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RF Optimization (Drive Test)

Objective (brief)

Understanding Optimization
Overview H/w used in TEMS
Using TEMS
Question in Interview
Review

Objective

Understanding meaning of RF Optimization


H/w & S/W used in TEMS
Understand GSM protocol
Understand LAP-Dm
Using TEMS

Drop Call Analysis


Handover Analysis

Troubleshooting with TEMS


Question in Interview
Review

Understanding Optimization

Optimization is the process of improving operation


of the network to better utilise available Infra.
to provide customers of the service the best possible
quality of service.

H/w & S/W used in TEMS

TEMS Dongle
TEMS software
Laptop
GPS
Mobile

TMES Dongle

GPS

Latitude

Longitude

Latitude parallel to equator


Longitude parallel to meridian

lat=19.187055N
lon=72.970878E

TEMS

Understand GSM protocol

Understand GSM protocol

Layer 3 Messages

Layer 3 Message

System
System
System
System
System

Information
Information
Information
Information
Information

Type
Type
Type
Type
Type

1
2
3
4
5

SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 1

sent on the BCCH


Information of control of the RACH

SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 2

sent on the BCCH


BCCH allocation in the neighbour cells.

SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 3


The location area identification,
The cell identity
various other information about cell

System information type 5

sent on the SACCH by the network


Any change in the neighbour cells
description
Mobile station must analyse all
correctly received messages.

PAGING REQUEST TYPE 1

sent on the CCCH by the network


Up to two mobile stations

PAGING REQUEST TYPE 2

Three mobile stations

Understanding LAP-Dm

Layer 2 Messages

Using TEMS

Serving Cell

Cell ID

16bit identifier

CGI = Cell ID + MCC + MNC +LAC

LAC < 65535

(Cell Global Identity).

Base Station Identity Code

Important in border areas

3-bit network color code (NCC)

assigned by regulatory authority

3-bit base-station color code (BCC)

assigned by the network operator

Serving and Nighbouring cell

RxLEV

Measured in dBm units

Rxlev (-110 to 47) dbm


RxLEV (0 to 63)GSM unit

Cell selection

For example,

If the minimum allowed level is -100dBm

Average received signal level is - 80dBm

The terminal evaluates C1 as +20.

The terminal always selects for attach the cell


with highest C1.

Mobile allocation index offset (MAIO)

Time delay separating traffic channels.

Hopping sequence number (HSN).

The hopping pattern must be known both by the


receiver and the transmitter.
The smallest amount of interference on a site

Frame Erasure Rate


Speech Quality Index

Troubleshooting With TEMS

Troubleshooting With
TEMS

Call drop

Hand Over

Congestion

Troubleshooting Call Drop

Check Interference

Internal

Co-channel Interference

wireless alarm system

Check Antenna Direction & Position

Low Signal Strength


Timing Advance
Ping-pong Handover

MS power
Turn on Frequency Hopping
Put more TRU

External

Change Frequency

Call dropped on the TCH.


Call dropped on the SDCCH

DRAGON site

Excessive Timing advance

TA value is higher than TALIM


Reducing the coverage
If cell is really covering far away from BTS

Tilting the antennas,


Reducing antenna height
Changing antenna
Reducing output power

Excessive Timing advance

The maximum BTS radius of 35 Km


is divided into 64 TA steps

i.e. 1 TA = 547 Meter OR 550 Meter

Excessive Timing advance

Check the BTS error log

Run commands: RXELP & RXMFP

Low signal strength

Received signal level,

Measured in dBm units

Rxlev (-110 to 47) dbm


RxLEV (0 to 63)GSM unit.
Either BCCH channel in idle mode
both BCCH and TCH

Handover Analysis

Handover Analysis

No or few handover attempts:

whether the target cell is congested, if


congested, solves the congestion problem.

Check if BTS is defined but might not be in


service.

Handover Analysis

(BTS Log)
PDF

Question in Interview 1
How to connect gps and mobile?
GPS components used?
whic mobiles are been used?
Laptop which pin is used to connect the gps?
what parameters are used to measure call drop?
what parameters are used to measure handoff?
what u mean by RX-LEVEL?
what u mean by RX-QUAL?
what does the term power budget mean?

Assignment for Student

How can you calculate the coverage and capacity of a


GSM network?
How do you make a link budget?
Which parameters are included in System
Information?
How can you increase coverage and capacity?
How does the choice of antennas affect network
performance?
What are C/I, C/A ?
How can repeaters improve the network performance?

Thank you

Design by Mahesh Tawade