redox Reactions
as part of chemical reaction, e- are transferred
e- transfer = basis of REDOX reactions
(reduction) (oxidation)

Redox Reactions

follow the H, e- w/them

Redox Reactions

Equation for respiration

Redox Reactions

transfer of e- to oxygen is stepwise

Redox Reactions

e- moved by NAD+ (niacin)


when carrying e- (& H+), NADH
gained e- (& H+), reduced
Where do e- come from? food (glucose)
Where do e- go?
glucose

NADH

ETC

O2 (H2O)

Steps of Respiration
Steps of respiration:
1. glycolysis
Coenzyme Junction
2. Citric acid cycle

3. ETC

4. Chemiosmosis

Cellular Respiration
Stages of respiration:

1. Glycolysis prep carbons

Cellular Respiration
1. Glycolysis
1 glucose (6C)

2 pyruvate (3C)

key points: - inputs


- ATP
- NAD+/NADH
- CO2 and H2O
- outputs
eukaryotes AND prokaryotes

Glycolysis

Cellular Respiration
-inputs:

-outputs:

Where do they go?

Cellular Respiration
Coenzyme Junction 2 pyruvate (3C)

pyruvate joins coenzyme A (vitamin B)


2 C lost (as CO2)
2 NAD+ NADH

2 Acetyl CoA (2C)

Steps of Respiration
Stages of respiration:

2. Citric acid cycle


e- transfer: redox

Cellular Respiration
2. Citric acid cycle
few ATP so far
mitochondrial matrix
2 Acetyl CoA (2C) join
oxaloacetate (4C)
2 citrate (6C)
converted several steps,
4C lost (CO2)
e- to carriers
(NAD+, FAD)

Citric acid cycle


-inputs:
-outputs:

Where do they go?

Self-Check
Step of
Respiration

Inputs

Outputs

CO2/H2O

ATP
produced

e- carriers
loaded

Glycolysis

1 glucose

2 pyruvate

2H2O

2 net

2 NADH

Coenzyme
Junction
Citric Acid Cycle
Electron
Transport Chain
Oxidative
phosphorylation
Fermentation

Steps of Respiration
Steps of respiration:
1. glycolysis
- cytosol
Coenzyme Junction
2. Citric acid cycle
- mitochondrial
matrix
3. ETC
- inner
mitochondrial
membrane
4. Chemiosmosis
- inner membrane to intermembrane space

Steps of Respiration
Stages of respiration:

3. ETC
Proton
Motive
Force

Substrate-level phosphorylation

Phosphate group moved from substrate to ADP yields ATP

Cellular Respiration
3. Electron transport
chain (ETC)
lots of energy
harvested
released in stages

so far, 4 ATP
substrate P
many ATP oxidative phosphorylation

Cellular Respiration mitochondria revisited

Cellular Respiration
Electron transport chain (ETC)
ETC e- collection molecules
embedded on inner
mitochondrial membrane
accept e- in turn
e- ultimately accepted by O2
(O2 reduced to H2O)

Electron transport chain (ETC)


-inputs: per glucose,

-outputs:

Where do they go? H+


NAD+/FAD

Steps of Respiration
Stages of respiration:

4. Chemiosmosis
ATP produced!

Cellular Respiration

4. Chemiosmosis

ATP synthase: inner mitochondrial membrane


energy input ATP H+ gradient
chemiosmosis ion gradient to do work

4. Chemiosmosis

Cellular Respiration
Four parts to ATP synthase:
Rotor, Stator, Rod, Knob
H+ must enter matrix here

Generates 1 ATP per ~3.4 H+

Cellular Respiration
Summary of respiration

Cells convert ~ 40% of energy in glucose to energy in ATP


Most fuel efficient cars convert only ~ 25% of gasoline energy

Cellular Respiration - anaerobic


no O2 no oxidative
phosphorylation
fermentation
- extension of glycolysis

substrate-level
phosphorylation only
need to regenerate
e- carrier (NAD+)

Cellular Respiration - anaerobic

Cellular Respiration - anaerobic


Types of fermentation 1. alcohol

pyruvate
converted to
acetaldehyde
acetaldehyde
accepts e ethanol produced

Cellular Respiration - anaerobic


Types of fermentation 2. Lactic acid
pyruvate
accepts e-

lactate
produced

Cellular Respiration - anaerobic


inputs/outputs
alcohol
pyruvate in
CO2 and EtOH out
brewing & baking
lactic acid
pyruvate in
lactate out
muscle fatigue

Cellular Respiration

pyruvate - junction
O2 present
citric acid cycle

O2 absent fermentation

Self-Check
Comparison of aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration:
Aerobic
ATP
made by:
ATP per
glucose:
initial eacceptor:
final eacceptor:

Anaerobic

Cellular Respiration other biomolecules

Glucose catabolism
= one option
Proteins:
amino group removed
a.a. enter Krebs Cycle

Cycle can run


in reverse!

Cellular Respiration fats


Fats:
Glycerol in at glycolysis
- becomes pyruvate

Fatty acids at coenzyme junction


- becomes Acetyl CoA 2 carbons
at a time via -oxidation

A fatty acid chain of 16 C is energetically


equivalent to how many glucose molecules?

Self-Check
Step of
Respiration

Inputs

Outputs

CO2/H2O

ATP
produced

e- carriers
loaded

Glycolysis

1 glucose

2 pyruvate

2H2O

2 net

2 NADH

Coenzyme
Junction
Citric Acid Cycle
Electron
Transport Chain
Oxidative
phosphorylation
Fermentation

Lecture 2 Summary
1. Respiration Overview (Ch. 7)
Purpose
Redox reactions
Electron carriers & final electron acceptors
2. Locations of respiration steps, inputs/outputs, purpose, description (Ch. 7)
Glycolysis
Coenzyme Junction
Citric Acid/Krebs Cycle
ETC & Oxidative Phosphorylation [chemiosmosis]
3. Differences with anaerobic respiration (Ch. 7)
Purpose
Location
Inputs/outputs
4. Catabolism of other biomolecules (Ch. 7)
Proteins
Fats